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Full text of "Journal of Asiatic Society of Bengal"

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JOURNAL 



OF THE 



ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL 



VOL. XXXVIII. 

PAKT I. 

(Nos. I to IV,— 1869, 
With four plates.) 

EDITED BY 

THE HONORARY SECRETARIES. 



" It will flourish, if naturalists, chemists, antiquaries, philologers, and men 
of science in different parts of Asia, will commit their observations to writing, 
and send them to the Asiatic Society at Calcutta. It will languish, if such 
communications shall be long intermitted ; and it will die away, if they shall 
entirely cease." ^-^ u"""" "*^, 

^{/c\ Sir Wm, Jones. 




^jgSTOgiJg 

CALCUTTA : 

PRINTED BY C. B. LEWIS, BAPTIST MISSION PRESS. 
1869. 



CONTENTS. 



No. I. 



Page 



Further Notes on the Prithirajrayasa. — By F. S. Growse, 

Esq., M. A., B. C. S., 1 

A Vocabulary of the G-aro and Konch Dialects. — By Lieute- 
nant W. J. Williamson, Assistant Commissioner, G-aro 
Hills, . 14 

Text and Translation of a Balandshahr Inscription (with plate). 

— By Babu Pratapachandra Ghosha, B. A., 21 



No. II. 
On the History of the Burma Race. — By Colonel Sir Arthur 

Phayre, K. 0. S. I., C. B., Bengal Staff Corps, 29 

The District of Ludiana.— By T. W. H. Tolbort, Esq., B. C. S. 83 



No. III. 

Badaoni and his Works. — By H. Blochmann, Esq., M. A., 

Assistant Professor, Calcutta Madrasah, 105 

The Nineteenth Book of the G-estes of Prithiraj, by Chand 
Bardai, entitled "the Marriage with Padmawati," literally 
translated from the old Hindi. — By John Beames, Esq., 
B. C. S., 145 



No. IV. 



Translations from Chand. — By F. S. Growse, Esq., M. A., 

B. C.S., 1G1 



iv Contents, 

Page 
Reply to Mr. Growse, , 170 

Some Observations on the Temples of " Razdan" or " Raz- 
doing" in the " Lar" Pergunnah, Cashmere, (with three 
plates).— By Lieut.-Col. D. F. Newall, R. A., 177 

Translations from the Tarikh i Firuz Shahi.— By the late 
Major A. R. Fuller, Director of Public Instruction, 
Punjab. Communicated by T. "VY. H. Tolbort, Esq., 
C. S., 131 



ERRATA. 



Page 83, line 1 for T. W. Tollort, read T. W. H. Tolbort. 

90, „ 28 for Pah Pallan, read Pah Patau. 

94, ,, 7 from below, for Maland, read Malaud. 

100, ,, 5 from below, for bhet chandas, read Ghet Chaudas. 

103, ,, 6 for north, read month. 

104, ,, 11 for Farislita] read Fhnshtah. 



ERRATA IN PART I. 1868, 



Page 8, 1. 16, for 1428 to 1445, read 1457 to 1474, 
52, 1. 12, for dried, read dried, white. 
— 1. 13, for dried, read dried, black. 

120, last line, for Batesvi, read Rateswar. 

121, 3rd line, for Gandhan read Gandharv, 
121, 4th line, for Kalysur read Kalyesur. 
121, 5th line, for nist read niot. 

121, 8th line, for Raninloo read RaninJco. 

121, 18th line, for Chanhdn read Chauhdn. 

122, 9th line et passim for Rharginpur read Kliarjurpur. 
126, 14th line, for Raruchandra read Rarnchandra. 
133, 3rd line, for chhand read clihona. 

133, 5th line, for Scmdha read SaudJia. 
133, 6th line, for clihanliani read chhauhani. 
133, 7th line, for Varamchi read Vararuchi. 
133, 16th line, for Rauran read Raura. 
133> last line, for Sangins read 



JOUKNAL 



OF THE 



ASIATIC SOCIETY, 



Part L— HISTORY, LITERATURE, <fec. 
No. I— 1869. 



Further Notes on the Prithirdj-r Ay asa. — By F. S. Growse, Esq.. M. A, 

(Continued from Vol. XXXVII. page 134.) 

[Received 17th February, 1869.] 

My former paper on the poems of Chand Barday was little more 
than a bare literal translation, which necessarily repeated the involved 
style of the original, and left the real points of interest anything but 
obvious to the casual reader. To remedy this defect, I now propose 
before proceeding any further in the MS., to indicate some of 
those, features in the first Canto which appear to me most worthy of 
attention. 

The shape into which the poem is thrown, is curious. The whole 
of it, with the exception of the first 120 introductory lines, is sup- 
posed to be a prophecy declared in the remote past by the great sage 
Vyasa to King Anangpal, who solicits further information whenever 
there occurs a pause in the narrative. The clumsiness of this device, 
might be considered an indication of antiquity ; but in my opinion 
it is rather due to an affected imitation of the style of the Puranas, 
which are invariably cast in the form of a dialogue. 

The bard begins by announcing his intention to compose a work 
equal in extent to the Mahabharat, and which he trusts will soon 
become equally renowned, and make the name of Chand as glorious 
1 



2 Further Rotes on the 'Prithiraj-r&yasa, [No. 1, 

as that of Vyasa, since Prithiraj, the hero to be celebrated, was no 
whit inferior to Duryodhan. He then relates how Anangpal, guided 
by a happy omen, founded the citadel of Dilli, and sunk an iron 
column so deeply in the ground, that its point entered into the fore- 
head of Seshnag. Upon the stability of this pillar depended the 
permanence of the Tomar dynasty ; yet the king, impressed by the 
pretended incredulity of Takshak, Seshnag's brother, who came to him 
in the disguise of a Brahman, allows the pillar to be moved. Terri- 
fied at the portents of an impending catastrophe which follow upon 
his rash act, Anangpal seeks consolation from Vyasa, who thereupon 
discloses to him the whole future course of events, saying : 

The Tomar dynasty shall eventually be succeeded by the Chauhans, 
the latter by the Muhammadans. The last and greatest king of 
the Chauhans shall be Prithiraj. He shall wage many glorious wars ; 
in particular, one w T ith the Chan del king of Mahoba. Now the 
origin of the Chandels shall be on this wise : The Gaur line of 
kings at Kasi is succeeded by the Gaharwars, Karnchandra, Ran- 
sinh, Jagannath, Ransinli II., Surasinh and Indrajit. In the court of 
this last monarch is a Brahman, Heniraj. (In another passage this 
name is written Hansraj.) The moon-god becomes enamoured of 
his daughter Hemavati. The offspring of this guilty union, Chandra- 
brahma, becomes the special favourite of heaven, and to console the 
mother for her disgrace, Brahma promises that her sons from gener- 
ation to generation shall sit upon the throne so long as they retain the 
word Brahma as an affix to their name. Chandra-brahma subdues the 
territory of Kasi, founds Kalinjar and Mahoba, and is warned in a vision 
that his family shall reign at Mahoba for 20 generations. He is suc- 
ceeded by Bar-brahma, and he again by Par-brahma and so on for 19 
generations, till Parmal the 20th in descent from the moon-god, being 
ashamed of his family origin, drops the name of Brahma. In conse- 
quence, he is deserted by the favour of heaven, and in the rwar with 
Prithiraj is worsted by that monarch. The particulars of this war 
forni the subject of the Mahoba- Khand. 

I have given the above argument of the poem in order to shew 
that, however abrupt in execution, it has been deliberately planned, 
and is built upon a wide and definite basis. I also observe that 
Babii Rajendra Lai Mittra, the learned Philological Secretary, who 



1869.] Further Notes on the Prithlrdj-rdyasd. 3 

was kind enough to write a brief abstract of my translation when he 
laid it before the meeting in October, (see Proceedings for that month, 
page 246) has failed to catch the thread of the narrative. He evi- 
dently considers the legend of Hemavati and the moon as a subor- 
dinate incident ; whereas it is in fact the real opening of the drama, 
to which the story of Anangpal and the iron column is only the 
prologue. I notice this in no spirit of hyper-criticism, but only as 
my excuse for now repeating in brief what my translation had already 
shewn in extenso. 

The legend with regard to the origin of the Chandels is curious, 
as explaining the derivation of the word. Chandel, or Chander, the 
moon-born, is a patronymic precisely similar in form to chachera, 
the son of a chacha, i. e. a cousin. (This latter word is now almost 
banished from polite language, in order to make room for the vile 
mongrel, chacha-zdd.) It also explains a genealogical difficulty men- 
tioned by Sir H. Elliot, in his Glossary, who says : " Though the 
Chandels are styled Sombansi, they are not considered to be of pure 
descent, and their sons are carefully excluded from marriages with 
the higher classes." The legend makes it clear, how that in one 
sense they are truly sombansi, that word being absolutely identical 
in meaning with chandel, while at the same time their descent is 
impure. 

As Chandra-brahma, the great founder of the race, had a 
Brahmani for his mother, while his reputed father was the moon, 
a god more closely connected with Brahmans than Kshatriyas, it 
does not appear, on the face of the legend, how the Chandels can claim 
to be Thakurs at all. But a near though unexplained relationship, 
is always implied to exist between the Chandels and the Graharwar 
Thakurs ; and as Chandra-brahma's putative father is clearly mythical, 
while it is known that he was born in a Graharwar court, it may be 
presumed that his real father was a Graharwar. Thus too, his first 
act on acquiring power, was to avenge his mother's fall by expelling 
the Gaharwars from Kasi. 

The particulars with regard to the succession of dynasties and 
individual kings at Kasi are, I believe, novel, and may be of some 
historical value. Only one dynasty of Kasi kings is specified in the 
Puranas. 



4 Further Notes on the Prithirdj-rdyasa. [No. 1, 

In connection with Kalinjar, mention is made of a famous tirtha, 
called in the Benares MS. Mrigadhdra (Vol. XXXVII. page 180). 
This I imagine must be a clerical error for Mrigd-ddua, the deer-forest, 
the legend regarding which place is given in an Appendix to Sher- 
ring's Sacred City of the Hindus. 

I have lately received two MS. fragments of the Prithiraj -rayasa, 
which have been hunted up for me by Raja Lakshman Sinh (a Rahtor 
Thakur) of this district. The one consists of 55 folio pages and is 
entitled " Sri Kabi Chand virachite Prathiraj-raisai ke bari beri raja 
grahano nama kahao." The date is Sambat 1856. It refers to 
events in the Muhammadan war, and I have not yet discovered any 
corresponding section in the Benares text. The second MS. consists 
of 110 octavo pages, and is headed simply " Samao Mahobe ko." 
The title is given more fully at the end thus " Sri Mahobe juddh 
raja Parimal Prithiraj Mahobe-Khand varnanam Alha-Khand Chand 
Kabi virachitam." The date of the copy is 1881, Sambat. 

It omits the introductory legend of Anangpal and the Iron Pillar, 
with the genealogies of the Chandels and Banaphars, which constitute 
the two first cantos of the Benares MS., and relates instead how 
Prithiraj carried off Padmavati, the daughter of Prince Padma-sen, 
from Samud-Sikhari, a strong fort in the east.* On his way back 
to Dilli, he falls in with the Pathan forces under Sahab-ud-din and 
Momrez Khan of Khurasanf and defeats them with great loss. He 
is obliged however to leave 50 of his own wounded on the field, 
who with a few other Rajputs under Gun-manjari, Kanak Sinh 
and Sardar lose their way and wander off to Mahoba, where they 
proceed to encamp in one of king Parnaal's gardens. All this is omit- 
ted from the Benares MS., the third canto of which begins in a very 
confused way with the arrival of the 50 wounded men at Mahoba. 
The rape of Padmavati and the engagement with the Muhammadans 
receive only such casual mention as would be quite unintelligible, if 
the other MS. had not supplied the missiitg details. 

From the 3rd to the 13th canto, the two narratives may be said 
to coincide, since with the exception of a very few occasional lines, 

* The date is given as 1130 Saka — Gyara Sai das bis Sakha Sambat pari- 
manam — this must be an error, unless some local era is intended. 

f In describing the Muhammadan army, occurs the following line. Panch 
sahas aswar, agenti golam, i. e. 5000 horse and artillery innumerable. 



1869.] Further Notes on the Prithirdj-rdyasa. 5 

the Mainpuri MS. contains nothing which is not also to be found in 
the Benares MS. It omits, however, a great deal ; yet the excision 
is generally so cleverly made, that the loss would not be noticed, were 
there no other copy at hand for collation. Take the following pas- 
sage as a specimen (Mainpuri MS. page 29). 

" The army of the Chauhans has come ready for battle ; prepare 
ye to meet them. Leave untried neither charm nor spell, nor aught 
else that may avail." Spoke Queen Malhan and said : " Delay the 
battle, king, for two months ; send Jaganak to summon Alhan, and 
collect the materials of war." All accepted the Queen's advice, say- 
ing, "Make proffers of friendship to Prithiraj, send Jalhan to present 
him with a nazr, and invite him to an interview." So they sent 
5000 leaves of betel, &c, &c* These ten lines are coherent enough, 
but in the Benares MS., canto 8, they are widely scattered ; 20 addi- 
tional lines occur after the word ' avail ;' 70 after ' war/ and 8 after 
' interview.' 

The way in which these two MSS. mutually supply each other's 
deficiencies, while at first sight they appear altogether dissimilar, is 
highly interesting ; since it affords a complete refutation to a theory 
which has prevailed in some quarters, viz. that such fragmentary 
pieces form the genuine Chand ballads, and that the complete poem 
is a much later and comparatively worthless compilation. The com- 
parison now made, shews in the clearest light that the two MSS. under 
consideration, and it may be presumed their fellows also, have been 
extracted from some one large and ancient original ; and that the 
great epic, in some such form as we see it in the Agra copy, is not 
an accretion of ballads, but the genuine production of a single poet, 
which all later generations of bards have freely plundered. 

"Wherever the two MSS. coincide, the verbal differences of reading 
are found to be very numerous ; as will appear from inspection of the 
following parallel passages, wherein is described the commencement 
of Parmal's attack on the 50 wounded Chauhans, who had encamped 
in one of the royal gardens. 



* In the list of offerings occur the words ' badhiikh, barakshi :' the latter 
no doubt is for harchhi, a spear ; the former perhaps a corruption of badhaJca, 
destructive, and the origin of the modern banduh, a gun, the derivation of 
which word has never before been ascertained. In the Benares MS. the 
corresponding word is maholcsh, an ox. 



Further Notes on the Prithirdj-rdyasa. [No. 1, 

Extract from page 14 of Raja Lakshman Sink's MS. 






1869.] Further JVotes on the JPrithkuj-rdyasa. 7 

Here follows the corresponding passage from canto III. of the 
Benares MS. 

^ifTfticrclff^cTTft^f^lTK 

The present disjointed state of these poems, affords a very striking 
parallel to the supposed condition of the Homeric ballads, before they 
were reduced to a definite canon fey Pisistratus ; and the Homer of 



8 Further Notes on the PritMraj-rdyasa. [No. 1, 

Rajputana, is a title most applicable to Chanel, in a sense beyond that 
which was originally intended. On comparing the above extracts, 
it will be seen, that each is largely explanatory of the other. The 
short Mainpuri MS., in several places, presents the preferable reading, 
and besides supplying the missing half of one couplet, gives ten addi- 
tional lines which obviate an awkward break in the narrative. There 
can be little doubt that every district in the North-West, if carefully 
searched, would yield some three or four similar fragments ; and it is 
obviously desirable that as many of these as possible should be collated, 
before the Society commits itself to the adoption of a standard text. 
In all cases, the actual transcript will be of modern date, but it may 
often have been taken from an older original than that which is re- 
presented by the complete copies of the poem. The settlement officer 
of an adjoining district has been, I believe, engaged for some time 
past in collecting such fragments of the Allia-Kliand, as are popularly- 
current amongst the people in that neighbourhood, and proposes to 
give an English abstract of their contents. His main object is to 
illustrate the tone of local traditions ; but there can be little doubt that 
the result of his enquiries will have large philological interest as well. 
A variety of causes combine to render it likely that many years 
will elapse before a satisfactory edition of the Prithiraj-rayasa can be 
prepared. Meanwhile, I propose to forward from time to time for 
insertionin the Society's Journal, translations of such portions of the 
poem as seem to possess most intrinsic interest, That such a course 
will not be unacceptable to the small world of Oriental scholars, 
I infer from the remarks made by the learned and most observant 
censor of Indian literary progress, M. Garcin de Tassy, who in his 
interesting and exhaustive review for 1868, speaks of the Prithinij- 
rayasa, in connexion with my proposal for its publication, as ' ouvrage 
d'une inestimable valeur, non seulement pour l'histoire, mais pour la 
philologie,' and concludes by expressing a hope l que ce poeme sera 
enfin edite, et qu'on songera aussi a, en donner une traduction com- 
plete accompagnee d'eclaircissements satisfaisants.' The completion 
of such a translation may be facilitated by my series of selections. 

As Alha and Udal are far the most famous characters in the Mahoba 
war, I proceed to translate the close of the second canto wherein they 
are first brought upon the stage. 



1869.] Further Notes on the Prithirdj-rdyasa. 9 

Translation of the latter part of Canto II. 

" Thus has been told the full genealogy of the Chandels and Gahar- 
wars till the incarnation of Valla and Salla in the Kali Yug of crea- 
tion." Then the stout-hearted king listens while Vyasa declares 
their pedigree. " The two heroes Salla and Valla are manifested 
in the Banaphar line. Chinta-mani in the hope of a son became 
absorbed in divine contemplation, and having with his own hands 
clean severed his head from his body, laid it at Bhava's feet.* For 
the space of 12 years Chinta-mani had served S'iva: Kali's lord 
was gratified at his devotion and taking the head in his hands re- 
united it to the body. Chinta-mani sprung to life again ; S'ambhu 
called him to his feet : "I am well pleased with thee for ever, ask 
of me three boons." Said Chinta-mani, " The first boon, an army ; 
the second, gallant leaders ; and third, may the sovereignty remain 
for ever in the house of the Chandels." " In thy family, Chinta-mani, 
brave heroes are born, such as never have been, nor yet shall be. 
The boon that thou hast desired, I have granted ;" and with a smile, 
the lord of the five element sf vanished. 

In the palace of Chandra-brahmaJ flourished Chinta-mani, a second 
Agastya, and by the grace of Siva began the series of the incarnations 
of Valla. After Chandra-brahma arose other glorious kings, and 
gallant heroes of the Banaphar line ever commanded their armies. § 
Chinta-mani and Sasipal served King Chandra-brahma: when Jagat- 
brahina reigned, Makarand was his trusty counsellor. In the time 

* The original stands thus : Apno sir chhin app kar kal bhu. aga ai. Here 
app may be for apne, in which case Tear will mean hands ; or it may stand for 
arp, when app kar will be equivalent to arpan Tcarlce. The four words at the 
end of the line are at first sight very perplexing ; but leal is little more than 
an expletive signifying ivell or clean, and bhu should be written bhava, the vowel 
having been substituted for the cognate consonant. 

f Bhutpati, lord of the 5 elements. It might also also be rendered ' lord of 
departed spirits ;' but the former sense appears to me preferable ; compare the 
opening lines of the Sakuntala. 

% In the original, Chandra-brahma is here called Sasi-brahma, and further 
on, Vidhu-brahma ; Chandra, Sasi and Vidhu being synonymous terms. 
The text runs thus : Chinta-mani Sasi-brahma ghar bhaye pragati parwan : 
but this does not give a very satisfactory meaning, and therefore for pragati 
I have substituted agati (Prakrit for Agastya as shewn by the name of a village , 
Agati-sarde on the borders of this district). The difference between sjjrfe 
and "^Jffe i s almost imperceptible. Parwan stands of course for pramdn. 

§ ' Commanders of armies' balddhiksh, for balddhyaksh, rather an unusual 
word. 



1 Further Notes on the Prithirdj-rdyasa. [No. 1, 

of Bar-brahma Ankur* was minister ; the adviser of Satya-brahma 
was the bold Sada-Chandra.f The generous knight Alha was ennobled 
by the son of Kirat. From Chandra-brahma to Parmal, there was 
always a Banaphar in the king's palace. Chinta-niani was famous on 
earth ; his son was the bold Sasipal ; then came Kripa-chand and 
Sabha-chand ; Sabha-chand's son was the fierce Makarand. After 
him, the world -renowned Akrur. He begat the heroic Abhayraj, 
whose son was the valiant Makarand, spoiling the enemy in the crush 

of battle^ faithful servant of the Chandel king. His son was 

Dipchand. perfect in mind and body, a fountain of joy. He begat 
Santhira, the best of sons, of incomparable prowess on earth. His son 
was Baghel, winner of many spoils, and his son the famous Jasrath.§ 
To him were born the twin heroes, Alha and Udal, who, terrible 
in their wrath, subdued the whole world. In Dasahar's house were 
manifested the heroic pair Alha and Udal ; in their persons Salla and 
Valla became incarnate in the Banaphar line. Heaven was gracious 
to the land, gave them the arrow of Garur, and for a second boon 
an army too vast to be numbered. Finding them ever wakeful to serve 
him with body and soul, Grorakhnath bestowed upon them weapons 
of offence and defence, and made them immortal upon earth. The 
sons of Suddh-Karan and Jam-Karan were Budhjan and Janpal, to 
whom were born in the world Mahipal and Bhuvapal.|| They had 
only to shew themselves to secure submission, and kings obedient 
to their orders loved them as the apple of their eye. 

He who with attentive ears hears the origin of the family of 
Chandra-brahma, shall receive of Sri Padmavati fortune and success. 
He who thrice hears with attention the genealogy of Chandra-brahma, 
shall obtain whatever blessings are within the reach of humanity, 
shall have wife and children and all good things on earth, and no 

* ' Ankur.' This no doubt should be Akrur, a name which oecurs lower 
down. 

f * Sada chandra.' This and Sabhd-chand, which occurs below, evidently 
denote the same individual : without reference to another MS. it is impossible 
to say which is the correct form. 

X Here I have omitted one line which defies all interpretation : f^T^f^rarsf- 
"^cfO^f^^T"^. I* * s probably corrupt. 

§ * Jasrath.' Called below Dasahar. 

|| This couplet is obscure, and the words given as proper names may be 
only epithets , but Mahipal and Bhuvapal are mentioned in a later canto as 
relations of Alha and Udal. 



1869. j Further Notes on the Prithirdj-rdyasa. 11 

sickness shall ever approach his immaculate body. Knowing this 
to be the reward, repeat the legend of the moon-god ; in no other 
way can such a result be obtained. Wealth shall abound, your house 
shall stand fast, and your's shall be the victory in the battle. Who- 
ever shall thrice hear the legend of Chandra -brahma, though childless, 
he shall have a son with abundance of wealth in a strong house 
What Vyasa declared to Anangpal, that Chand repeats to the king's 
family.* Now the bardf relates in lengthened strain the war between 
the Chandels and Chauhans. 

The subject of the third canto has been already indicated. Par- 
mal assembles a force of Chandels, Solankhis, Jadavs, Gaharwars, 
Gahlots, Bais Thakurs, Jhangras and Baghels against the 50 wound- 
ed Chauhans, and at length succeeds in cutting them to pieces, but 
not until his army has sustained a loss of 4000 men ! The canto 
concludes as follows : 

Translation of the latter part of Canto III. 

Alhan went home and there in the presence of Udal declared his 
secret thoughts to his mother : " The king is dull of soul ; this land, 
nay, the whole world knows it ; his judgment is gone, he listens only 
to Mahil." Divalde, on hearing the sound speech of her son Alhan, 
said " Regard not the errors of the king, but do your duty to your 
lord. Hanuman did his master faithful service ; the whole world 
reverences Kama's messenger. Though the king has lost his senses, do 
not you break his orders." Alhan having heard his mother's advice 
went to the Court. The king rose trembling, all the Chandel princes 
made obeisance. Alhan enters the council-chamber and addresses 
Parmal : " The wounded have been wantonly slain, and their goods 
plundered. Cursed, cursed be the slaughter of the wounded, and the 
death of men whose lives should have been held sacred. Hear my 
warning, the name of Kshatriya has been disgraced." All good 
men rejoiced as they heard Alhan's stern speech, but it fell as a 
thunder-bolt on the heart of the king. Says the king Mahil in a rage : 
" Hear, son of Dasarath, you have spoken bitter words to a king, in 

* * The king's family.' This I take to be meaning of the word rdtval, 
Prakrit for rdjakula. Or it may be simply ' you,' as rawau. 

f ' The bard.' In the original ray, a word which most bhdts at the present 
day take as an affix to their name. 



12 Further Notes on the Prithirdj-rdyasa. [No. 1, 

whose power are all things." Alhan turned upon the king Mahil 
with an angry glare in his eyes ; king Parmal smiled, while his 
nobles grasped their bows. Not without calculation did Alhan re- 
prove the king : fate has had its course, who now can undo it ? 

The only two Persian words in this passage are darbdr and hamdn. 
They are rather frequent in the earlier part of the canto, which 
contains the following : hukm, farmdn, tegli, bdgli, mudf, arz, 
tamdshd. 

I cannot conclude this paper without one remark on a subject 
which I have handled so often, that I fear it has become tedious. 
I mean the comparative claims of Hindi and Urdu to be considered 
the vernacular of modern India. When I wrote the above trans- 
lations, I was in camp at a small town, or rather village, in the Main- 
puri district. Finding my way through the text by no means clear, 
I enquired if there was any Pandit in the place. It appeared that 
there was none. But in the course of the morning, four shop-keepers 
from the bazar came in to see me, who said they had a taste for 
books. The passage was read aloud by one of the number, and 
I found that all were able to follow the general meaning and, when 
any difficulty occurred, could offer some suggestion, which, however 
defective in accuracy of scholarship, was often conducive to the true 
interpretation. I have thus been enabled to present the translation 
in a more complete form than would, I believe, have been possible for 
any single unaided European scholar. Not one of my four friends was 
a professional Pandit, nor claimed acquaintance with any language 
beyond his own mother-tongue ; and it must further be remembered, 
that the Prithiraj-rayasa is a work of very considerable antiquity. 
This little incident shews in the very strongest light, that Hindi is 
still to the present day, and always has been, the real vernacular of 
modern India, that is to say, the language ordinarily used by the 
middle classes and best understood by them. Urdu, no doubt, is 
largely spoken in the North- West Provinces, and has enriched collo- 
quial speech with many words which it would now be pedantry to 
condemn ; but precisely in the same way, English is largely spoken 
in the neighbourhood of Calcutta, and has had a deep influence in the 
formation of the modern Bengali idiom. Yet English still remains 
a foreign language and so does Urdu. I confidently challenge my 



1869.] Further Notes on the Prithirdj-rdyasa. 13 

kindly critic M. G-arcin de Tassy to produce a parallel instance on 
his side of the question, and shew how, on finding some obscure Per- 
sian or Urdu book more than he could manage, he called in two or 
three chance baniyas from the bazar, and received from them a satis- 
factory solution of his difficulties. Till this has been done, I must 
hold to my old convictions, and base thereupon a practical theory, 
viz. that popular education should be imparted through the medium 
of the vernacular Hindi ; and, if it is, as I believe it to be, desir- 
able to teach a second language, this foreign language should be not 
Urdu, the memorial of an obsolete dynasty, but, in accordance with 
immemorial Indian usage, the language of the dominant power, that 
is to say at the present time, English. 



14 



A Vocabulary of the Garo and Konch Dialects. No. 1, 



A Vocabulary of the Garo and Konch Dialects, by Lieutenant 
W. J. Williamson, Assistant Commissioner, Garo Hills. 



English. 


Garo. 


Konch 


One. 


Sa. 


Gasak. 


Two. 


Ginni. 


Diii. 


Three. 


Githam. 


Tin. 


Four. 


Bri. 


Char. 


Five. 


Bana. 


Panch. 


Six. 


Dok. 


Choy. 


Seven. 


Chhinni. 


Sat. 


Eight. 


Chet. 


At. 


Nine. 


Sikii. 


Nau. 


Ten. 


Chikin. 


Das. 


Twenty. 


Khol. 


Kori. 


Fifty. 


Kholchan ginnichhi. 


Panchas. 


Hundred, 


Richesa. 


Ek Sau. 


I. 


Ana. 


An. 


We. 


China. 


Nun, 


Thou. 


Na. 


Nl. 


He. 


Bi. 


ITa. 


They. 


B i sail. 


tTjarun. 


Of me. 


A'nni. 


Ani. 


Of us. 


Chinni. 


Nunm. 


Of thine. 


Nanni. 


Nini, 


Of you. 


Nashanni. 


Nirunni. 


Of him. 


Bini. 


Uani. 


Of them. 


Bishonni. 


U'jurufmi. 


Mine. 


Anni. 


Ani. 


Our. 


Chinni. 


Nuiini. 


Thine. 


Nanni. 


Nini. 


Your. 


Naoiini. 


Nirunni. 


His. 


Bini. 


ITani. 


Theirs. 


Bishonni. 


Uaruiini. 


Hand. 


Jak. 


Chak. 


Foot. 


Jachok. 


Jaten. 


Nose. 


Gin. 


Nakiin. 


Eye. 


Mukrun. 


Mukiin. 



1869.] A Vocabulary of the Garo and Konch Dialects. 



15 



English. 


Garo. 


Konch. 


Mouth. 


Kushik. 


Kakham. 


Tooth. 


Wa. 


Pha. 


Ear. 


Nachil. 


Nakal. 


Hair. 


Khinni. 


Khau. 


Head. 


S'khu. 


Dhakam. 


Tongue. 


Sri. 


Thelai. 


Belly. 


Bukma. 


Ok. 


Back. 


Jaiiil. 


Kanju. 


Iron. 


SiL 


Loa. 


Gold. 


Sona. 


Sona. 


Silver. 


Riipa. 


Riipa. 


Go. 


Rian. 


Lei. 


Eat. 


Chha. 


Sa. 


Sit. 


Asuii. 


Mosun. 


Father. 


Aja. 


Awa. 


Mother. 


Ami 


A'me, 


Brother. 


Ada. 


Bhai. 


Sister. 


Ano. 


Janau. 


Man. 


Mande. 


Marok. 


Woman. 


Mechiksa. 


Magju. 


Wife. 


Jik. 


Jugjii. 


Child. 


Pisa. 


Sasa. 


Daughter. 


Denichikpisa. 


Magjii sasa. 


Slave. 


Nokhol. 


Ghulam. 


Cultivator. 


Gamnimande. 


Grihastimurg. 


Shepherd. 


Menda Rakwal. 


Bhera RakwaL 


God. 


Saljoii. 


Tshwor. 


Devil. 


Mutti. 


Why. 


Come. 


Riba. 


Phay. 


Best. 


Nambatta. 


Sabse Penim. 


Stand. 


Chadeii. 


Kharatun. 


Sun. 


Sal. 


Rashan. 


Moon. 


Jajun. 


Narek. 


Fire. 


Wal. 


War. 


Water. 


Chhi. 


Ti. 


House. 


Nok. 


Nok. 



16 



A Vocabulary of the Garo and Konch Dialects. [No. 1, 



E?iglish. 


Garo. 


Konch. 


Horse. 


Ghora. 


Ghora. 


Cow. 


Machu. 


Machu. 


Dog. 


Achak. 


Kwai. 


Cat. 


Meniin. 


Meyan. 


Cock. 


Dho. 


Thak. 


Duck. 


Dhoraja. 


Hansak. 


Ass. 


Unknown. 


Same as Bengali 


Camel. 


Ditto. 


Ditto. 


Bird. 


Dho. 


Thak. 


To die. 


Sma. 


Thina. 


To give. 


Bona. 


Lakhau. 


Run. 


Thenri. 


Thalak. 


Up. 


Sakha. 


Kara. 


Near. 


Shefan. 


Dakan. 


Who. 


Sa. 


Chan. 


And. 


Ara. 


Ara. 


Yes. 


Hoe. 


Han. 


Down. 


Khama. 


Kama. 


Far. 


Chela. 


Janau. 


What. 


Inhau. 


Atawa. 


But. 







No. 


Dunja. 


Era. 


Before. 


Skun. 


Age. 


Behind. 


Jaman. 


Pase. 


Why. 


Manna. 


Atani. 


If. 


Ba. 


Jadi. 


Alas. 


Achai. 


Hai. 


A father. 


Afasa. 


Awagusuk. 


Two fathers. 


Afaginni. 


Awadaita.. 


Of a father. 


A fani. 


Awani. 


Fathers. 


Afadhran. 


Awahreii. 


Of fathers. 


Afadhraiini. 


Awabr^iini. 


To a father. 


Afakho. 


Awani. 


To fathers. 


Afadhrankho. 


Awabreiini. 


From a father. 


Afanikho. 


Awajikiii. 


From fathers. 


Afadhrankho. 


Awabrehnijikin. 



1869.] A Vocabulary of the Garo and Konch Dialects. 



17 



English. 


Garo. 


Konch. 


One daughter. 


Demichikpisa. 


Magjii sasa. 


Two daughters. 


D emichikakginni . 


Magju sasa dtiijun. 


Daughters. 


Demickikdran. 


Magju sasa gata. 


Of a daughter. 


Demichikni. 


Magjii sasani. 


Of daughters. 


Demichikdranni. 


Magju sasa gatani. 


To a daughter. 


Demichikkho. 


Magjii sasani. 


To daughters. 


Demichikdraiikho. 


Magjii sasa gatani. 


From a daughter. 


Demichiknikho. 


Magjii sasani jikin. 


From daughters. 


Demfchikdrannikho. 


Magju sasa gatani jikin. 


A good man. 


Mande nama. 


Murg penim. 


Two good men. 


Mande akguini nama. 


Murg dui jun penim. 


Good men. 


Mandenama dhran. 


Murg penim gata. 


Of a good man. 


Nama mandeni. 


Murg penim ni. 


Of good men. 


Nama mande dhrafini. 


Murg penim gatani. 


To a good man. 


Nama mandekho. [kho. Murg penim ni. 


To good men. 


Nama, mande dhrahni- 


Murg penim gatani. 


From a good man 


Nama mandenikho. 


Murg penim nijikin. 


From good men. 


Nama mandedrannikho 


i. Murg penim nijikin, 


A good woman. 


Nama, michiksa. 


Magjii penim. 


Good women. 


Nama michikdran. 


Magjii penim gata. 


A bad hoy. 


Pisa aksa namja. 


Sasa gusuk nagta. 


A bad girl. 


Michikpisa aksa namja 


. Magjii sasa gusuk nagta 


Good. 


Nama. 


Penim. 


Better. 


>> 


57 


Best. 


5) 


)? 


Comparison i 


iormed thus, — 




A good man. 


Nama mancle. 


Murg penim. 


A better man. 


Tudiba nama mande. 


Tyani chay ia, penim 
murg. 


The best man. 


rndibanambatta mande. Sab se 1a penim murg. 


High. 


Chua. 


Chua. 


Higher. 


Tndiba chua. 


Tyani chay ia, cluia. 


Highest. 


Indiba chubata. 


Sab se ia chiia. 


A horse. 


Ghora maiisa. 


Ghora gusuk. 


One bull. 


Machiibija marisa. 


Damra gusuk. 


A dog. 

3 


Achak mahsa. 


Kwai gusuk. 



18 



A Vocabulary of the Garo and Koncli Dialects. [No. 1, 



English. 


Garo. 


Konch. 


One male goat. 


Dobok bfja mansa. 


Puruii panta gusuk. 


A male deer. 


Machuk bija. 


Machuk panta. 


A mare. 


Ghora bima. 


Ghora magju. 


A cow. 


Machu bima. 


Machu gai. 


A bitch. 


Achak bima. 


Kwai magjii, or kwai 
jubura. 


A she-goat. 


Dobok bima. 


Purrun panti. 


A female deer. 


Machuk bima. 


Machuk panti. 


Horses. 


Ghora dhraii. 


Ghora gata. 


Bulls. 


Maclmbija dhraii. 


Machu bullud gata. 


Dogs. 


Achak dhraii. 


Kwai gata. 


Bitches. 


Achak bima dhraii. 


Kwai magju gata. 


Goats. 


Dobok dhraii. 


Piirun gata. 


Deer. 


Machuk dhraii. 


Machuk gata. 


I am. 


Ana hoii. 


An donna. 


Thou art. 


Na hoii. 


Ni don. 


He is. 


Biya, hoii. 


T7a don. 


We are. 


China hoii. 


Nun donna. 


You are. 


Nashori hoii. 


Niruii doh. 


They are. 


Bishon. hoii. 


l/jaruS doii. 


I was. 


Ana duna mun. 


An tohba. 


Thou wast. 


Na duna mun. 


Ni toiiba. 


He was. 


Biya duna mun. 


TJa tofiba. 


We were. 


China duna mun. 


Nun toiiba. 


You were. 


Nashori duna mun. 


Niruii toiiba. 


They were. 


Bishon. duna mun. 


Jiruii toiiba. 


Be. 


Hona. 


Dona. 


To be. 


Hofia. 


Dona. 


Being. 


Hone. 


Done. 


Having been. 


Honimun. 


Donimon. 


I may be. 


Ana hona maniia. 


An doii mana". 


I shall be. 


Ana honua. 


Aii dona. 


Beat. 


Dok. 


Tok. 


To beat. 


Dokna. 


Tokni. 


Beating. 


Poke. 


Toke. 


Having beaten. 


Poke mun. 


Tokemuii. 



1839.] A Vocabulary of the Garo and Koncli Dialect* 



19 



English. 
I am beating. 
Thou beatest. 
He beats. 
We are beating. 
You are beating. 
They are beating. 
I beat. 

I was beating. 
I had beaten. 
I may beat. 
I shall beat. 
I should beat. 
I am beaten. 
I was beaten. 
I shall be beaten. 
I go. 

Thou goest. 
He goes. 
I went. 
Thou wentest. 
He went. 
Go. 
G-oing. 
Gone. 

What is your name ? 
How old is the horse ? 

How far is it from here 

to Cashmir ? 
How many sons are 

there iny our father's 

house ? 
I have walked a long 

way to-day. 
The son of my uncle 

is married to her 

sister. 



Garo . 
Ana dokuna. 
Na dokuna. 
Biya dokuna. 
China dokuna. 
Nashon dokuna. 
Bishon dokuna. 
Ana dokna. 
Ana dokuriamun. 
Ana dokamun. 
Ana doknabaduna. 
Ana doknua. 
Aria doknamun. 
Ana doka manchajok. 
Ana dok manchabajok. 
Ana dok manchanua. 
Ana rianna. 
Na ruirla. 
Biya riuna. 
Ana rianjok. 
Na rianjok. 
Biya rianjok. 
Riaii. 
Riaha. 
RiaMe. 

Nam mai Birnuii ? 
la ghora basik bilsi 

sani ? 
Kashmir basik shela ? 

Naiif an i noko basik pisa 
mande aksa ? 

Dal ana chelasani rua- 

mi ribajok. 
Aiii auiini pisa ua mi- 

chiksani anakho jik 

doiijok. 



Konch. 
An toktu. 
Ni toktu. 
Ua toktii. 
Nuii toktu. 
Niriiri toktu. 
ITjaruii toktiu 
An tokna. 
An tokunba. 
An tokbamuii. 
An toknibatoa. 
An tokna. 
An toknamun. 
An tok masasi. 
An tok masapaisL 
An tok masana. 
An laina. 
Ni laitu. 
Ua laitu. 
An laisi. 
Ni laisi. 
Ua laisi. 
Lai. 

Lainiyai. 
Laimuii. 
Nini ata muii ? 
I' ghora koy bossorni. 

Kashmir bisin janii? 

Nini awani nokai koy 
jon sasa murg ? 

Tini an panai durni ji- 
kin lajum paisi. 

Ani uantini sasawa i 
magjiini janau joni 
biya raksi. 



20 A Vocabulary of the Garo and Konch Dialects. [No. 1, 

English. Garo. Konch. 

In the house is the Noknina ghora gupuk- Nok bhiture ghure bok- 

saddle of the white ni jui duiia. niyani jin toa. 

horse. 
Put the saddle on hisBini jaiiila jin gatbo. Uani kiinjuai jin lakha, 

back. 
I have beaten his sonBina pisako aria bane Uani sasawau an panai 

with many stripes. doketa. toka suksi. 

He is grazing the cat- Haden sakau maclui Hakau karaway raachu 

tie on the top of the moga tuna. diitautu. 

hill. 
He is sitting on a horse Ua bol Jafaii ghorau Ua panchiinai ghorau- 

under that tree. asane duiia. wai masunay tantu. 

His brother is taller Bini ada bini abi gupa- U'ani bhai uani jhanow- 

than his sister. naba dhala. niba mata. 

The price of that is Uani ^ dam gonsa adulli. Ifani dam diii taka ok 

two rupees and a adulli. 

half. 
My father lives in that Hai Ua nok chonau Ua nok pulawe ani awa 

small house. aiini afa duiia. toiia. 

Give this rupee to him. T dana biko ron. I taka uani lakha. 

Take those rupees from X dana bicha rabha. X taka uani la. 

him. 
Beat him well and Biko name dokbo aralyaui khub tok ara khu- 

bind him with ropes, bagacha kha clonbo. rugati khaitau. 
Draw water from the Khua nikho chi khobo. Khuani tika kkon. 

well. 
Walk before me. Aiini skun ri. A'ni age le. 

Whose boy comes be- Sani pisa naiini jamanu Chani sasa nini pase 

hind you ? riba liiia ? paitu ? 

From whom did you Uako sanikho brira ? Uau chani gatai purla- 

buy that ? tane ? 

From a shop-keeper Shorini diikandar sd bri- Ganwni dukandar niyai 

of the village. ra. purlatanai. 




a . 
2 § 






1869.] "*" Text and Translation of Balandshahar Inscription. 21 

Text and Translation of Balandshahar Inscription. By 

Prata'pachandra Ghosha, B. A. 

[Received 13th. March, 1869.] 

The copper-plate inscription, a translation of which is hereto ap- 
pended, was presented to the Society in February, 1867 by Mr. 
Webster, Collector of Balandshahar. He says, it was found in a 
ruined gurhee situated in mouzah Manpur, pergunna Agoutha. The 
inscription records the grant of a village named Gandavd made by 
one Ananga to a brahman of the Vdtsa Gotra. The grant was made 
in the vernal equinox of Samvat 1233. The engravers were 
Jc&yasthas* 

The plate is in tolerable preservation, and measures 1 foot 9 inches 
by 1 foot 1 inch. It would have been a useful link in the chain of 
Indian history of the time of the first Mahomedan invasion, if some 
coins or other inscriptions were forthcoming as corroborations of the 
dates and the names of kings immortalized in this plate. But as it 
is, the plate is a solitary landmark in the history of Kalinga, a name 
that conveys to the mind of the reader a vague notion of the sea-coast 
on the south of Bengal. The most inexplicable fact connected with 
this plate is, that it was found so high up near Balandshahar. 

Kalinga has no representative in the coin cabinet, unless under 
some other name ; and the names of the kings Govinda, Chandraka, 
Bhojadeva, Vikramaditya and Ananga,though occurring in many dynas- 
ties, are never coupled with the Kalinga country or the Bodra family, a 
family quite unknown in the history of the Deccan. Kalinga extend- 
ed over a large tract of country from Orissa to the Nilgiris. It was 
never owned by a single sovereign. Different parts of it were at the 
same time owned by several potentates, and the Rodra dynasty was 
one of those petty chiefs. The kings of Orissa, for a long time in 
the tenth, eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth centuries, called them- 
selves sovereigns of Kalinga and Karnata {Kalinga nava koti Karnate- 
svara), though it is known, they had little to do with Karnata, which 
had its own kings. Such assumptions of sovereignty over dominions 
which kings do not possess, are not rare. Bodras probably owning a 
small part of Kalinga, assumed the whole. 

This race of kings is quite unknown, unless the reading of the 
name is found fault with ; and I admit, it may be read otherwise. 



22 Text and Translation of Balandshahar Inscription. [No. 1, 

The reading of the letters ^ftnjT is very dubious, and it is painful 
to observe that the two principal names (of the place and of the 
family) which make the record important, are uncertain ; so is also 
the date, the plate at that part being partly destroyed by time, and two 
letters are missing. The name of the family which was at first read 
as Rodra, on second thought appears to be something different. It is 
most like Yodu ; but the final t (cr) of the previous verb ^n^rtrr being 
combined with it, as it is in the inscription, would not appear so. 
It is spelt as if it were djo (i[), the final t (rf )being changed into d (^), 
and j (m)j as a matter of course, goes under it. The simple rules of 
Sandhi must, however, change the final t (r| ) into j (*r), and not into 
d (^) as it appears. On the other hand again, the word Yodu does not 
begin with a (*f)j, but a (v) y> The reading then is evidently some- 
thing else. Does the word %T3t stand for the Rahtor dynasty, a family 
that ruled at Kanouj, and one of whose princes G-ovindachandra 
reigned at about the time of the inscription, and whose name appears 
in the Fyzabad inscription (J. A. S. B., vol X. p. 98) and also on 
coins ? 

The letters which were construed to be the name of the country 
Kalinga are very ambiguous and illegible. But considering the 
rude stage of the art of engraving, the much ruder instruments 
then in use, and the ignorance of the engravers, it may be safely 
assumed that the «T there stands for ^r and as the compound letters are 
not distinctly written, the BT may be said to represent %. Thus we 
have the name of Kalinga. With the other reading of Kanishtlia 
( 3frf*r§"T ) however the passage explains itself equally well. The 
passage translated reads thus with Kalinga. 

* Then from the sacrifices of the virtuous king of Kalinga, was 
born Ananga, the chief of kings, full of prowess, and splendour." 
With Kajiishtlia, however, it reads as follows : — 

' Then from him was born Ananga, the chief of kings, full of 
prowess and splendour, (as well becomes) the younger brother of 
(Yudishthira) Dharmaraja.' 

In the former reading, we have to supply an a T to ^fr^, while for 
the second we have to assume a comparison. In either case, however, 
to give sense, the a T after an<T must be changed to"Y 

The grant records the names of princes of two distinct families, 



1869.] Text and Translation of Balandshaliar Inscription. 23 

though they are all grouped under the same family name. The record 
goes backwards to the fourteenth crowned head from the donor. It 
begins with Chandraka who, it appears, must have been either the 
founder of the family, or was distinguished for some meritorious act. 
If the family name be Rahtor, Chandraka must have transferred the 
seat of government from Kanouj, and established himself in the new 
city. The seventh linear descendant from Chandraka is Haradatta, 
whose brother Bhogaditya or Homaditya succeeded him. The name 
of this prince again is not clear, it may be read Bhogaditya or Homa- 
ditya. His nephew Sri-kuladitya followed him to the throne. After 
him, came Vikramaditya, the son of Haradatta. The last named 
prince was dethroned, it appears by his brahman minister, Vuhupati 
who, on ascending the throne assumed the more royal name of Padma- 
ditya. Padmaditya is the founder of a line, and the fourth from him 
is Ananga, the donor of the village. 
The names stand thus : 

1. Chandraka. 

i 

2. Dharanivaraha. 

i 

3. Prabhasa. 

i 

4. Bhairava. 

i 

5. Rudra. 

I 

6. Govindaraja (surnamed Yasorapa.) 

i 



7. Haradatta. 

. i 

10. Vikramaditya. 



8. Bhogaditya. 



9. Srikuladitya. 
Brahman Minister. 

11. Vuhupati (Padmaditya) 

12. Bhojadeva. 

I 

13. Sahajaditya. 

i 

14. Ananga. 

The inscription is in modern Sanscrit, and the characters belong 
o the period immediately succeeding that of the Kutila inscriptions 



24 Text and Translation of Balandshahar Inscription. [No. 1 



of the tenth century. The date assigned to the inscription is conjec- 
tural, as the plate at that part is defaced by rust. The words clearly 

recognizable are ^sjferj^fV^ ^cTT^r, the space intervening is just 

sufficient for three letters. 

The faint impression of the first is something like "^T, but the last 
traceable is a ^. The intermediate has evidently a repha on it. The 
combination would evidently be ^T^iT, which may be interpreted as 
a misspelling of "^T^?T. The interchange of 7C and ^ is not un- 
precedented with the scribes and engravers of this plate. The very 
first couplet of the inscription has a similar error, ^"JCTO is spelt 
with a dental s ^ at the end. There are many such errors ; in some 
passages the final d has taken the place of a visarga, the two dots 
of which when joined, resemble the a T. The inscription uses three 
different forms of the palatal s, and the distinction of the dental 
n «r and dental t ?r is not at all preserved. The Kutila forms 
of bha, ha, dha, ga, and cerebral na, are perfectly preserved in the 
characters of the inscription, though the compound of the cerebral 
n "^ with y ^ is like that of the modern Nagri W- The form ^J, 
however, appears once for nya. At some places, the dental s ^r is 
of the modern form, and at others as old as that of the Vallabhi 
plate of Gujrat. Bha is of the Allahabad Gupta form. The initial 
i and e are of a very old type, and it is curious to observe how 
characters of very different antiquity are promiscuously used. 

The language of the inscription is not at all pure and chaste. 
Grammatical errors, especially misapplications of case-terminations, are 
common. It is interesting to note that the inscription begins with a 
descriptive character, the personages are described in the third person ; 
but as it comes to the close, the method of reported speech is dis- 
continued. The writer confounds the sayings of the kings with 
his own, and it is very difficult to render the passages. This is 
mainly due to the want of the signs of quotation in Sanscrit 
Grammar. The language is very like that of many other grants by 
similar petty chiefs. The last five lines are identical with those of 
Valavarma Deva, Virasningha Deva and Pratapadhavata Deva. 
(Compare A. R. vol. IX. p. 402, J. Am. 0. Soc, vol. VI. pp. 
538-548.) 



1869.] Text and Translation of B aland sliahar Inscription. 25 

Translation. 

1. Om. Salutation to Kasivisvesvara. Salutation be to the Grod 
of gods (Siva), to the donor of all that is desirable, to him, by whose 
eight forms the three worlds are enveloped. 

2. Praise be to moon-like Sarasvati, the fountain of nectar and 
the destroyer of darkness of previous (life), beautifier (as a lotus) 
of the ocean of eloquence. 

3. Those brahmans bless, from whom, even earth (land) given with 
devotion waits on the donor in the forms of gold and jewels. 

4. Donations destroy sin and afford victory in this world. The 
donor is sufficiently blessed by gifts and donations to them (brahmans). 
Vipras purify the sin of their donor and the good solely engaged in 
their (brahmans') worship are blessed. 

5. There was a king named Chandrafca, renowned chief of the 
Rodra family. His son was Dharanivardha and his (son) was named 
Prabhdsa. 

6. From him was a king named BJiairava, and from him again, was 
Icing Budra, fierce as the Budra. Next, his son Govindaraj (surnamed) 
the Yasorapa of irresistible will, became king. 

7. His son named Haradatta became king. Then was born 
Tribhuvanaditya by whose own mountain-like body the immersed 
earth was recovered. 

8. His younger brother Sriman Bhogdditya succeeded him a king, 
seeing whom men believed the day was two sighted. Srikulddityadeva 
powerful as night, son of his younger brother came on next. 

9. Haradatta's son on coming to age assumed the name of ViJcrama- 
ditya. He was unequally virtuous. His brahman minister Sriman 
Vuhupati more wonderful than he, ascended the throne, under the 
name of Padmaditya, the celebrated lord of the world and Tcalpatree 
of all riches. The irregular and formidable will of time was gained, 
and before illness (death) came on, his unblemished glory, more illus- 
trious than the autumnal moon, the jasmine and the lily, was published. 

10. From him was born the ruler of the earth named Bhojadeva, 
profound in war and the most valorous of heroes in the field of 
battle. After him reigned Sahajaditya the king of kings, whose go- 
vernor of the liquor of riches was Ranavir as wise as Kesava ; by whom 
(Sahajaditya) the sunken earth was rescued from the ocean and 

4 



26 Text and Translation of Balandshahar Inscription. [No. 1, 

cherished, as it was raised by the tortoise (incarnation) and scorched 
by whose power (his) enemies could not prosper. 

11. From him was Ananga, the chief of kings, full of prowess and 
splendour, (as well becomes) the younger brother of (Yudishtira 
Dharmaraja.) He learnt from great rishis (that) the presentation of 
land is the best of all gifts. Having been convinced that this gift is 
the best of all, he searched for a proper donee. 

12. There is Palhala, a brahmana of the Gouda family, son of 
Vishnu and grandson of Sadhala, of Vatsa gotra and of five pravaras, 
kulin, the foremost of the meritorious. Being acquainted with this 
donee, the lotus-eyed monarch granted the village of Gandva to him 
at the time of the equinox and at a fortunate moment seated with 
his face towards the east. This village, properly hedged by long 
prescription, is to be enjoyed by him as long as the moon, the stars 
and the sun shine. 

13. To the future kings of this family, having made my palms 
folded under my forehead, and having placed the two hands together, I 
say, do not reverse this Sdsana. 

14. Many lands were given by Sagara and other kings, but his is 
the plough who owns the lands. He who encroaches the land given by 
himself or others, becomes a beast so long as unnatural events do not 
happen. 

15. He who receives lands and he who gives them away, both 
performers of pious deeds, always go to paradise. 

Written by Gadejaka, grandson of Bijana, a kayastha of the 
Mathura family, and Videsvara, son of Sridhara of the Jagar family. 
Inscribed by our graver in Samvat 1233, Vaisakha. 

Transcription of the Inscription in Devanagri. 

^ n ^T^Tf^r ^^TEr^-^Tfir w§fcr ^t^ i iwiftr ^T*rs^ ^rft 



1869.] Text and Translation of B aland shahar Inscription. 27 

mm wnre "Him s^wrrwrirafaTrfir: i T^xRT*nN 

ftSw^nrcTf^fa; i *f ^?r ftsreH^r ^r*K ^Ott ih^u \\ 
?r^^ ^•jcj«T5p s:Tt>g^jqrevp ww^cftw: ^tj^nfe**- 

^raw. ii *tw^*t^ winiiT irT^tfa f^n i ^THTiparfte. 
^tRt w ^cnw^TOTOf «kot: 11 *<kt<t *mipT f *r w *r- 

^r^T^TTfiTVI^i | ^ ^fafcT ^[c^T clef: Trr^mf^sm || 

^iu^ *r*?^r: ll xr^f si^^^ f w}?Tpf wwrtfy 11 ^ 

^ffaww H^rTcr^ft^tTxrcT : 11 w^crrcifTO^nf* wr*r <*rer w- 
flrf ii cr^T^r^^^ifq n;re*f *r srftrawy wfirlOTi ^ttt 

^T3T^s STTTCTfeftp I W W ^ WJff cl^j cl^? <T^T^ II ^- 



JOURNAL 



OF THE 



ASIATIC SOCIETY, 



Part I.— HISTORY, LITERATURE, &c. 

No. II.— 1869. 

On the History of the Burma race. By Colonel Sir Arthur Phayre, 

K. C. S. I., C. B., Bengal Staff Corps. 

[Received 2nd April, 1869.] 

In a former paper on the history of the Burma race, it has been 
stated that the Maha-Ra-dza-weng relates that king Kyau-tswa, 
youngest son of Na-ra-thi-ha-pa-te who reigned at Pu-gan, was 
dethroned and eventually murdered by three brothers of Shan race 
in the year 660, being 1268 A. D.* 

The story of these three brothers is thus related : In the reign 
of Na-ra-thi-ha-pa te, surnamed Ta-ruk-pye-meng, the Tsau-bwa or 
Chief of Bhein-na-'kha, a small Shan state, died, leaving two sons. 
They quarrelled regarding their inheritance, and the younger, named 
Theing-kha-bo fled into Burma, where he settled at Myin-tsaing, 
some thirty miles south of the present city of Ava. For many years 
an immigration of the Shan or T'hai race had been going on into 
the valley of the Irawati. They had established an independent 
kingdom in the upper portion of the country, and about the begin- 
ning of the thirteenth century of the Christian era, had poured into 

* There is. as has before been mentioned, a discrepancy of seven years 
between this date, and that obtained by the total number of years of 
the reigns of the kings of Pugan, ending with that of Kyau-tswa. I have, 
however, considered it better to accept the year given in the text of the Maha- 
Ra-dza-weng, namely 660 of the Burmese era (= 1298 A. D.) us the year 
when the three Shan brothers commenced to reign. 

5 



30 On the History of the Burma race. [No. 2, 

Assam. During that period also, they had, by their numbers and 
their superior energy, gradually acquired considerable influence 
within the kingdom of Burma. The young Shan Prince, therefore, in 
coming to Burma, probably settled where a colony of his own race 
already existed. He married, and had three sons and a daughter. 
The sons were named A-theng-kha-ya, Ba-dza-theng-gyan, and Thi- 
ha-thu. His daughter's name is not mentioned. Theing-kha-bo so 
managed that his three sons were taken into the royal service, and 
they became great favourites with the king. After the death of 
Ta-ruk-pye-meng, his son and successor Kyau-tswa also favoured the 
Shan youths. The eldest A-theng-kha-ya received the district of 
Myin-tsaing as governor thereof ; Ra-dza-theng-gyan received 
Mek-kha-ra ; and Thi-ha-thu received Peng-lay. The three brothers 
became rich and powerful. Their sister, whose name is not given, 
was married to Prince Thi-ha-thii, the second son of Ta-ruk-pye-meng, 
who was accidentally killed in Pegu. 

The three Shan brothers after having deposed and murdered king 
Kyau-tswa, lived at Myin-tsaing in royal state, and governed each 
his own province. The elder alone had a royal palace denoting his 
superior position. Queen Tsau, the widow of Na-ra-thi-ha-pa-te, 
who had suggested the conspiracy against Kyau-tswa, her step-son, 
retired to Pu-gan. The eldest son of Kyau-tswa, named Tsau-nhit 
was allowed to live in the ancient palace at Pu-gan, with the title of 
king. A younger son, Meng-Sheng-tsau, was made governor of the 
district of Tha-ret. # 

At this time the whole of the Shan states, east of the Irawati, 
were independent, as also were Mogoung, Mo-nhyin, Ka-le, and other 
states, west of the river. The three brothers who now represented 
the ancient Burmese monarchy, had authority along the course of 
the river Irawati as far south as Tha-ret. It is doubtful whether 
they held authority in Toungii. The descendant of the T ancient 
kings, Tsau-nhit, was allowed to live quietly at Pugan, where he 
died in the year 687. And it may be mentioned here, that his son 
Tsau-mwonnit was also allowed to live quietly at Pugan. He died 
in the year 730 (A. D. 1368) being the last of the Pugan dynasty. 

In the meantime the three Shan brothers with their capital at 
# This statement will be noticed subsequently. 



1869.] On the History of the Burma race. 31 

Myin-tsaing ruled over what territory remained of the Burmese 
kingdom. The youngest brother Thi-ha-thu, surnamed Ta-tsi-sheng, 
who was destined to transmit the throne to his posterity, at least 
during half a century, married a queen of the deceased Kyau-tswa, 
named Meng-tsau- u, and called in history Bwa-Tsau. Five years after 
the brothers had established their power, the second brother Ba-dza- 
theng-gyan died. Some years later or in 672, Thi-ha-thu poisoned 
his elder brother A-theng-kha-ya, and then succeeded to the sole 
power. 

In the year 671, Thi-ha-thii had searched for a suitable position 
on which to build a new city. He selected that upon which the 
city of A-wa or Ava, was afterwards built. But supernatural 
obstacles prevented the work from being accomplished. Being then 
guided towards the south, in digging for the foundation of a pagoda, 
a golden plant in flower was discovered. The king was then con- 
vinced that this was a fortunate spot whereon to build a city. The 
city was therefore built in the year 674 (A. D. 1312), and called Pan-ya 
from the golden flower having been there obtained. The name was 
gradually changed into Peng-ya. The city was also called Wi-za- 
ya-pii-ra. 

King Thi-ha-thu Ta-tsi-sheng was now publicly married to 
Queen Bwa-tsau, widow of king Kyau-tswa. She was a daughter of 
Ta-ruk-pye-meng by one of the inferior Queens, and consequently 
half sister to Kyau-tswa. She resided at Pugan. On her arrival at 
Pan-ya, she performed with the king the usual royal ceremonies of 
formal entrance into the palace, enthronement beneath the umbrella, 
and solemn pouring out of water. The palace life was now ordered 
in every thing according to the ancient customs of the kings of Pugan. 
The son of the Queen by the late king Kyau-tswa, named U'-za-na, 
was adopted by Thi-ha-thu, and declared Ein-she-meng or Crown- 
Prince. The sons born to Thi-ha-thu by Queen Bwa Tsau were 
Kyau-tswa and Nau-ra-hta. To complete the king's happiness and 
confirm his royal title, if that were necessary, a white elephant 
was captured in the forests and brought to the city. From this 
event the king assumed the title of Ta-tsi-sheng. He married a 
second Queen, or now gave high rank to his previous wife. She was 
of Shan race. She had given birth to a son, A-theng-kha-ya (bo 



32 On the History of the Burma race. [No. 2, 

called after bis paternal uncle) and named also Nga-ywom-ngai and 
Tsau-ywon ; also to a daughter Tsau-pii-lai. This daughter was 
married to Pweng-hla-u, who was made governor of Toung-dweng, 
and who probably belonged to the ancient royal race. 

The king notwithstanding the precautions he had taken, became 
alarmed at the supposed designs of his sons by his two chief 
Queens. The two elder princes, the Crown Prince and A-theng- 
kha-ya, kept large bodies of armed men in the provinces they 
governed. A-theng-kha-ya at length received, either apparently or 
really, against the wish of his father, the province of Tsa-gaing. 
Immediately after taking possession, he declared himself indepen- 
dent, with a large tract of country under him to the northward. 
This is said to have been accomplished about the year 677 (A. D. 
1315). King Thi-ha-thu Ta-tsi-sheng reigned altogether fourteen 
years, ten of which were passed at his own city Pan-ya. The histo- 
rian thus sums up the character of this king : " He was very 
sagacious. He loved his sons, and behaved so as not to offend any of 
them. Towards other countries he behaved as one would, if placed 
over a hot fire. To his own subjects as to a cool jar of water placed 
in one's embrace." He died in the year 684. 

Thi-ha-thu Ta-tsi-sheng was succeeded by his adopted son U-za-na, 
son, as has already been stated, to the deposed king Kyau-tswa. U-za- 
na's half brother Kyau-tswa, offspring of the marriage of his mother 
Bwa-Tsau with king Thi-ha-thu, after a time began to intrigue 
against him, and acquired great influence. He is said to have possessed 
five white elephants, which is considered a sure sign of rightful 
kingly power. U-za-na, however, reigned for twenty years and then 
announced his wish to devote himself to religion. He abdicated the 
throne by going out from the palace by the western gate, while his 
half brother Kyau-tswa entered by the eastern gate. U-za-na retired 
to a monastery, and afterwards became a hermit in a forest of the 
province of Mek-kha-ra. 

Kyau-tswa who took the name of Nga-tsi-sheng, from the five 
white elephants he owned, ascended the throne in the year 704. 
Jealous of the independent kingdom established by his half brother 
A-theng-kha-ya Tsau-ywon at Tsa-gaing, he, before coming to the 
throne, had tried to have him assassinated. The plan, however, failed, 



1869.] On the History of the Burma race. 33 

and during his reign, he does not appear to have heen strong enough 
to interfere with the dynasty of his relations at Tsa-gaing. This 
king reigned only eight years. 

He was succeeded by his son, also named Kyau-tswa, who ascended 
the throne in the year 712. This king married a daughter of the 
governor of Tha-ret, called Tha-ret-meng-sheng-tsau, who was said 
to be a son of the deposed king of Pu-gan, Kyau-tswa. This king 
desired to be on terms of friendship with his cousin the king who 
reigned at Tsa-gaing. He married a daughter of that king. He 
reigned nine years. His brother Na-ra-thu then ascended the throne. 
After he had reigned five years, Pan-ya was attacked by the Man 
Shans, and the king w T as taken prisoner. By this name is meant the 
Shans of the kingdom of Pong, of which the city of Mo-goung, in 
the valley of the upper Irawati, was the capital. This city was 
called by the Shans Mong-mao-rong. King Na-ra-thu, from having 
been captured, is called Mau-pa Na-ra-thu. The Shans appear at once 
to have retreated with their prisoner, and with three white elephants, 
which probably formed the great object of their expedition. After 
his capture, an elder brother, probably a half brother by a concubine, 
was placed on the throne with the title of Uzana Byoung. But after 
three months the city of Pan-ya was taken by a Prince called Tha- 
do-meng-bya, who became supreme and founded the city of Ava. 

These events have brought the history of the kings of Myin- 
tsaing and Pan-ya down to the year 726 of the Burmese era. The 
Ma-ha-Pva-dza-weng then relates the history of the line of Princes 
who reigned at Tsa-gaing, and who were contemporary with those 
who reigned at the other two cities. It was this branch which brought 
about a new revolution. 

It has already been seen that a son of king Thi-ha-thu Ta-tsi- 
sheng by a Shan mother, made himself independent, and reigned at 
Tsa-gaing under the title A-theng-kha-ya Tsau-ywon. This was 
in the year 677 — A. D. 1315. He died after a reign of seven years, 
and though he left three sons and a daughter, he was succeeded by 
his half brother Ta-ra-bya-gyi. After Ta-ra-bya-gyi had been four- 
teen years on the throne, his son Shive-doung-tet rebelled, and in 
the year 698, dethroned his father. On this, the widow of king A- 
theng-khaya Tsau-ywon fled with her children. The family con- 



34 On the History of the Burma race. [No. 2, 

sisted of three sons, and a danghter named Tso-raeng, who was 
married to a young man of uncertain lineage, called Tha-do-tsheng- 
htien. The family concealed themselves for some time in the hills 
of Meng-dun. They were, however, captured and brought to the 
city. But a party was raised against the usurper, and he was killed 
by a Shan attendant, after a reign of three years. The nobles were un- 
willing to restore Ta-ra-bya-gyi, and he was put to death. This opened 
the way to the family of A-theng-kha-ya Tsau-ywon. The eldest son 
named Kya-tswa was raised to the throne in the year 701. He reigned 
ten years, and was succeeded by his brother Nau-ra-hta Meng-rai. 
This king reigned only seven months. The youngest brother Ta-ra- 
bya-ngai then became king, but died after a reign of three years. 

The sister of these three brothers, now entitled Tso-meng-ko-dau- 
gyi, still remained. She had formerly, as already mentioned, been 
married to Tha-do tsheng-htien, now for the first time declared to 
be of the race of the ancient kings of Ta-goung. He had died, but 
by that marriage Tso-meng-ko-dau-gyf had a son named Ka-hu-la, 
and two daughters, Sheng-tsau-gyi, and Tsau-iim-ma. The mother 
now married Meng-byouk. He was not of royal race, but in right of 
his wife he was raised to the throne, and took the title of Thi-ha- 
pa-te. As the young Prince Ka-hu-la was, (believed to be) through 
his father, descended from the ancient Burmese royal race of Ta- 
goung, he was sent to govern that province, which was subject to 
Tsa-gaing. He was then sixteen j^ears of age, and assumed the 
name of Tha-do-meng-bya. After some years, he was attacked in his 
government by a Shan force from Mogoung under a chief, called Tho- 
khyin-bwa. This attack was made at the instigation of Na-ra-thd, 
the king of Pan-ya. Tagoung was taken, and Tha-do-meng-bya with 
difficulty escaped, and fled to Tsa-gaing. There his step-father 
Meng-byouk Thi-ha-pa-te, enraged at the loss of Tagoung, put him 
in irons. The Mogoung Shans advanced in great force and attacked 
Tsa-gaing. The king was obliged to abandon the city, and retired 
by boat to Kya-khat-wa-ra on the Irawati. The Shan general saying 
that king Na-ra-thu had given him no assistance in the war, now 
attacked and took the city of Pan-ya, which he plundered. He also 
took Na-ra-thu prisoner. The Shans then retreated. 

When Meng-byouk, king of Tsa-gaing, abandoned that city, and 



i860.] On the History of the Burma race. 35 

fled to Kya-khat-wa-ra, the people who accompanied him, were much 
discontented. Tha-do-meng-bya found many adherents, and put his 
step-father to death. He then determined to take possession of the 
cities, which had been plundered and abandoned by the Mogoung 
Shans. He first advanced to Pan-ya. There he found U'-za-na Byoung 
raised to the vacant throne ; but he put him to death, and declared 
himself king of Pan-ya and Tsa-gaing. He, following the custom 
of the ancient race, married his sister Tsau-um-ma, who had been 
Queen to Kyau-tswa, Na-ra-thu, and U'-za-na Byoung, the three last 
kings of Pan-ya. This event occurred in the year 726 == A. D. 
1364. 

Tha-do-meng-bya had now no rival to oppose him. He deter- 
mined to build a new city, and in the same year, that Pan-ya and 
Tsagaing were destroyed, the city of Awa, Eng-wa, or A-va, was 
built. The Pali, or sacred name, of it was Ra-ta-na-pu-ra (city of 
gems). The position on the left bank of the I-ra-wa-ti, a little below 
the mouth of the stream, called Myit-nge, had long before been 
predicted by G-au-da-ma as destined to be the site of a great city. 
Dreams and omens now confirmed the ancient prediction. The 
work of founding the city was carried on with a degree of energy, 
prompted by the conviction of the great destinies which were thereby 
to be accomplished. Lakes and swamps were dammed and drained. 
Pagodas were built, and the city wall marked out. The king's palace 
was raised in the centre, and was the citadel of the whole work. 
Tha-do-meng-bya now ruled over the country all round Ava, Tsa- 
gaing, and Pan-ya. Toung-u also is said to have been subject to 
him. The cities of Nga-nway-giin, Toung-dweng-gyi, and Tsa-gu, 
were independent. The king first proceeded to reduce Tsa-gu. 
On the way, he stopped at Pu-gan, and there received the homage 
of Tsau-mwon-nit, the last nominal king of the Pu-gan dynasty. 
He was unable to reduce Tsa-gu, which held out under the governor 
,Thein-ga-thu. In the following year, he took Toung-dweng-gyi ; and 
in the year 729, he again marched against Tsa-gu. The chief made 
an obstinate resistance, and during the siege, Tha-do-meng-bya 
caught the small-pox. He set out to return to Ava, but feeling that 
he must die, sent on a confidential servant or minister, named Nga- 
nu, with orders to put his queen Tsau-um-ma to death, so that she 



36 



On the History of the Burma race. 



[No. 2, 



might not fall to his successor in the throne. He died soon after, 
having reigned seven months in Pan-ya and three years in Ava. 
The history denounces him as a man of savage and cruel disposition 
who altogether disregarded religion. He left no children. 

The servant of Tha-do-meng-bya having reached the palace, told 
queen Tsau-um-ma the order he had received. She turned him from 
his purpose, and offered him the government of Tsa-gaing. This he 
accepted, and after a time crossed the river to take possession. 
There being no direct heir to the throne, the nobles offered it to 
Thi-la-wa, the governor of Ra-mai-then. But he refused, and at 
length they chose his brother-in-law, Ta-rabya Tsau-kai, governor of 
the district of A-myin. He was chosen king near the close of the 
year 729 ; but by the advice of the astrologers, he did not ascend the 
palace until the beginning of the year 730. He took the title of 
Meng-kyi-tswa-tsau-kai. This king was already married to a grand- 
daughter of A-theng-kha-ya Tsau-ywon, the first king of Tsa-gaing. 
Her name was also Tsau-um-ma, with the prefix Tsa-gaing, to dis- 
tinguish her. The descent of Meng-kyi-tswa, both from the old 
race of the Pagan kings, and from the family of the three Shan 
brothers, is then carefully traced in the Ma-ha-Ha-dza-weng. It is 
shown in the following table. 

Na-ra-tln-ha-pa-te, king of Pugan. 



I 

Kyau-tswa, 

succeeded his father as 

king. Deposed and 

murdered by the three 

Shan brothers. 



Tharet Myo tsa 
Meng Sheng Tsau. 



A daughter of= 



Tkin-ga-bo,uame not 
given, sister of the 
three Shan brothers. 



I 
:Pyi Meng Tki-ha-thu. 



Eldest son 

My in tsaing 

Shwe nan 

Sheng. 



A daughter named 
= Sheng myat hla. 



I 

Second son 

Pyi Meng 

Tsau kan 

noung. 



I 
Third son 
Ta-ra-bya Tsau- 
kai. Became 
king with the 
title of Meng 
kyi-tswa Tsau- 
kai. 



Tsau-pu-lai 
a daughter, 
married to 
Tki-wa-la, 
governor of 
Ra-mai-then. 



I 
Tsau-myat, 
a daughter, mar- 
ried to Thein-ga- 
thu-tsau-noung, 
governor of 
Tsa-gii. 



1869.] On the History of the Burma race. 3< 

By this pedigree Meng-kyi-tswa was only on his mother's side 
descended from the family of the famous three Shan brothers. His 
father Meng Sheng Tsau, was the son of the deposed king of Pugan, 
the last of the ancient race who held sovereign authority. From the 
internal evidence of the history, this appears very doubtful, as the 
chief influence in the government is evidently among those of Shan 
race. It is probable that this pedigree has been arranged in later 
times. 

Of the early history of Meng-kyi-tswa and his father, it is stated, 
that during the disturbances after the second invasion by the Chinese, 
and the murder of king Kyau-tswa by the three Shan brothers, the 
king of Arakan invaded the province of Tharet-myo, where Meng- 
Sheng-Tsau, a son of king Kyau-tswa, was governor. He and his 
family were all taken prisoners and carried to Arakan. After a 
time they were released, and Meng-Sheng-Tsau brought his family 
to Pan-ya. His youngest son was sent to Tsa-gaing, where Ta-ra-bya- 
ngai was then king. The son became a favourite with that king, 
and his former name was then changed to Ta-ra-bya. He received an 
appointment, and gradually acquiring much influence, was at length 
made governor of the province of Amyin. The year after Meng- 
kyi-tswa obtained the throne, he went out with a large retinue to 
repair the great tank of Meit-hti-la, which had burst its banks. While 
digging there, they found several golden images with inscriptions, 
which showed, they represented the sons and daughters of the race 
of the Leng-dzeng kings of Siam. The king on inquiring from an 
old man of the place, was told there was a tradition that these had 
been buried by king Aloung-tsi-thu (who died A. D. 1160), who 
originally dug or embanked the tank ; and it was said the images 
were those of the rulers who should come hereafter. In the year 
732, Tsheng-phyu-Sheng-Bingyaii, king of Hanthawa-ti, sent am- 
bassadors with a letter and presents to Meng-kyi-tswa. The two 
kings agreed to have a friendly meeting on the border of the two 
countries. This was done. They gave mutual pledges of friendship, 
exchanged presents, feasted together, and then separated. The same 
year the chiefs of Ka-le and Mo-nhyin fought together. Each ap- 
plied to the king of Ava for aid, and tendered his allegiance. But 
5 



38 On the History of the Burma race. [No. 2, 

the king, by the advice of his wily minister Tsfn-ta-pyit-gyi, let them 
fight until they were exhausted and then dominated both. 

In the year 735, Meng-Bhi-lu the king of Arakan died. There 
being no direct heir, the nobles of the country offered the throne to 
Meng-kyi-tswa. By the advice of Tsin-ta-pyit, he would not keep 
that country as a part of his dominion, on account of the difficulty of 
controlling it; but he appointed his uncle Tsau-mwun-gyi as a tribu- 
tary king. That prince proceeded with a force, and established 
himself in that country. In the following year, messengers with 
presents arrived from the chief of Zimmay. At this time, the king's 
elder brother Tsau-ran-noung was governor of the province of 
Prome. In the year 738, he with much apparent cordiality invited 
the chief of Toungii, Pyan-khyi-gyi, to a friendly interview and then 
murdered him. The king derived great satisfaction from this event, 
and in his joy sent his brother a royal robe and regalia. In the year 
742, the king of Arakan Tsau-mwun-gyi died. By the advice of 
Tsin-ta-pyit, the governor of the province of Ta-liip, named Tsau- 
mi, was selected to succeed him. But he grievously oppressed the 
people, so that they rebelled. He was obliged to fly, aud crossed the 
mountains to Tsa-gu. The Arakanese then placed on the throne 
Kyau-tswa, the grandson of Nan-kya-gyi, and remained independent. 

In the year 745, Tsheng-phyu-Sheng-Bingyau, king of Pegu, died. 
He was succeeded by his son Bingya-nwe, styled Ra-dza-di-rit. At 
that time, Louk-bya was chief, or king, of Myoung-mya in the province 
of Pu-thein or Bassein. Mut-ta-ma f Martaban) was subject to king 
Byat-ta-ba. In 748, the chief of Myoung-mya proposed to the king 
of Ava a combined attack on Han-tha-wa-ti (Pegu), begging him as 
superior to take the kernel of what was acquired, and leave to 
Myoung-mya the husk only. The king consulted with his great men, 
and it was determined to invade Pegu. The king's eldest son, the 
crown prince, led a force down towards Pegu by the Toungu route 
through the valley of the Poung-loung river. A second column 
under the king's second son, Meng-Tshwe, marched by the Irawati 
route, through the province of Tha-ra-wa-ti. The left column ad- 
vanced, and took the city of Pan-gyau. The right column took the 
city of Hlaing. But the two princes were not able to combine their 
forces, and though in some actions they were successful, yet the 



1869.] On the History of the Burma race. 39 

younger prince suffered a severe defeat from the king of Pegu. The 
two princes then consulted, and as the rains were near at hand, when 
military operations by land in Pegu are impracticable, and as Louk- 
bya did not appear to render assistance, they retreated. The king 
of Pegu, fearing another attack, sent presents and a letter to Meng- 
kyi-tswa. These were well received. But the Myoung-mya chief 
also sent to make excuses for his failure to co-operate, and urged 
another invasion of Pegu. In the following year, therefore, the king 
sent another army. The advance was made only by the line of the 
Irawati. The force consisted of a large army, and a considerable 
flotilla, which the king accompanied in person. The king's son Pyin- 
tsin-meng with a force was left to guard the capital. In passing 
down the Irawati, the Mgoung-mya chief joined the king at the 
entrance to the Pu-thein river. The Burmese force again marched to 
Hlaing and the town of Mau-bi. The Takings there had strong 
stockades, which the king of Ava could not take. His army suffered 
much from sickness, and he was obliged to retreat without effecting 
anything. 

In the year 751, the king married his son Meng-Tshwe to the 
daughter of Tho-ngan-bwa, the Shan chief of Mau. The same year 
the king's ally, Louk-bya, the chief of Myoung-mya, was attacked by 
Ra-dza-di-rit, king of Pegu. Louk-bya was taken prisoner. His son 
Phya-kwan, and his son-in-law Phya-kyin fled, and took refuge with 
Meng-kyi-tswa. The former received the district of Tsa-leng, and the 
latter that of Prome, each for his support. In the same year the 
king of Pegu, suspecting the loyalty of his son Pau-lau-kyan-dau, 
determined to put him to death. The prince went to the great 
pagoda at the city of Pegu, with those who had been sent to kill 
him, made offerings, and thus prayed : " If I have imagined the least 
" evil against my royal father, may this body when it dies, suffer in the 
" eight great hells, and in the hundred and eighty-eight small hells ; 
" and may I never meet the future Phra. But if I have not imagined 
" any evil against my royal father, then when this body dies, may it 
" be conceived in the womb of a royal Mran-ma, and be born ; and 
" when of age, may I conquer and oppress the Taking country." 
Having uttered this imprecation, the prince drank the water of 
truth, and was forthwith killed by the executioners. Ail this was 



40 On the History of the Burma race. [No. 2, 

told to the king his father. Prince Pau-lau-kyan-dau trans- 
migrating, was conceived in the womb of Sheng-mi-nouk, the consort 
of Meng-Tshwe, son of king Meng-kyi Tswa. When she became 
pregnant, the princess desired to eat a mango from a tree at the city 
of Da-la, in the Talaing country, and to have other dainties therefrom. 
Her husband, the Pyin-tsing Prince Meng Tshwe sent a messenger 
with a letter and presents to the king of Pegu, asking for his request 
to be complied with. The king of Pegu returned presents of fruit, 
which the princess ate of, and in due time, in the year 752, gave 
birth to a son who was named Meng-rai-kyau-tswa. 

No event of great consequence occurred during the rest of the 
reign of Meng-kyi -tswa-Tsaukai. He reigned thirty-three years. 

His son Tsheng-phyu-Sheng succeeded him, but reigned only seven 
months, when he was murdered by Nga-nouk-tsan, the governor of 
Tagoung. The next brother, Pyin-tsing-Meng-Tshwe, was then placed 
on the throne in the year 763 (A. D. 1401). He is also called 
Meng Khoung. In the year 765, the king of 'Arakan, named Htau- 
ra-gyi made an incursion into the provinces of Yau and Loung-She. 
The king determined to send an army into Arakan, in order to punish 
the perpetrator of this insult. His son Meng-rai-kyau-tswa, though 
only thirteen years of age, was sent with the force. The army of 
the king of Arakan was defeated, and he himself was slain. The 
Burmese then occupied Arakan, and the governor of Ka-le, a son-in- 
law to king Meng Khoung, was made king of that country with the 
title of A-nau-ra-hta. Prince Meng-rai-kyau-tswa then returned home. 
In the year 766, the king of Han-tha-wa-ti, Ra-ma-ngya or Pegu, 
styled Ra-dza-di-rit, collected a great fleet of boats and a large army, 
and advanced up the river Ira-wa-ti. King Meng Khoung collected a 
force to oppose him. But the Talaing king was ail powerful on the 
river. He reached Prome, but did not dare to land and attack it, as 
it was defended with cannons and muskets.* His fleet then went on 
to Mye-dai, which also could not be taken. But he captured all boats 
upon the river, and steadily proceeded up the stream. He reached 
Ava, but not entering that city, remained at Tsagaing on the opposite 

* As the year 766 of the Burmese Era would correspond to A. D. 1404, the 
allusion to guns and muskets in Burtnah, is rather remarkable. The earliest, 
though doubtful, allusion in Indian History to guns and gun-carriages refers 
to the year 1368. Vide Elliott's Historians, p. 353. The Editor. 



1869.] On the History of the Burma race. 41 

bank. King Meng Khoung was much alarmed, but a religious man 
of Pan-ya, a man of great learning, styled Tsa-gyo-thu-myat, under- 
took to make the king of Pegu, by the mere force of knowledge and 
eloquence, abandon his enterprize and return to his own country. 
The king of Ava wrote a letter to the king of Pegu, and Tsa-gyo-thu- 
myat was admitted to an interview with the latter on board the 
royal state boat. A long conversation on religion and the duties of 
kings ensued. The result was, that king Ra-dza-di-rit, persuaded by 
the eloquence of the religious man, that peace was good for all 
people, and the only consistent course for a pious king, determined to 
return to his own country. Before leaving, he took to pieces his own 
golden boat, to build a monastery at Shwe-kyet-yet, near Tsa-gaing. 
But notwithstanding this abandonment of his expedition, he again 
invaded Burma in the following year. He, as before, advanced up to 
Prome with a vast flotilla. The king of Ava came with an army to 
defend that city. The king of Pegu divided his forces to blockade 
the city, and placed a strong body of men on the northern side of it. 
But before this could be accomplished, a quantity of rice laden on 
horses was thrown into the city, which thereby was saved from 
famine. The king of Pegu now established himself on the west 
bank of the river. His flotilla kept the stream in his power, but 
three of his regiments, left isolated on the land to the north of the 
city, were attacked and cut to pieces. Though not able to take 
Prome, the king of Pegu was still master on the river. He sent 
three hundred boats up the stream, which burnt Mye-dai, Tha-ret 
and other cities to the north, and ravaged the country, from whence 
the Burmese army drew their supplies. This forced king Meng- 
Khoung to sue for peace. At first, Ra-dza-di-rit sent an unfavourable 
reply. He referred to the reception given by the king of Burma to 
his rebellious subject, the chief of Myoung-mya, and returned the 
presents offered him. The king of Burma had taken prisoner a 
Taking nobleman, styled Tha-mein-dzeip-byai, who had two daughters 
in the palace of the king of Pegu, aud both of whom had accompanied 
him in his expedition. The king of Burma now offered this noble- 
man his liberty, if he influenced his daughters to persuade Ra-dza- 
di-rit to make peace. The king of Pegu, through their entreaties, 
and against the advice of his nobles, again entered into negociations. 



42 On the History of the Burma race. [No. 2, 

The two kings exchanged presents and, on an appointed day, 
proceeded together on foot, and hand in hand, to the great pagoda 
which crowns a hill overlooking the Irawati. There they solemnly 
promised to observe their engagements to each other. The boun- 
daries of their kingdoms were marked out, the city of Prome being 
allowed to belong to Burma, and the kings then separated. After- 
wards the king of Pegu married the sister of king Meng Khoung, 
the princess being sent by land from Ava by the Poung-loung route. 
The marriage was celebrated on the frontier in a pavilion or temporary 
palace, "whereby," says the history, "the two kings were united as 
one piece of gold, and their friendship was warm as living fire, and 
clean as pure water." 

But this good understanding was of short duration. In 768, king 
Meng-Khoung made Meng-rai-kyau-tswa, his son, Ein-She-meng or 
crown prince, and married him to the daughter of Ta-ra-phya-gyi, the 
governor of Pu-khan. The king's brother Thi-ri-dze-ya-thu-ra, go- 
vernor of Tsagaing, was offended at the young prince being raised to 
this distinction. He raised a rebellion, but was defeated and made 
prisoner. The king pardoned and released him ; but he fled and took 
refuge with the king of Pegu, whose sister he had married. He was 
received with distinction, and from that time the king of Pegu no 
longer sent presents or tribute which, since the last arrangement, he 
had been accustomed to do. 

In Arakan, after A-nau-ra-hta had been placed on the throne, the son 
of the deposed king Htau-ra-gyi, named Na-ra-meit-hla, fled and took 
refuge with king Ba-dza-di-rit. When the brother of the king of 
Ava arrived in Pegu, at his suggestion, an army was sent by the king 
of Pegu to Arakan to support the cause of Na-ra-meit-hla. This army, 
under the command of Tha-mein-phyat-sa was successful. The king 
of Ava's son-in-law, Anau-ra-hta, and his wife, the king's daughter, 
were taken prisoners, and sent to Pegu ; while Na-ra-meit-hla was 
placed on the throne of Arakan. The king of Pegu put A-nau-ra- 
hta to death, and his wife he made one of his principal queens. At 
this cruel and treacherous conduct king Meng-Khoung was much 
enraged. But as he and his enemy were nearly matched, he deter- 
mined, before going to war, to form alliances, so as to be able to crush 
his foe at once. He addressed the king of Zimmay, informing him 






1869.] On the History of the Burma race. 43 

of the bad faith of the king of Pegu after he had sworn friendshp at 
the pagoda of Prome, and invited him to join in an invasion of Pegu. 
The letter was intercepted, and the messengers were seized. But Meng 
Khoung in his anger determined at once to go to war. In vain his 
faithful ministers represented to him the great difficulty of pene- 
trating into a country like Pegu at the season of the year when the 
rains were nigh at hand. The king would brook no delay. A large 
force under his own command, marched from Ava by the Toungu 
route, in the month of Katshun 769. A force was left at the capital 
to preserve order, and several regiments were posted at Prome to 
guard that frontier, and collect and forward provisions for the army 
by the Irawati river. The king of Pegu made great preparations, 
to meet this attack. "His army marched from the city of Han-tha- 
wa-ti, and took post at the city of Tha-kym. His advanced guard 
under La-gwun-ein met with a repulse, and the Taking army 
retreated to Pan-gyau, to await reinforcements soon expected from 
Pu-thein and Mut-ta-ma. The Burmese now burnt all the towns 
and villages of the country they occupied. But the rainy season 
having set in, it was found difficult to supply provisions, and the 
Peguan army being reinforced, was enabled seriously to interrupt the 
communications of the Burmese. The latter now began to suffer 
from hunger, and king Meng Khoung was advised by his ministers to 
negociate. But the wily king of Pegu wished to take him prisoner, 
and invited him to a meeting at the Kyaik-go Pagoda. This was 
agreed to ; but, at the last moment, the king of Ava, suspicious of 
treachery, would not keep his engagement. The Taking officer 
La-gwun-ein then undertook to seize king Meng Khoung by a 
sudden night attack. In this he was accompanied by the refugee 
prince, the former governor of Tsagaing, who was to recognize his 
brother king Meng Khoung. La-gwun-ein penetrated into the 
Burmese entrenched camp, and even into the king's tai } or booth, but 
failed to capture him. Ka-dza-di-rit suspecting that the prince had 
not given hearty assistance, put him to death. This desperate night 
attack, which had well nigh succeeded, deeply alarmed king Meng 
Khoung. He now determined to retreat, himself leading, while the 
rear guard was commanded by an officer, styled Ra-may-then-tsi. The 
king of Pegu despatched La-gwun-ein in pursuit. He, marching 



44 On the History of the Burma race. [No. 2, 

rapidly by jungle paths, fell on the Burmese and killed many. The 
retreating army became utterly scattered, and the king mounted 
on a swift female elephant to escape. The army now flying helter- 
skelter, became like a bale of cotton unloosed to the wind. The 
queen Sheng-mi-nouk was taken prisoner, and being carried to 
king Ra-dza-di-rit was taken into his harem. The chief queen, the 
howdah of whose elephant became loose and swung round, with 
difficulty escaped on another elephant. The rear guard alone pre- 
served discipline, and the Talaings seeing them stand like a stockade 
of iron dared not attack them. The king on reaching his capital 
was in deep distress. His minister consoled him by relating 
many instances, where weak and insignificant creatures had been 
successful over those far their superiors, because those superiors could 
not overcome the obstacles of nature. Hearing these words, " the 
burning distress of king Meng Khouug was assuaged, as fire is 
quenched by water." 

But the king could not forget the insults and injuries he had 
received from the king of Pegu. In the year 771, he again invaded 
that country. The expedition was unsuccessful, but from the cautious 
manner of proceeding, was not so disastrous as before. The Burmese, 
the history states, had guns and muskets at this time. 

As all the direct attacks on Pegu had failed, another plan and 
another point of attack were now adopted. The king's eldest son 
Meng-rai-kyau-tswa, the strange story of whose birth in the year 
752 has been related, now besought his father to appoint him to lead 
an army, to rescue his mother and sister from captivity. A large 
army was collected, and marched in the year 772 (A. D. 1410), by 
the Irawati route. A large fleet was in company. The force 
proceeded dowm and entered into the province of Pu-thein (Bassein). 
The prince first attacked the town of M'young-mya, but failing to take 
it, proceeded to Pu-thein. Finding that there were many guns 
mounted there, he blockaded the city, but could effect nothing. It 
was now suggested by one of the generals, that they should proceed 
into Arakan, the king of which country had been supported by their 
enemy, the king of Pegu. This advice was adopted. The Prince 
returned to Prome and from thence crossed the mountains into 
Arakan. The king Na-ra-meit-hla was defeated, and fled into the 



1869.] On the History of the Burma race. 4 5 

Ku-la country. The Prince appointed Let-ya-gyi governor. The 
southern part of Arakan, the province of Than-dwai (Sandoway), was 
placed under Tsuk-ka-te. The prince then returned to Ava where he 
was received by his father with great distinction. 

The Arakanese nobles now applied for assistance to king Ra-dza- 
di-rft. He sent an army in the following year, 773, which took 
possession of Sandoway. Prince Meng-rai-kyau-tswa was again 
sent to take it. He failed in an attack, but blockaded the town, and 
reduced the garrison to great distress. The soldiers were obliged to 
eat their very shields. The Taking commander now had recourse to 
a cunning artifice. He caused a false despatch to be sent addressed 
to himself, announcing the advance of a large force coming to relieve 
him, and managed to have this intercepted by the Burmese. The 
Prince called a council of war, and they considered it best to retreat. 
He returned with his army to Ava. The Talaing army then marched 
on to the capital, Arakan city. As the Arakanese and the king of 
Pegu were closely allied, the governor Let-ya-gyi who had been put 
in by the Burmese, retired. 

In the year 774, the Tsau-bwa of the large Shan state of Thein-ni 
was preparing to attack Ava, Information of his preparations was 
given by the Tsau-bwa of Un-boung, and Prince Meng-rai-kyau-tswa 
was sent against him. The Tsau-bwa of Thein-ni engaged the prince's 
army, but was defeated and slain. The sons and son-in-law of the 
Tsau-bwa shut themselves up in their fortified city, and called in the 
Chinese to help them. The prince, hearing of the advance of the 
Chinese army, proceeded by night with a part of his army, and lay in 
wait in a thick wood. Suddenly attacked they were utterly defeated. 
The prince then returned, and re-invested Thein-ni. In the mean 
time Ra-dza-di-rit, king of Pegu, hearing that the Burmese were oc- 
cupied with Thein-ni, 'determined to attack Prome. On account of 
the guns, he was forced to keep at a distance, but hoped to starve out 
the garrison. While thus employed, hearing that a Siamese army 
was attacking Mut-ta-ma, he left his son Bi-ngya-Pu-thein in com- 
mand, and returned himself to Pegu. The prince Meng-rai-kyau- 
tswa having settled affairs at Thein-ni, arrived at Prome. The king 
of Pegu also returned there from the lower country. After many 
skirmishes, the Talaing force was finally defeated, and compelled to 
7 



46 On the History of the Burma race. [No. 2, 

retire down the river. The Burmese pursued as far as the entrance 
to the Bassein river. The Prince determined to follow up the fugi- 
tives. He took possession of Da-la, of Da-gun and Than-lyeng 
(Syriam). Pu-thein and the whole of the western portion of the 
Delta of the Irawati submitted to him. Seeing such great success, 
king Meng Khoung himself arrived. Numerous partial actions took 
place in the difficult country of the Irawati delta, but nothing 
decisive was accomplished. The king of Pegu stirred up the Shan 
chief of Nga-thai-wi to attack the towns and villages in the Ava 
territory. This he did, and prince Thi-ha-thu, who remained at 
home at the head of affairs, reporting the threatening state of affairs, 
the Burmese army was withdrawn. 

But the prince, considering that he had almost been able to take 
the capital of Pegu, and was only prevented by accident, determined 
to try his fortune once more. In 776, the army went down the river, 
and advanced towards Pu-thein. After some difficulty, the stockade 
of Khai-boung was taken. The prince, however, could not take Pu- 
thein, and determined to return himself to Ava apparently to obtain 
reinforcements. He took with him several prisoners of high rank, 
but remained there only seven days, and then returned to Pegu, 
bringing his wife with him. He established himself in the province 
of Da-la, but the city of that name appears to have been held by a 
son of the king of Pegu, styled Bi-ngya- Da-la. Meng-rai-kyau-tswa 
built several large boats, and having made himself liked by the men 
in command under the king of Pegu, the cities of Pu-thein and 
Myoung-mya submitted to him. 

At this time a serious difficulty threatened the king of Ava. 
Two Shan chiefs of the states of Mau-dun and Mau-kay had attacked 
Mye-du which was subject to Ava. The king had therefore punished 
them, and they took refuge in the Chinese territory. They petitioned 
the Emperor of China that their wives and children were held in 
captivity by the Burmese, and asked for justice. A Chinese army 
therefore marched into the Burmese territory, and came down to Ava. 
After about a month, they became straitened for provisions, and sent a 
message to this effect : " You neither give up the wives and children 
" of the chiefs of Mau-dun and Mau-kay, nor do you come out to 
" fight. We will remain thus for three years. Or, if you will not 



1869.] On the History of the Burma race. 47 

" negociate let a horse soldier from each army engage in single combat ; 
" if our horse soldier loses, we will retire ; but if yours is defeated give 
"us up the wives and children of the chiefs." On hearing this, king 
Meng Khoung was much disturbed, as his best soldiers were all in 
Pegu. But one of the prisoners, brought to the capital by the 
prince, named Tha-mein-pa-ran, an officer of high rank and son-in- 
law to the king of Pegu, agreed to fight the Chinese champion. 
The duel was fought on horseback, and though the Chinese, or Tartar, 
was clad in armour, the Pegu chief came off victorious. The Chinese, 
true to their word, then withdrew to their own country. 

In Pegu, the Burmese Prince Meng-rai-kyau-tswa was closely 
besieging the city of Da-la, which was held by By-ngya-Da-la, one 
of the sons of the king of Pegu. Ba-dza-di-rft was anxious to com- 
municate with his son, but was unable to do so. One of his nobles, 
Ai-mwun-ta-ra planned to enter the place himself by pretending to 
desert to the Burmese. This was approved by the king. He was 
received with great joy by the Burmese prince, was entrusted with a 
command, and during a skirmish managed to enter the city of Da-la. 
The Burmese now considered they had him safe. But after a few 
days, he let himself be launched on a raft bound up as a corpse upon 
the tidal stream, and so passed unmolested, floated by the tide, 
through the Burmese camp and war-boats. When passed danger, 
he rose up and proceeded at once to his master at the city of Pegu. 
Having reported all he had seen, king Ba-dza-di-rit determined to 
relieve Da-la. He therefore marched with a considerable force, and 
Prince Meng-rai-kyau-tswa was obliged to retire. He entrenched 
himself at a distance. The city of Da-la was thus relieved. Ba-dza- 
di-rit now, after much manoeuvring provoked the Burmese Prince to 
leave his stockade and come out to fight. The prince was confident 
and boastful. He had dosed his elephant with spirits, and had drank 
some himself. He pushed forward with a small force in front of the 
main body of his army. With a few horsemen he made great 
slaughter among the Talaing army, but his elephant became blown, 
and the Talaing chiefs seeing he had no support at hand, surrounded 
him with thirty elephants. His elephant was wounded by a hundred 
darts and disabled. The Prince dismounted and received a severe 
wound in the thigh, either from a spear or an elephant's tusk. He 



48 On the History of the Burma race. [No. 2, 

was borne to the bank of a tank and laid down. Here he was taken 
prisoner and carried before the king. Ra-dza-di-rit addressed him 
kindly, but he replied that he desired only to die, as he was unable 
to fulfil his oath to reach the city of Han-tha-wa-ti. He died the 
next morning, being the fourth of the waxing moon Ta-gii in the 
year 778 (April 1416). His funeral obsequies were honorably per- 
formed by the king. The morning of his death a palm leaf with the 
news written thereon was tied round the neck of a tame vulture 
belonging to the chief Theng-ga-ra-dza. The bird was let loose, and 
the same afternoon at the striking of the third watch reached Ava, 
and flew to the chief Phun-gyi, who presented the writing to king 
Meng Khoung. 

After the death of the prince, the Burmese commanders in Pegu, 
though successfully resisting attack, were forced to retire. The 
princess lamenting the death of her husband retired also, and on 
reaching Ava, was married to Thi-ha-thu, her first husband's brother. 
But before the whole army had left the Pegu territory, king Meng- 
Khoung appeared, as he determined to visit the grave of his son. 
The bones as buried by king Ra-dza-di-rit were dug up, and placed 
in a golden vase, which under cover of a white umbrella, was borne 
in a state boat to Ava. 

In the year 779, another expedition was sent against Pegu under 
the command of prince Thi-ha-thu, who now had been made Crown- 
Prince. He captured the stockade at Da-gun, and took prisoner 
Bi-ngya-tsek, one of the sons of the king of Pegu. The Prince 
could not take Than-lyeng (Syviam), but captured Mau-bi, and re- 
mained there entrenched for the rainy season. King Ra-dza-di-rit 
who much feared an attack upon his capital, went for safety to Mut- 
ta-ma (Martaban). After this, the Burmese Prince returned to Ava 
taking his prisoner with him. 

King Meng Khoung undertook no more wars. He sought 
only to treasure up merit by the performance of good works. The 
internal affairs of the country were wisely administered. The king- 
dreaded lest he should be ill-spoken of. In the year 784, his destiny 
was fulfilled, and he died after a reign of twenty-one years. 

King Ra-dza-di-rit also heard with grief the death of his former 
enemy, and now only thought of religious duties. After one year, 



1869.] On the History of the Burma race. 49 

while hunting a wild elephant to capture it with a noose, he received 
a wound of which he died. 

Prince Thi-ha-thu succeeded his father. He also took the title of 
Tslieng-phyii-sheng. In Pegu, Bi-ngya-Dham-ma-Ra-dza succeeded 
his father Ra-dza-di-rit. This king's two younger brothers Bi-ngya- 
ran and Bi-ngya-kyan rebelled, and occupied the cities of Da-gun 
and Than-lyeng. But the first soon submitted ; the other brother 
sent messengers to king Thi-ha-thu for assistance, That king at 
once sent a force which joining the rebel prince took possession of 
Dala. The Burmese commander made the Taking inhabitants 
prisoners of war, which provoked the resentment of the prince, and 
a quarrel arose. The result was, that the Burmese force retired. 
But the two brothers of the king of Pegu were now once more in 
rebellion. Bi-ngya-kyan retired to Mut-ta-ma, while Bi-ngya-ran 
occupied Da-gun. King Thi-ha-thu now sent a larger force to Pegu, 
which marched in the month Nat-dau 784. They proceeded by the 
Pu-thein (Bassein) route, which the Burmese had always found the 
easiest, and took Dala once more. Prince Bi-ngya-ran entered into 
negociations with them, and a marriage between his sister and king 
Thi-ha-thu was arranged. But this was the immediate cause of his 
destruction. For his chief queen Tsau-pho-may, who had been one 
of his father's queens, offended at his neglect of her. called in a Shan 
chief U'n-boung-lay, who came with an army to attack the city. The 
king met him, but was wounded, and fled to Mo-nhyin, where he died 
soon after, having reigned four years. 

The nobles now joined and attacked the Shan army, which retired. 
An infant son of Thi-ha-tlm, named Meng-hla-ngay, was raised to the 
throne. But the queen Tsau-pho-may, who had long been too inti- 
mate with the chief of Ka-le, Kye-toung-ngyo, called him in. He 
came with an army, killed the infant king, and seized the palace. 

This usurper's reign was short. The governor of Mo-nhyin, 
named Meng-nan-tsi, was a man of much influence. He was of Shan 
descent, but claimed also to be descended from the ancient kings of 
Pu-gan ; his paternal grandmother was a daughter of Nga-tsi-sheng 
Kyau-tswa, one of the kings of Shan race who reigned at Pan-ya, 
and who died in 1V1. In the present state of affairs, he determined 
to assert his claims. He came with a large force and invested Ava. 



50 On the History of the Burma race. [No. 2, 

Ka-le-kye-toung-ngyo being deserted by most of his supporters, fled, 
together with the queen Sheng-pho-may. Meng-nan-tsi therefore 
now took possession of the palace in the year 788 (A. D. 1426). 
The usurper who had fled, died in the jungles on the way to Arakan. 
Queen Tsau-pho-may who had been consecrated queen in the time 
of Meng Khoung returned, and was received back into the palace 
with her former rank. 

The king assumed the title of Mo-nhyin-meng-ta-ra. He was 
forty-seven years of age, when he came to the throne. Many of the 
provinces gave him trouble by rising in rebellion, but he gradually 
reduced them. The ruler of Toun-gd was Tsau-lii-theng-kha-ya. 
Being invited by the king, he came to Ava with a large escort. The 
king received him with great distinction, and they sat on one couch. 
From this time the ruler of Toungu acted as if he were independent. 
His younger brother was the governor of Poungday. He became 
subordinate to the king of Pegu, and by that means was made go- 
vernor of the province of Tha-ra-wa-ti. 

In the year 792, the ruler of Toungu and his brother of Poung- 
day, induced the king of Pegu to undertake an expedition against 
Prome. An army and fleet were sent under the command of Tha- 
mein-pa-ran, who formerly, when a prisoner at Ava, fought and killed 
the Chinese champion. King Mo-nhyin-meng-ta-ra desired to tem- 
porize, and by the advice of his ministers sent a friendly message 
to the king of Pegu with presents, and went down to Prome to meet 
him. The two kings remained at some distance from Prome carrying 
on negociations. In the mean time, the commander-in-chief, Tha- 
mein-pa-ran, who had formerly known one of the Burmese chiefs, 
Ba-dza-theng-gyan, used to go and see him. On one of these occa- 
sions, Mo-nhyin-meng-ta-ra ordered him to be detained as a prisoner, 
until the traitor governor of Poungday was delivered up. This was 
at length agreed to, and the two kings concluded their negociation by 
an agreement of friendship. A niece of the king of Ava also was 
married to the king of Pegu. These events occupied several years. 
King Mo-nhyin-meng, on his return to Ava in 799, attended to the 
internal affairs of his kingdom. The reckoning of time was found to 
be much deranged, and great affliction for the people of the country 
was anticipated, unless the calender was reformed. The king knew 



1869.] On the History of the Burma race. 51 

that his royal predecessors who had altered the style in their days, 
never survived long ; but for the benefit of his people, he did not 
hesitate to do what was required for their welfare. He felt confident 
also, from predictive signs, that his posterity for seven generations 
would fill the throne. To adjust the era, the year 800 was counted as 
798, two years being struck out. The king died in the following 
year after a reign of thirteen years. 

He was succeeded by his son Meng-rai-kyau-tswa in in the year 801 
(A. D. 1439). This king turned his attention to the affairs of 
Toungu. The king of that country had died in the year 798, and 
was succeeded by his son-in-law U'-za-na. The following year, the 
king of Pegu, Bi-ngya-ran deposed U'-za-na, and placed on the throne 
Meng-tsau-u, son of Tsau-lu-theng-kha-ra. After that ruler had 
reigned five years, the king of Ava sent a force which dethroned 
him, and Ta-ra-bya, a Shan chief, was made governor or tributary 
king. The chief of Mo-goung was at this time independent, but the 
king coerced him through the Tsau-bwas of Mo-nhyin and Ka-le. 
Meng-rai-kyau-tswa died after a reign of three years. He left a 
daughter ; and his youngest brother, Thi-ha-thu, governed at Prome. 
At first, the nobles thought it better to offer the throne to Thi-ha-pa- 
te, the son-in-law of the late king. But he refused to be king, so the 
nobles went down to Prome, and brought up the prince in great 
state to Ava. He assumed the title of Bhu-reng Na-ra-pa-ti. 

The northern Tsau-bwas submitted to this king, and he reduced 
to obedience the governor of Ra-may-then, who had rebelled. But 
suddenly a great danger threatened the king. His son, the crown- 
prince had been sent with a force to reduce the Shan chief of Peng- 
lay. While the army was there, a large Chinese army under four 
generals appeared. The king hastily recalled his son to Ava ; left 
him there in command, and himself proceeded out with his army and 
took post at the Mandale hill, a few miles to the north of the city. 
The Chinese commander remaining at Maing-mau on the Shwe-le 
river, sent a message by a party of three hundred horsemen saying, 
" Will you, as in the time of the Pugan kings, present vessels of gold 
" and silver, or will you make war?" King Na-ra-pa-ti replied, that 
since the city of Ava had been built, no such demand had been made, 
and that he would give nothing. On receipt of this message, the 



52 On the History of the Burma race. [No. 2, 

Chinese generals marched to Ba-raan, and began to construct a bridge 
of boats to cross the river Irawati. This was in the year 806, and 
the king now advanced up the river with a large number of armed 
boats besides his land force, as far as Ta-goung, having his army 
partly on some islands on the river in that neighbourhood. The 
Chinese commanders now demanded that the Man chief, Tho-ngnn- 
bwa, Tsau-bwa of Mo-goung, should be delivered up to them. The 
king refused to do so, and the Chinese brought their army to Koung- 
dun. There a great battle was fought. The Chinese were defeated, 
two of their generals were killed, and besides as they Buffered from 
want of food, they retreated towards their own country, and took post 
at Mo-wun on a tributary of the Shwe-le river. The chiefs of Mo- 
goung and Mo-nhyin watched them with an army at Ba-mau, and 
the king returned to Ava. 

Tn the year 807, the ruler of Toungu, Ta-ra-bya died, and the king 
now appointed his younger brother Meng Khoung-ngai, who was 
Ta-ra-bya's son, according to some authorities, to succeed him. The 
same year, the Chinese returned with a still larger army than 
before. The king was recommended by his ministers to comply witli 
their demand. He remained in camp near Ava, and awaited their 
arrival. The Chinese generals on their arrival demanded the chief 
Tho-ngan-bwa as their subject. The king replied, he was his 
subject, but still if they would do him a service, he would comply with 
their demand. The service was to attack the chief of Ra-may-then, 
named Meng-ngay-kyau-hteng, who was in rebellion. The Chinese 
generals agreed, and performed the service required. They then 
returned to Ava. But the chief Tho-ngan-bwa took poison, and died. 
The king delivered the dead body to the Chinese. They took out 
the bowels ; run a spit through it and dried it with fire, and then 
carried it away. The reason why the Chinese demanded Tho-ngan- 
bwa was, that his grandfather Tho-khyi-bwa bad formerly been in 
rebellion against the Emperor of China, and had fought against him. 
This quarrel had never been satisfied, and so the grandson was 
demanded. 

In the year 808, the son of Bi-ngya-Dham-ma-Ra-dza, late king 
of Pegu, named Bi-ngya-kyan, having quarrelled with his uncle 
Bi-ngya-ran-Khaik then on the throne fled, and came to Pu-gan 



1869.] On the History of the Burma race. 53 

where king Na-ra-pa-ti then was. The same year the king of Pegu 
died, and was succeeded by Bi-ngya-pa-rii, nephew to Bi-ngya-ran. 

In 811, a Chinese army again invaded Burma, marched down to 
Bamau, and crossed the Irawati by a bridge of boats. Their object 
was to attack the Tsau-bwas of Mo-nhyin and Mo-goung. Mo- 
goung was now under two Tsau-bwas who were brothers, named 
Tho-kyin-bwa and Tho-thut-bwa. They, with the Tsau-bwa of 
Mo-nhyin, bravely met and defeated the Chinese, who then retreated. 
King Na-ra-pa-ti was very glad of this, and made them a large present 
in silver. 

In the following year, the king of Pegu being killed, the 
Talaing nobles begged that Bi-ngya-kyan should be made king. Na- 
ra-pa-ti therefore sent an army which placed him on the throne. But 
he died in the year 814, and then Leit-mwut htau, son of Bi-ngya- 
khaik by his queen, the niece of king Mo-nhyin-meng-ta-ra, was placed 
on the throne. He at once sent presents to the king of Burma, 
calling him royal uncle. But he died the following year. Then 
Sheng-tsau-pu was raised to the throne with the title of Bi-ngya- 
kyan. She was the daughter of king Ra-dza-di-rit, first married to 
her cousin Tha-mein-tsi, and after his death to king Thi-ha-thu of Ava. 
But after his death, she left Ava, and returned to her own country. Now 
at the age of fifty-nine years, she was placed on the throne of Pegu. 

In 816, King Na-ra-pa-ti had a friendly meeting on the border of 
the two countries with Ali kheng, king of Arakan. 

In 820, the king invaded Toungii, but could not retain his authority 
there. He also had much trouble with several of the Shan states. 
His death was caused from a wound received in a struggle with his 
son, who had raised a rebellion. The king fled with a few followers 
from the city, and went down to Prome, where his second son was the 
governor. There he died from the effects of his wonnd in the year 
830, after a reign of twenty-six years. His eldest son succeeded him, 
and took the title of Bhu-reng Ma-ha-thi-ha-thu-ra. In this king's 
reign, the principal events recorded are his endeavours to retain 
Toungii under his immediate government. He was troubled with 
wars between the different Shan states ; and his brother in the 
province of Prome was disobedient. He died after a reign of twelve 
years. His son, styled Du-ti-ya Meng Khoung, next came to the throne. 



64 On the History of the Burma race. [No. 2? 

and assumed the title of Thi-ri-thu-dham-ma Ra-dza. In his reign 
the troubles of the Burmese monarchy increased. His younger 
brother, who governed Ra-may-then, rebelled, as did another brother 
in the province of Tsa-leng. To the north, the Tsau-bwa of Mye-dii 
declared himself independent ; and the king's uncle, Tha-do-meng-tsau, 
who held the province of Tha-ra-wa-ti, succeeded to Prome, and pro- 
claimed himself king. He then advanced up the river Irawati as 
far as Ma-gwe. King Du-ti-ya Meng Khoung went down with a 
force to meet him. After a negociation for about a month, they ex- 
changed presents and separated, without any distinct arrangement 
having been made. Soon after, the prince at Tsa-leng died, and that 
province then returned to its allegiance. In the year 847, the king, 
with the view apparently of preserving the loyalty of his eldest son, 
gave him authority equal to his own. He received the title of Ma- 
ha Thi-ha-thu-ra. He lived in the same palace with his father, and 
eacb had a white umbrella as the symbol of sovereignty. This 
measure probably had the effect of preserving the king from being 
dethroned, but the prince died before his father, after having been 
associated witb him in the kingdom for fifteen years. 

The events in Toungii at this time were destined to have over- 
whelming effect on the Ava monarchy more than half a century 
later. They will now be glanced at as being connected with the 
history of Du-ti-ya Meng Khoung. The ruler of Toungii, when this 
king came to the throne, was Tsi-thii-kyau-hteng who, like the royal 
family, was probably of Shan descent. He maintained a position 
almost equal to an independent prince. He died in the year 843, and 
was succeeded by his son Tsi-thu-ngai, who as the history states, was 
appointed by the king. In the year 847, this prince was put to death 
by his nephew Meng-kyi-ngyo, who assumed the title of Ma-ha-thi- 
ri-dze-ya-thu-ra. The history states that he sent presents to the 
king of Ava, who replied, that he did not wish to interfere with 
Toungii, and sent the chief a white umbrella, thereby acknowledging 
his independence. 

In Pegu, Dham-ma Dze-di had become king in succession to Sheng- 
tsau-pu. He died in 854, and his son Bi-ngya-ran succeeded him. 
He and the chief of Toungu were suspicious of each other, and a 
border warfare was maintained. The Toungii chief had built a new 



1869.] On the History of the Burma race. 55 

fort, called Dwa-ra-wa-ti, which the king of Pegu came and attacked 
with a large army. The chief of Toungii applied to the chief of 
Tha-ra-wa-ti and also to Du-ti-ya Meng Khoung for assistance. But 
before the aid could arrive, the Pegu army had been attacked and 
defeated. The king of Ava now sent the Toungd chief all the 
regalia in addition to the white umbrella before conferred upon him. 
The king having bent to the circumstances of the time, preserved his 
authority in a comparatively small extent of country round Ava, and 
died after a reign of twenty-one years in 863. 

His second son now ascended the throne with the title of Ma-ha- 
Ra-dza-dhi-pa-ti and also Shwe-nan-sheng Na-ra-pa-ti. The state 
of the kingdom is now admitted in the Ma-ha Ra-dza-weng to have 
been desperate. The Tsau-bwa of Mo-nhyin attacked and took 
possession of Mye-du. The king's brother-in-law, the governor of 
Tsa-leng, having died, his widow married the son of the ruler of 
Prome, who had taken the title of king, and they declared themselves 
independent. The king, however, was able to re-establish his authority 
there for a time. But he was now at open enmity with the chiefs or 
kings of Prome and Toungu, and in the year 867, invited by two 
inferior chiefs wdio were in rebellion, they sent forces to attack the 
city of Tsa-le. The king quite helpless called in the Tsau-bwa of 
Un-boung to his assistance. The king also marched with the army, 
and the rebel force with their allies was defeated. In the north, the 
Tsau-bwa of Mo-nhyin took possession of the province of Ta-ba-yfn, 
but the king was able to recover it. In 869, three of the king's 
brothers raised a rebellion at Pa-khan-gyi ; but they were defeated and 
put to death. The Tsau-bwa of Mon-hyin, named Tsa-lun, had now 
become very powerful. In the year 873, he attacked the Tsau-bwa 
of Un-boung, because he was friendly to the king. The place he 
attacked was Ba-mau, which belonged to Un-boung. The Tsau-bwa 
requested the king to attack Mye-du, which had a garrison of soldiers 
in the service of the Mo-nhyin chief. Bat the fort was well defended 
with muskets and jinjals, and the king could only blockade it at a 
distance. "While doing so, his troops were attacked by the chiefs of 
Ka-le, Toung-dweng-kyoung and Meng-kheng, who had become 
tributary to Mo-nhyin. The king's troops were entirely driven 
away. For several years, king Na-ra-pa-ti was compelled to endure 



66 On the History of the Burma race. [No. 2, 

rebellions ; and in the year 885, the chief of Mo-nhyin, marched with 
an army of Shans down to Tsa-gaing, clearing the country of such 
troops as remained under the king of Ava. From thence the chief 
marched along the right bank of the river Irawati, and went as 
far south as the city of Tha-ret, all the cities, towns, and districts 
submitting to him. While he was at that place, the king of Prome, 
Tha-do-meng-tsau, a near relation to king Na-ra-pa-ti, now sent 
presents to Tsa-lun, the Mo-nhyin chief, offering if he would place 
him on the throne of Ava, to be friendly and subservient. This was 
agreed to. The Shan army then crossed to the east side of the Ira- 
wati at Mye-dai. The army of the king of Prome advanced up the 
river in boats. The Shan army marched by land. King Na-ra- 
pa-ti had no army of his own left to oppose this force, but the 
U'n-boung Tsau-bwa, Khun Mhaing, marched to Ava to assist his 
friend. Some fighting occurred near the city, in which the Burmese 
force was defeated, and king Na-ra-pa-ti fled together with Khun 
Mhaing towards the north-east. When the king of Prome came up, 
the Mo-nhyin Tsau-bwa, according to his promise, put him on the 
throne. But after three days that chief retired, and crossing the 
Irawati, returned to his own country. The king of Prome could 
not retain his position, and retired also, taking with him a little 
daughter of king Na-ra-pa-ti's of eight years old. The king then 
returned to Ava, together with the Un-boung Tsau-bwa, and once 
more entered the palace. Khun Mhaing then returned to his own 
country. The king gratefully offered him valuable presents, which he 
would not accept. For two more years the king endured his fortune, 
which was now near its end. In the year 888, the Tsau-bwa of 
Mo-nhyin again put his troops in motion, and now was accompanied 
by his son Tho-han-bwa. They marched to Tsagaing, and after 
defeating such Burmese troops as opposed them, crossed the river, 
and besieged Ava. After eight days the city was taken by storm. 
King Na-ra-pa-ti attempting to escape on an elephant, was killed by 
the hand of Tho-han-bwa. Most of his relations and nobles fled, 
some to Prome, and some to Toungii. Thus died king Na-ra-pa-ti,' 
after a reign of twenty -five years. 

The Mo-nhyin chief was now master of what remained of the 
kingdom of Ava. He stated that he did not wish to reign himself, 



1869.] On the History of the Burma race. 57 

and retired to his own state. His son Tho-han-bwa now assumed 
the title of king of Ava. His father persuaded Ran-noung, a nephew 
of the late king's, and a Burmese noble of much experience and 
ability, to become chief minister. The various provinces which still 
remained, were placed under Burmese and Shan governors. Tho- 
han-bwa, against the advice of his minister, desired to attack both 
Toungu and Prome. The king of Prome, Tha-do-meng-tsau, had 
died, and was succeeded by his son Bhu-reng Htwe. In the same 
year also died Bi-ngya-ran, king of Pegu, and was succeeded by his 
son, Thu-sheng-ta-ga-rwut-pi. 

In the year 892 died Meng-kyi-ngyo, king of Toung-u, who had 
reigned there for forty-five years. He was succeeded by his son 
Meng-ta-ra Shwe-hti, whose fortunes will hereafter be connected with 
the Ava kingdom. 

In 894, Tsa-lun of Mo-nhyin, father to the king of Ava, marched 
down with an army, and he and his son proceeded to Prome. Bhu- 
reng Htwe, the king of that city, sent his family away towards Arakan, 
and shut himself up in the city. He was unable to resist the large 
force brought against him, and was taken prisoner and carried to 
Ava. Tsalun carried him away towards Mo-nhyin ; but on the road, 
he himself fell a victim to a conspiracy of the chiefs under him, and 
Bhureng Htwe escaped. He returned to Prome. But there his son 
had become king with the title of Na-ra-pa-ti ; and shut the gates 
against him. He died in the adjoining forests of Na-weng. This 
Na-ra-pa-ti of Prome had married a daughter of Shwe-nan-sheng 
Na-ra-pa-ti of Ava. From this time until the year 900 (A. D. 1538), 
Tho-han-bwa, appears to have maintained himself without any 
material alteration. 

In that year, the king of Toung-u, Meng-ta-ra Shwe-hti, attacked 
the king of Pegu, who fled and took refuge with his brother-in-law, 
the king of Prome. From this time the fortunes of the kings of 
Ava, of Prome, and Pegu were inseparably connected, until they 
were entirely overborne by the power of the king of Toung-u. 

The Ma-ha-Ba-dza-weng now proceeds to trace the history of that 
hitherto obscure state. Toung-ii is the name given to a district 
lying about the middle of the course of the Poung-loung, a small 
river, the basin of which lies between the Irawati and the Sal- win. 



58 On the History of the Burma race. [No. 2, 

The extent of this district was originally not greater than from 
seventy to eighty miles from north to south, with a breadth of about 
half that distance. On the east of the valley are high mountains, 
where the wild Karen tribes are still numerous, and probably from 
a very remote period held independent sway. The mountains on the 
west barely exceed one thousand feet elevation, and the Karen tribes 
are now scarcely to be found there. Gradually Talaing colonists 
from the south, and Burmese from the north, appear to have occupied 
the valley of the middle Poung-loung, leaving the hills to the Karens. 
But for safety, these colonists appear to have had strongholds in the 
lower hills on the western side of the valley. One of these, which 
was occupied on the Ka-boung stream, a tributary of the Poung-loung, 
was called in the Burmese language, Toung-ngd, from its position on a 
projecting mountain point, and this name has been transferred to the 
city, afterwards built in the plain, and to the whole district. As 
long as the seat of the Burmese monarchy was at Pu-gan, Toungii 
was not much interfered with, but when the capital had been trans- 
ferred to Pan-ya, the Shan dynasty appear to have been more 
attracted to it. In the year 679, Thi-ha-thu Ta-tsi-sheng sent his 
son 17-za-na Kyau-tswa. to this district ; he occupied the then existing 
city, and probably brought Burmese or Shan settlers with him. Later 
a chief from Pegu, but probably of Shan descent, Pyan-kyi-gyi 
became king. But after this, a Burmese adventurer Moung-phau-ka 
was raised to power, and from this time the kings of Ava looked upon 
the country as part of their dominion. But the governors were 
frequently independent, aud by allying themselves alternately with 
the Burmese or the Talaings, managed to maintain a position, which 
the natural strength or wealth of the country could not otherwise 
have sustained. 

It has already been mentioned that when Du-ti-ya Meng 
Khoung, king of Ava, came to the throne, in the year 842 
(A. D. 1480), the ruler of Toung-ii was Tsi-tha-kyau-hteng. He 
had a brother, the governor of Ba-mai-then, who had married 
a grand niece of Mo-nhyin Meng-ta-ra, the Shan chief, who had 
seized the throne of Ava in the year 788. The family also claimed 
to be descended from U'-za-na, the son of Kyau-tswa, the deposed 
king of Pugan, who had reigned at Pan-ya after the death of his 



1869.] On the History of the Burma race. 69 

adopted father Thi-ha-thu Ta-tsi-sheng ; and also from the half 
brother of that king, Nga-tsi-sheng. The family may be considered 
as originally Shan, which now had almost become Burman. The 
governor of Ra-mai-then had a son Meng-kyi-ngyo, who was sent to 
Toung-ii to be under his uncle Tsi-thu-kyau-hteng. The uncle is 
described as a man of a more savage disposition than even at that 
time was usual. He decided to break off connection with the king 
of Ava, and entered into friendship with the king of Pegu. His 
nephew Meng-kyi-ngyo conspired against him, and put him to death. 
He then succeeded him in the government of Toungu, and at once 
proclaimed himself king in the year 847, being A. D. 1485, He now 
assumed the title of Ma-ha-thi-ri-clze-ya-thu-ra. He soon became so 
powerful, that his alliance was sought by the kings of Pegu and Siam. 
In the year 853, he built a new city or fort in a secure position, which 
he called Dwa-ra-wa-ti. He became involved in a quarrel with the 
king of Pegu consequent on border disputes, and his city was attack- 
ed, but he defeated the assailants. In the year 863, some nobles who 
had been in rebellion against the king of Ava, fled and took refuge 
in Toung-ii. This produced a war, in which the army of Ava was 
defeated. In 866, as already mentioned, the king of Toung-u made a 
league with the king of Prome, Tha-do-meng-tsau, against Ava, in 
support of two rebel chiefs. In the following year their forces 
advanced up the Irawati, to support the rebellion of the king of 
Ava's brothers at Pa-khan-gyi. But the rebellion had been crushed 
before his troops reached the scene of operations. The king of 
Toung-u now felt strong enough to build a new city in a more con- 
venient place than that hitherto occupied. The new city of Toung-u 
was therefore built in the year 872 (A. D. 1510) on the west bank 
of the Poung-loung, and in the midst of the most extensive and 
most fertile plain of the whole territory. The city was called in 
Pa-li, Ke-tu-ma-ti. It is the custom of the Burmese, Shans, and 
Takings, to have a Pali as well as a vernacular name for their cities 
and districts, which is used in all official documents. A more ancient 
name for the territory of Toung-u was Dze-ya-wa-ta-na. 

The king of Toung-u appears to have extended his influence and 
territory towards the north, as the power of the king of Ava declined. 
In the year 888, when the Mo-nhyin Tsau-bwa conquered Ava, many 



60 On the History of the Burma race. [No. 2, 

of the Burmese nobles fled to Toung-u, and the king of that territory 
may now be said to have become the representative of the ancient 
Burmese monarchy. King Ma-ha-thi-ri-dze-ya-thu-ra died in the 
year 892 (A. D. 1530). 

The son who succeeded him was Ta-beng Shwe-hti, then only six- 
teen years of age. He is called in the history Meng-ta-ra" Shwe-hti. 
From his birth many prodigies had announced his great destiny. In 
the history, in accordance with the strange application of the doctrine 
of transmigration to account for the actions of great conquerors, 
which has been noticed before, this prince is represented as the 
transmigrated prince of Pegu, Meng-rai-kyau-tswa, son of Dham-ma- 
tse'-di, king of that country, who was unjustly put to death by his 
father. When dying, he exclaimed, " If innocent, may I be born as a 
" Burmese prince, and subdue, rule over, and oppress the three 
" Tabling provinces." And so it came to pass. The young kino- 
from an irresistible internal influence, determined to invade and 
conquer Pegu. 

At this time, the capital of that kingdom was at Mut-ta-ma (Mar- 
taban). That city was occupied as the seat of power, about the year 
713 (A. D. 1351), by a Shan chief, styled Tsheng-phyii-sheng Bi- 
ngya-u. The ancient Tabling kingdom, which had its capital at the 
city of Pegu, was overthrown, and the seat of government removed 
to Mut-ta-ma. In the year 888, Thu-sheng-ta-ga-rwut-bi ascended 
the throne. In 896 (A. D. 1531), the young king of Toun«--u first 
marched against Pegu. The city was defended by two Shan nobles. 
Bi-ngya-lau, and Bi-ngya-kyan. They held it so obstinately that 
Meng-ta-ra Shwe-hti was forced to retreat. In the following year, he 
again invested it. But from the walls of the city, the foreigners and 
Muhammadans, called " Kula Pan-the," fired so incessantly with jinjals 
and blunderbusses, and wounded and killed so many, that the king was 
again obliged to retire, especially as the rainy season was nigh. In 
898, he again invaded Pegu. The king of Pegu now met him in the 
plain of Kau-la-ya to the north of the city, but was defeated. The 
city, however, could not be taken. The king of Toung-ii therefore 
passed it by, and marched to Da-gun, the modern Rangoon, and from 
thence, sent detachments, which took possession of Pu-thein, Myoung- 
niya, and other cities in the delta of the Irawati. Still he could not 



i860.] On the History of the Burma race. 61 

retain Lis position, and as the rainy season approached he once more 
returned to Toung-u, 

The following year the king of Pegu sent a humble letter to Meng- 
ta-ra Shwe-hti, proposing peace and friendship. The hearers of this 
letter were the two Shan nobles, Bi-ngya-lau, and Bi-ngya-kyau, who 
had defended the city of Pegu. The king received them kindly, but 
would give no reply. As they could obtain no reply, they returned 
to their own master. Their king became suspicious of them, and 
Meng-ta-ra Shwe-hti now had recourse to a deep artifice. He caused 
a letter to be inscribed on a scroll of gold as follows : " The king of 
" Dze-ya-wa-ta-na Ke tu-ma-ti informs his uncles Bi-ngya-lau and 
* Bi-ngya-ran that, when the affair as before agreed is settled, Bi- 
-ngya-lau shall be appointed govornor of Han-tha-\va-ti (Pegu), and 
" Bi-ngya-kyan of Mut-ta-ma (Martaban), and so be ye diligent in 
" my royal service." This scroll being enclosed in a cloth bag and 
placed in a basket, was entrusted to two bold and clever messengers 
with several followers. They proceeded into the Pegu territory, and 
at one of the border villages, having entered in a friendly manner, 
they after a time managed to get into a dispute with the head of the 
village regarding the provisions brought them. This gradually led 
to a serious quarrel, and the messengers, as a large number of the 
Talaing villagers assumed, fled, leaving behind them their baggage and 
the basket which contained the king's letter. The villagers took 
everything to their headman, and all was brought to the king of 
Pegu. The letter was now discovered and without any inquiry, the 
two noblemen were put to death. The king of Toung-u now again 
attacked the city of Pegu, and took it after a slight resistance. The 
king of Pegu determined to retire to his brother-in-law, the king of 
Prome, and proceeded up the river. The king of Toung-u now con- 
sulted with his nobles, as to whether it would be better to follow on 
to Prome or to march against Mut-ta-ma. It was decided to do the 
former. The king's principal general was Kyau-hteng Nau-ra-hta, 
who was also his brother-in-law. He was distantly connected by 
blood with Meng-ta-ra Shwe-hti, and was said to be descended from 
one of the former kings, or governors, of Toung-u. This general led 
the forces of the king to Noung-ro, where the king of Pegu had 
collected an army. Kyau-hteng attacked and utterly defeated that 
9 



62 On the History of the Burma race. [No. 2, 

army. The king of Pegu then fled with his whole family to Prome, 
where he was received by the king Na-ra-pa-ti. 

King Meng-ta-ra Shwe-hti was profuse in his acknowledgments to 
his general, and bestowed upon him the title of Bhu-reng Noung, 
intimating that he would be king hereafter. It was now determined 
to pursue the king of Pegu to Prome, and here the history once 
more is linked with the fortunes of the king of Ava, Tho-h'an-bwa, 
which for a time were dropped, in order to trace the events which 
brought the king of Toungu from Pegu up the Irawati to Prome. 

The king of Prome hearing that he was to be attacked, had per- 
suaded Tho-han-bwa, king of Ava, to support him. That king came 
down the river with a large army of Shans. They and the fugitive 
king of Pegu met at Prome, and took an oath of fidelity to each 
other. Near Prome, the flotillas of the contending powers had an 
engagement, in which the allies were defeated, and some of their 
principal officers were taken prisoners. Meng-ta-ra Shwe-hti either 
did not then feel himself strong enough to retain Prome, or more 
urgent affairs called him to Pegu ; for he now led his army back to 
that country. « The king of Pegu, Thi-sheng-ta-ga-rwut-bi now desired 
his allies to invade Pegu. But they were unwilling to do so. He 
therefore proceeded himself with a small force, but lost his life in the 
jungal. King Tho-han-bwji returned to Ava, taking with him the 
children of the king of Pegu. Soon after, the king of Prome, Na-ra- 
pa-ti died, and was succeeded by his younger brother Sheng Tha-ret, 
who took the title of Meng Khoung. His sister, the widow of the 
king of Pegu, was sent to Arakan, where she married the king of that 
country. 

After the death of Thu-sheng-ta-ga-rwut-bi, all the Talaing nobles 
in Pegu submitted to Meng-ta-ra Shwe-hti. He provided for the 
most worthy by appointing them to 'the different districts. But 
Mut-ta-ma (Martaban) still held out. The brother-in-law of the late 
king, Tsau-bi-ngya, governed that province, and refused to submit to 
the conqueror. The king therefore marched with a large army to 
take the city. On arrival, he found the difficulties enormous. Situ- 
ated near the mouth of a great river, or an arm of the sea, it was 
defended with numerous guns ; and the Ku-la Pan-the (Foreigners 
and Muhammadans), some on the city walls, and some on board seven 



1869.] On the History of the, Burma race. 63 

ships, heavily armed, anchored before the city, were ready to defend 
it. It was in the year 902 (A. D. 1540) that the king besieged 
Mut-ta-ma. Bhureng Noung commanded all the forces under the 
immediate orders of the king. The boats brought from Pegu were 
useless ; they could effect nothing against the ships. And provisions 
could not be kept from entering the city, so that the garrison could 
not be starved. The king of Mut-ta-ma being encouraged by the 
foreigners would not submit. Meng-ta-ra Shwe-hti, however, suc- 
ceeded in drawing to his side the governor of Maulamyaing (Maul- 
main), and through his assistance he had several large rafts of timber 
constructed, which were piled high with dry bamboos. These were 
made ready up the river and set afloat to drift down with the" tide. 
When completely on fire, they were directed to where the ships lay, 
and amidst the great confusion which ensued, three large and four 
small vessels were burnt. While this was going on, the land army 
assaulted and took the city. Immense plunder was taken, which the 
soldiers were allowed to keep, the king only reserving for himself 
munitions of war. All who resisted or had arms, were killed, but the 
king by proclamation forbade the soldiers to kill the men of rank. 
The governor Tsau-bi-ngya, was taken prisoner, and appointed to be 
governor of Myoung-mya ; and the other nobles of the city received 
what was appropriate. The governor of Maulamyaing was liberally 
rewarded. He swore allegiance to Meng-ta-ra Shwe-hti, and was 
confirmed in his previous government of the country, east of the 
Salwin river. Care was taken to have guards placed on the frontier, 
to watch Zim-may and Siam. 

Having made these arrangements, the king returned to Han-tha- 
wa-ti (Pegu), where he was solemnly consecrated king of his new 
dominions. The city now received some additions to make the forti- 
fications more complete. 

When Meng-ta-ra Shwe'-hti left Toung-u, Meng-rai-thing-ga-thu, 
the father of Bhureng Noung, had been appointed governor. The 
king regarding him as his own father, gave him the title of king, 
with regalia and a palace. He was thenceforth known as Meng-rai 
Thi-ha-thu, tributary king of Ke-tu-ma-ti. 

In the year 903, Meng-ta-ra Shwe-hti proceeded with a great 
retinue to Da-gun, made rich offerings, and crowned the building with 



64 On the History of the Burma race. [No. 2, 

a kingly crown. Having feasted the clergy and laity, he returned to 
Han-tha-wa-ti, and informed Bhureng Noung that he would march 
to Prome after the month Tha-den-gwyut (October), and charged 
him to make all the necessary preparations. A large army and fleet 
of boats were prepared, including some boats armed with guns. The 
city of Pegu was left in charge of Tha-do-dham-ma Ra-clza, brother 
of Bhureng Noung, and Thet-she-kyau-hteng. The whole of the 
war arrangements were under the direction of Bhureng Noung, and 
the army moved by land and water from the city of Pegu in the 
month Ta-tsoung-mun (November). 

In the meantime, Meng Khoung, king of Prome, was exerting 
himself to resist the formidable force which had been gathered 
against him. Tho-han-bwa, king of Ava, felt that his own safety 
depended upon supporting Prome. He collected an army, and sup- 
ported by the Tsau-bwas of Un-boung, Mo-meit, and Mo-nhyin, 
marched down to Prome. The king of Arakan also having been 
applied to for help, sent a land column across the hills from Than- 
dwai (Sandoway) under his brother; while another force was sent by 
sea, round Cape Negrais to penetrate up the Bassein river, and so 
cause a diversion. 

Meng-ta-ra Shwe-hti having reached Prome with his fleet and 
army, remained at a little distance to avoid loss from the guns. 
Hearing that the king of Ava, with the northern Shans, was moving 
down, he sent half of his army to the northern side of the city under 
Bhureng Noung, who suddenly attacked them about one march 
distant from the city. They were completely routed, the guns of 
Bhureng Noung doing great execution. The Shan army fled to Ava, 
and there the Tsau-bwas proposed making an attack on Toung-u, 
but nothing was done, and they returned to their own countries. 

The city of Prome was closely invested, but was too strong to be 
taken quickly. A letter was now intercepted from the brother of the 
king of Arakan to the king of Prome announcing his arrival, and 
that he was about five marches distant. A feigned reply was once 
sent together with guides, and Bhureng Noung was despatched with 
a force to attack the Arakanese army. Taken by surprise, they were 
defeated and utterly dispersed, being only saved from destruction by 
the hilly country, which favoured their flight. The son of the king 



1869.] On the History of the Burma race. 65 

of Arakan who had come with the boats by sea, hearing of the 
defeat of his uncle, returned home. The king of Prome being thus 
left entirely to his own resources, and the citizens and soldiers suf- 
fering from want of food, at length surrendered in the month Na-gun 
904 (June 1542, A. D.). King Meng Khoung with his queen and 
concubines were sent to Toung-u. Tha-do-dhani-ma Ra-dza, one of 
the brothers of Ehureng Noung, was made tributary king of Prome, 
being invested with the usual regalia. Meng-ta-ra Shwe-hti having 
made arrangements for the government of the country, placed garri- 
sons in such places as required protection, and returned to Han-tha- 
wa-ti. A number of the nobles, officers and soldiers of Prome, w T ere 
brought away. 

At Ava, the defeat of king Tho-han-bwa had increased his diffi- 
culties. His Shan followers had always been hated by the Burmese, 
| whom they cruelly oppressed. In the palace there were both Shan 
and Burmese guards. The Shan officers had long wished to clear 
the palace of all Burmese. The latter depended upon Meng-gyi 
Ran-noung, who supported their interests. The wicked character of 
' Tho-han-bwa caused him to be hated, and facilitated a conspiracy 
1 against his life. While he was living at a summer palace, the Burmese 
1 nobles and guards were suddenly set upon and killed, and the king 
himself was seen no more. This occurred the month before Prome 
was surrendered. This king's character is thus drawn in the Ma-ha 
Ra-dza- weng : " He was of a cruel and savage disposition. He 
"spared not men's lives. He respected not the three treasures. 
u Pagodas, he used to say, are not the Phra, but merely fictitious 
" vaults in which the Burmese deposit gold, silver, and jewels ; so he 
" dug into and rifled those shrines of their treasures. The Phun- 
" gyis too, he used to say, having no wives and children, under 
u pretence of gathering disciples, collect guards round them, ready 
. " to rise in rebellion. So he built a number of sheds on the plain of 
" Toung-ba-lu, and pretending to do honour to the Phun-gyis, invited 
a all those round Ava, Tsagaing, and Pan-ya to a feast. Then sur- 
11 rounding them with an army, he had them all slaughtered. He then 
" seized all the books in their monasteries, and had them burnt. But 
" some of the Shans had pity on the Phun-gyis, and many thus 
" escaped to Prome and Toung-u. More than three hundred and 
r sixty were killed, but more than a thousand escaped." 



66 On the History of the Burma race. [No. 2, 

On the death of Tho-han-bwa, the Burmese wished Meng-gyi Ran- 
noung to become king. But he refused, and recommended them to 
choose the Tsau-bwa, of Un-boung, named Khun-mhaing-ngai, who 
was a relation to the late king Shwe-nan-sheng Na-ra-pa-ti. The 
Tsau-bwa accepted the invitation, and came to Ava. He ascended 
the palace in the year 904. Ran-noung became chief minister, but 
after about a year, wearied with worldly affairs, he became a Ra-han 
in the province of Mek-kha-ia. Khun-mhaing-ngai determined to 
attack the new king of Prome. He was supported by seven powerful 
Tsau-bwas, and in the month Nat-dau 905 (November 1543), they 
proceeded by land and water against that city. The tributary king 
of Prome, Tha-do-dham-ma Ra-dza, had no force sufficient to meet 
them in the field, so he shut himself up in Prome, which was well de- 
fended with guns. As soon as Meng-ta-ra Shwe-hti heard of this 
attack, he came to the rescue with a large army. The Shans 
were defeated near Prome, and Bhureng Noung followed them up 
the river Irawati, as far as the city of Pu-gan, which was captured. 
Governors were appointed to all the provinces which were occupied 
above Prome, and having made such arrangements for future security 
as seemed advisable, Meng-ta-ra Shwe-hti returned to Pegu, which he 
reached in the month Wa-goung 906 (August 1544, A. D.) 

The governors who had been appointed to Tsa-leng and other 
districts, had desultory fighting with the officers of the king of Ava. 
But the confusion among the northern Tsau-bwas became daily worse. 
The son of the Tsau-bwa of Mo-nhyin, named Tsa-lun-ngai, leagued 
with Kyau-hten, who had been governor of Tsa-leng, and enabled 
him to take possession of Tsa-gaing, where he set himself up as king 
in the year 907. In the same year died Khun-mhaing-ngai after a 
reign of three years. He was succeeded by his son, who had been 
Tsau-bwa of Mo-bye. He took the title of Na-ra-pa-ti. This king 
did not join with his kinsmen, the Shan chiefs, but entered into 
friendly relations with Meng-ta-ra Shwe-hti. He strove also to con- 
ciliate the ruler of Tsa-gaing, Kyau-hteng. This ruler urged on by 
the Tsau-bwa of Mo-nhyin, named Tsa-lun, gradually collected forces 
with the view of attacking Ava, His measures were complete by 
the year 913 (A. D. 1551), when he had a large force and a fleet, to 
cross the river and attack Ava. The king Mo-bye-meng, however, 



1869.] On the History of tlie Burma race. 67 

would not wait an attack. He fled from his palace, and took refuge 
with Bhureng Noung, who then had succeeded Meng-ta-ra Shw£-hti. 
The Tsa-gaing chief Kyau-hteng now took undisputed possession of 
Ava, and ascended the throne in the year 913. 

We must now relate the events which had occurred in the kingdom 
of Pegu since Meng-ta-ra Shwe-hti returned there from Prome in the 
year 906. That king now turned his attention to settling the in- 
ternal affairs of his kingdom. He beautified the capital, and built 
monasteries and other religious works. He adopted several of the 
customs and the dress of the former Talaing royal family. In the 
year 907, he was solemnly consecrated as king, having a crown like 
that used by the Talaing kings, but with all other paraphernalia like 
those formerly used by the Burmese and Talaing kings. Meng-rai- 
Thi-ha-thu, the king of Toung-u, was present at this ceremony ; and 
his son Bhureng Noung appeared as Ein-she-meng or Crown -Prince. 
All the nobles received magnificent presents from the bounty of the 
king, and the whole kingdom was full of joy. 

About this time the king of Arakan died, and his son U'-ba-Ha-dza 
succeeded him. His brother, who was governor of Than-dwai 
(Sandoway), was discontented. He came with presents to the king of 
Han-tha-wa-ti, and asked for assistance to gain the kingdom of 
Arakan. Meng-ta-ra Shwe-hti promised himself to go with an army. 
Both a land force and a fleet were put in motion in the month Ta- 
tshoung-mon 908 (November 1546, A. D.). The town of Than- 
dwai was occupied. The Arakanese retreated, and the Burmese army 
marched on to the capital city, Arakan. The king found the city too 
strong to be taken, but he entered into a negociation with Ma-ha 
Dham-ma-rit, the king of Arakan, by which the king's uncle was 
recognized as governor of Sandoway. The king of Pegu then 
returned to his own country. 

While he was in Arakan, the king of Siam had marched an army 
and taken possession of Dha-way (Tavoy). The king of Pegu 
ordered his officers to drive them out, and this having been done, he 
seriously meditated a march on Siam. Having assembled his army 
and made all preparations, he left the city of Pegu in the month of 
Ta-tshoung-mon 910 (November 1548, A. D.), and proceeded to Mut- 
ta-ma. All the arrangements as usual were under the direction 



68 



On the History of the Burma race. 



[No. 2, 



of Bhureng Noung. The army advanced with great difficulties 
and much fighting to the capital of Siam. The general, Bhureng 
Noung, was indefatigable in his exertions, and his son, a boy of thirteen 
years, greatly distinguished himself. But the capital city was most 
difficult to operate against, on account of the streams and water 
channels round it. The Kula Pan-the people also were there with 
ships and guns. Seeing that great delay would occur, and fearing a 
want of provisions, the king determined to retreat. Much fighting 
took place in effecting this. The son-in-law of the king of Siam had 
been taken prisoner in a skirmish. This led to negociations, and 
according to the history, the king of Siam agreed to pay tribute. 
Two of his brothers were sent to the camp of Meng-ta ra Shwe-hti 
to enter into arrangements. The Siamese prisoners were released, 
and the Burmo-Talaing army retired. This expedition occupied 
five months. 

The history now relates a curious incident in the life of Meng-ta-ra 
Shwe-hti, which appears to have had an evil influence upon him, and 
eventually led to his death. It is told as follows : " This powerful 
" and wise king, by associating with a false heretical Kula Ba-reng-gyi 
" (Foreigner-Feringi) deviated from the virtuous conduct becoming 
" a king. This Ku-la Ba-reng-gyi was the nephew of Peits-tsa-rit 
" Meng, and had been sent with seven ships and one hundred larger 
" vessels to attack Acheen. He took in guns, powder, and balls, at 
" Ma-li-ka (Malacca), but was defeated by the Acheen chief and 
" forced to retreat. He came to Muttama with a few vessels, and 
" was made prisoner by the governor, who sent him to Meng-ta-ra 
" Shwe-hti. The king soon became familiar with the youth, gave 
" him a house to live in, and bestowed upon him in marriage one of 
" the female attendants of the palace. This young woman, after 
" having learnt how to prepare dishes, according to the Kula method, 
" was accustomed to present such eatables to the king. Not only that, 
11 but wine and sweet intoxicating drinks, were also presented, of 
11 which the king became very fond. At last the Kula was wished to 
" live in the palace. From constantly drinking these liquors the 
" disposition of the king became changed from good to bad. He 
"gave contradictory and absurd orders. He attributed wrong motives 
" to innocent men, and ordered them to be put to death. At length 



lS69i] On the History of the Burma race. 69 

" Blm-reng Noung with the concurrence of all the nobles, Shan, 
" Burman, and Talaing, took the guidance of affairs into his. own 
" hands, and putting the nephew of Peits-tsa-rit into a ship, with his 
" property, and giving him gold and silver, sent him away to the 
u Kula country." From this time Meng-ta-ra Shwe-hti had little 
more than nominal authority. 

In the year 910, the father of Bhureng Noung who was king of Toung- 
li died. His title was Meng-rai Thi-ha-thu. He was succeeded by one of 
his younger sons, and there was bestowed on him the title of Thi-ha-thu. 
He is also called Meng Khoung. Bhureng Noung having now become 
the virtual ruler, his descent is carefully traced in the history. On 
the father's side he was descended from Meng-khoung-ngai, who was 
governor of Toung-u, and was killed in the year 813. This Meng- 
khoung-ngai was the son, or younger brother, of Ta-ra-bya who had also 
been governor of Toungu and who was of Shan descent. Bhureng 
Noung's mother was said to be descended from a half brother of 
Nga-tsi-sheng Kyau-tswa, king of Pan-ya. Bhureng Noung had 
two brothers, Meng-rai-tsi-thii, who afterwards became king of Mut- 
ta-ma ; and Tha-do-dham-ma, who became king of Prome. There 
were also two sisters. After their mother's death, their father had 
married her younger sister, and had two sons by that marriage, 
Bhureng Meng Khoung, who became king of Toungu, and Meng-rai 
Kyau-hteng, called Tha-do-meng-tsau, who became king of Ava. 
The family was originally of Shan descent. Having been settled for 
three or four generations at Toung-u, it had become Burmese in 
national feeling. 

In the year 911, a son of Bi-ngya-ran, the deposed king of Pegu 
by an inferior wife, rebelled, and took the title of Tha-mein-htau- 
ra-ma. He got together a force, and took possession of the fort of 
Ma-kau. Bhureng-noung-dau without delay took measures against 
him. He was defeated and fled, but managed to gain possession of 
the fort of Than-lyeng (Syriani), and remained there secure. But he 
was soon obliged to abandon the place, when a force was brought 
against it, and fled to the westward. Bhureng Noung followed him 
up, and fixed his head quarters at Da-la. At this time the tributary 
king of Toung-u, Thi-ha-thu was in charge of the city of Pegu. 
A Talaing nobleman, Tha-mein-tsau-dwut had been appointed go- 
10 



TO On the History of the Burma race. [No. 2, 

vernor of Tsit-toung (Sit-tang), but was now in charge of the 
palace and the royal person. The king Meng-ta-ra Shwe-hti wa 
staying at a country palace, at a place called Pan-ta-rau. A report 
was spread of a white elephant having appeared, and the king was 
induced to go out into the jungal. Tha-mein-tsau-dwut now ma- 
naged to send away those about the king on whom he could not 
depend, and at night in the month Ka-tshun 912 (May 1550, A. D.), 
he killed Meng-ta-ra Shwe-hti. He had reigned twenty years and 
was thirty-six years old. The chief lla-han performed his funeral 
rites, and collecting the bones, placed them in a golden vase, which 
he buried in an undefiled spot. 

In the mean time, Tha-mein-tsau-dwut killed some of the nobles 
about the king; drew others to his side, and then withdrew to Tsit- 
toung, where he assumed the title of king. He took the title of 
Tha-mein-tsek*ka-wau. Bhureng Noung was at Da-la hunting 
down the followers of Tha-mein-htau-ra-ma in the difficult country 
of the delta. His younger half brother Thi-ha-thii called round him 
his followers, and marched from Pegu city to Toung-ii. Tha-mein- 
tsau-dwut at once occupied the city of Pegu. Tha-do-dham-ma 
Ra-dza, tributary king of Prome, changing his title to Tha-do-thu, 
declared himself independent. All the cities and districts at the 
Irawati river beyond Prome as far as Pu-gan remained under their 
own governors. Bhureng Noung now consulted all the Shan, Taking, 
and Burmese nobles who remained faithful to him. It was determined 
to march to Toung-ii as the place where Bhureng Noung could best 
collect his forces, and where he possessed most strength and influence. 
"Whereas " Da-la in the midst of the Taking country, was like a 
" wasp's nest, into which the hand had better not be put." He im- 
mediately put himself in motion. His wife who was in the city of Pegu, 
managed to escape and joined him. When he arrived near Toung-u, 
his brother Thi-ha-thu made no advances to him, but remained 
sullenly within the city. Bhureng Noung patiently waited in his 
camp watching events. At Pegu, the usurper Tha-mein-tsau-dwut 
did not long give satisfaction to the Taking nobles. They therefore 
deposed him, and called in Tha-mein-htau-ra-ma who, by this time, 
had set himself up at Mut-ta-ma. These events induced several Shan 
chiefs, who did not wish to serve a Taking king, to come with their 



1809.] On the History of the Burma race. 71 

followers and join Bhureng Nonng. Some chiefs also came to him 
from Toung-u. At length he found himself strong enough to attack 
that city. But he was obliged to proceed to reduce it by starvation. 
At the end of four months, the city was surrendered ; no plundering 
was allowed ; his brother was pardoned, and Bhureng Noung was 
consecrated as king, with the title of Tsheng-phyii-mya-sheng Meng- 
ta-ra-gyi. His former title of Bhureng Noung will, however, be 
retained in this narrative. 

The king now considered that his best plan was to make himself 
master of Proine, where another of his brothers was king. He 
marched his army across the hills from Toungu; but arrived on the 
banks of the Irawati, he found himself at a loss for boats, while 
Tha-do-thu had a large fleet. The city was too strong to be attacked. 
The king therefore leaving it marched on to Mye-dai, which submitted, 
as did Ma-lwun and other cities higher up the river. There he 
gained a large addition to his army and a fleet of boats. He there- 
fore returned to Prome, and re-invested the city. Some of the officers 
in command were now in communication with Bhureng Noung, and 
the city gates were opened to him. The king pardoned his brother 
Tha-do-dham-ma-Ra-dza, and he was reinstated as tributary king of 
Prome.* The whole country on the Irawati, as far down as Dha- 
nii-byii (Downebew), submitted to Bhureng Noung. It was now 
the year 913, and from the events which were occurring at Ava, the 
king of that city, Mo-bye'-meng, had fled to take refuge. The king 
marched up the country, and penetrated nearly to Ava, which he 
intended to attack. But news reached him that preparations were 
being made to attack Toungu from Pegu. He lost not a moment, 
but marched back as far as Mye-dai. From thence he despatched his 
brother Meng-rai-kyau-hteng with a force across the hills, and himself 
proceeded down to Prome. There he collected an army to invade 
Pegu, of which his brother Tha-do-dham-ma Ba-dza was made com- 
mander-in-chief. He, however, marched to Toung-u, taking Mo-bye- 
meng with him. 

* The Ma-ha-Ra-dza-weng wishes to make it appear that Tha-do-thu who 
held out Prome against Bhureng Noung-, was not his brother, but some one else 
who assumed the name. I have considered it most consistent with the whole 
narrative to assume that Tha-do-thu was the brother, and that like the other 
brother at Toungu, his rebellion was pardoned. 



72 On the History of the Burma race. [No. 2, 

At Toung-u, he made all arrangements to march against Pegu, and 
left in the month Ta-gii 913 (April 1551). His brothers Meng 
Khoung and Meng-rai-kyau-hteng accompanied him. He defeated 
the Talaing usurper, Tha-mein-htau-ra-ma, entered the city of Pegu, 
and the Talaing nobles submitted to him. The Talaing usurper, after 
taking refuge at Pu-thein, fled from that place to Mut-ta-ma, and 
became a Ra-han. Bhureng Noung who had followed him to Pu- 
thein, then returned to Pegu city, where he built a house on the site 
where he had formerly lived. He now took measures for settling the 
country, and called his brothers around him. These were Meng 
Khoung, Tha-do-dham-ma Ra-dza, Meng-rai-kyau-hteng, and Meng- 
rai Tsi-thu. He repaired all the pagodas and monasteries which had 
been injured during the troubles, and made suitable offerings at the 
grave of Meng-ta-ra-Shwe'-hti. His brother; Meng-rai Tsi-thu, was 
now made tributary king of Mut-ta-ma, and received the regalia. Tha- 
do-dham-ma Ra-dza received regalia as tributary king of Prome. 
Meng Khoung received regalia as tributary king of Toungu. He 
rewarded munificently all his officers, Barman, Talaing, and Shan, 
and the country and the people began to be quiet and satisfied. In 
Mut-ta-ma, .however, though the Talaing usurper had become a Ra-han, 
and fled to the border of Siam, he again appeared, collected a few 
followers, and proclaimed himself king. He was again defeated, and 
after wandering about in the jungles, was taken in the month Ta-gii 
914 (April 1552). He was put to death. 

Bhureng Noung now called a council to consider and decide upon 
his future measures. He was careful to assemble round him his 
brothers and principal officers, Burmese, Talaing, and Shan. The 
council was in favour of a march upon Ava, to establish there the 
government of Bhureng Noung. An army and flotilla were collected, 
which moved by water from Pegu in the month of Wa-tsho 915 
(July 1553). The command of this force was given to Ma-ha U-ba- 
Ra-dza, the king's son, but on account of his youth an officer of 
experience was sent, who was really responsible. This expedition would 
appear to have been intended rather to reconnoitre than to attack. 
The king of Ava, styled Tsa-gaing Tsi-thu Kyau hteng, had made 
great preparations to defend his capital. An army of Shans, chiefly 
from the country to the east of the upper Irawati, was stationed 



1869.] On the History of the Burma race. 73 

close to the city. Another army composed of the contingents of the 
western Shans and other troops, was encamped at Ta-rnk-myo on the 
bank of the Irawati, about fifty miles below the capital. The 
invading army on reaching Pu-gan heard such reports of the de- 
fensive measures that had been adopted, that the commanders 
considered it prudent to report to the king the state of affairs, and 
await further orders. The result was, that the army under Ma-ha 
U'-ba-Ra-dza retired. 

Bhureng Noung now made more strenuous exertions. He collected 
men and provisions from all parts of the wide territory subject to 
him. In Pegu and Martaban a vast number of war-boats, and vessels 
of every description as transports, were constructed and collected. 
While this work went on, the city of Pegu was improved and a 
palace built. In the month Wa-tsho of the year 916, the son and 
nephew of the king of Arakan came, and took refuge with Bhureng 
Noung. He received them with great favour. The former he 
married to the daughter of his brother Meng-rai-tsi-thu, king of Mut- 
ta-ma, and gave him the title of Thi-ri-dham-ma-thau-ka. The 
latter, named Slieng-rai-myo, he married to one of his own daughters, 
and gave him the city of Ta-mau for his support. 

The whole of the arrangements for the invasion of Ava were now 
complete. The strength of the army and flotilla is stated to have 
been as follows : The flotilla was to proceed up the river Irawati. 
It consisted of six hundred large boats and war-boats ; three hundred 
lighter row boats ; and of five hundred provision boats ; one hundred and 
twenty thousand soldiers accompanied the flotilla, of whom a portion 
was distributed on board the boats ; while the rest apparently marched 
from point to point to keep company with the flotilla. The water 
force was under the command of the tributary king ot Prome, Tha- 
do-dham-ma, Ba-dza. 

The land column of the army of invasion is stated to have con- 
sisted of one hundred and eighty thousand soldiers, with eight 
hundred elephants, and nine thousand horses. This included a corps 
of four hundred Ku-la soldiers, wearing caps, uniforms, and trowsers, 
and armed with muskets. Their place in the line of march was in 
front and rear of the royal elephant. This army, under the imme- 
diate command of Bhureng Noung marched from the city of Pegu in 



74 On the History of the Burma race. [No. 2, 

the month Nat-dau 916 (November 1554). The flotilla had been 
despatched much earlier. 

The following arrangements were made for the government during 
the king's absence. His son Ma-ha U'-ba-Ba-dza was left in charge 
at the capital city of Pegu, with a faithful officer as his adviser. At 
Mut-ta-ma (Martaban), king Meng-rai-tsi-thu remained with a large 
force, on account of the neighbouring kings of Zimmay and Siam. 
The governor of Mau-la-myaing, Bi-ngya-u, and other trustworthy 
officers were under this tributary king. Arrangements were also 
made towards the Pu-thein (Bassein) side to guard against any danger 
from Arakan. 

Having thus provided for the safety of his southern kingdom, 
Bhureng Noung proceeded to carry out his plan for the subjugation 
of Ava. The whole army, other than that which accompanied the 
flotilla, marched direct north up the valley of the Poung-loung river 
to Toung-u. The main body under command of Bhureng Noung 
marching as far as Ra-may-then, directed its march in a north- 
westerly direction, through Kyouk-pan-doung, until it debouched 
upon the Irawati at Pu-gan. The rest of his army continued its 
march northerly for some distance. A corps was then detached to 
the left under the command of the king's brother jUeng-rai-kyau-kten, 
which went to attack the fortified post of Peng-ta-lai. The re- 
mainder under the command of the tributary king of Toung-u, 
Meng Khoung, continued its march direct towards Ava. After taking 
Peng-ta-lai, which made no resistance, Meng-rai-kvau-hten joined his 
brother, and they marched to a position somewhere in the neigh- 
bourhood of Myin-tsaing or Pan-ya, where they entrenched them- 
selves, to await news of Bhureng Noung. 

The king had so regulated his movements, that by the time he 
reached Pu-gan, the flotilla and army which accompanied it, were 
not far off. He now crossed his whole army to the west banks of the 
Irawati, landing at Kwom in the district of Pa-khan-gyf. The 
army then marched up the western bank of the river and up the 
course of the Khyen-dweng to A-myin. A portion of the flotilla 
was also sent there, by which the army crossed that river. The 
governors of provinces everywhere submitted, and the king now 
marched to Tsa-gaing. The governor of that city had fled to Mo- 



1869.] On the History of the Burma race. 75 

nhyin. The king here disposed his whole army and flotilla, and 
sent scouts across the river to communicate with his brothers Meng- 
rai-kyau-hten and Meng Khoung, and to fix a day for a combined 
assault upon the city of Ava. 

These arrangements having been agreed upon, the two brothers 
advanced from their entrenchments towards the city. The king of 
Ava, Tsi-thu-kyau-hteng, came out to oppose them at the head of 
a Shan army. A battle ensued, in which the Ava Shans were worsted, 
and forced back into the city. The two brothers then entrenched 
themselves on the ground they had won. In the mean time Bhureng 
Noung was crossing the Irawati to the Ava side. Arrived there 
with his whole army, and in communication with his brothers, the 
city of Ava, the people, and the garrison were enclosed like fish in a 
trap. A general assault was made. The soldiers by attacking the 
gates, by digging and by scaling the walls, at length took the city 
in the month Ta-bu-dwai 916 (March 1555). The king of Ava, 
Tsi-thii-kyau-hteng, had escaped from the city, ho|)ing to join the 
U'n-boung Tsau-bwa, who was marching down with a force to support 
him. But he was taken prisoner and brought before Bhureng Noung. 
That great king having pity on him, at once provided for him a place 
where he might remain with his family and attendants. Afterwards 
he was sent to Pegu, and a handsome house suitable to his rank, 
with a pleasant garden, was provided for him at the city of Han-tha- 
wa-ti. 

Bhureng Noung intending to remain for a time at Ava, built for 
himself a temporary house at Toung-ba-lu. His brother, Meng-rai- 
kyau-hten was made tributary king of Ava with the title of Tha-do- 
meng-tsau. He received the usual regalia. Bhureng Noung with 
the dignity of Emperor in the wide dominions over which he ruled,, 
began such measures as were necessary to secure his victory. 



Observations. — The dynasties which reigned at Pu-gan throughout 
the long period of fourteen hundred years, had gradually declined 
from the powerful position which the monarchy held, during the reign 
of A-nau-ra-hta-tsau, in the eleventh century of the Christian era. 
The invasion by the Chinese, or Tartars, during the reign of Kublai 
Khan towards the end of the thirteenth century ; the capture of the 



76 On the History of the Burma race. [No. 2, 

capital, and the flight of the king to the southern provinces, completed 
the ruin of the kingdom. An immigration of Shans had long been 
going on — independently of the earlier arrival of people of that race 
in the upper Irawati — into the country of the middle Irawati. 
They had gradually acquired the influence due to their superior 
energy and intelligence. In the confusion which resulted from the 
destruction of the ancient monarchy, three brothers, leading men of 
Shan race, born in the country, who had risen to power under the 
native kings, gradually acquired independent authority. This au- 
thority probably did not extend in any direction over one hundred 
miles from Myin-tsaing as a centre. Before long, this Shan kingdom 
was separated into two states, one being established at Sagaing and 
one at Pan-ya. About fifty years later, these two states were absorbed, 
and a new dynasty was established at Ava in a position not far from 
the two former cities, by Meng-kyi-tswa, who professed to unite in 
his person, the claims of the three Shan brothers, and also of the 
ancient race of kings of Pu-gan. Ava indeed had been built in the 
year 1364 A. D. by Tha-do-meng-bya, who claimed to be descended 
from the ancient kings of Ta-goung ; but he died without issue, and 
Meng-kyi-tswa was then called to the throne, as one who could rule 
in troublous times, and possessed what were acknowledged to be 
hereditary claims. While there seems to be no reason for doubting 
his descent from the sister of the three Shan brothers, his alleged 
direct descent from Kyau-tswa, the deposed king of Pu-gan, is pro- 
bably an invention of aftertimes. However this may be, it is 
evident from the history that the whole power in the country which 
constituted the kingdom of Ava from A. D. 1364 until A. D. 1554, 
was held by Shans, or persons of Shan descent. The story of the 
rinding of golden images by Meng-kyi-tswa at Meit-hti-lau, T said to 
represent those who should reign in Burma of the race of the " Leng- 
dzeng kings of Siam," shows that that king desired to be considered 
of Thai, rather than of Mran-ma or Burma race. The length of the 
reign of Meng-kyi-tswa, thirty-three years, enabled him to consoli- 
date his power to some extent ; to place a relative on the throne of 
Arakan. and to seek to extend his dominions by the conquest of Han- 
tha-wa-ti or Pegu. The same object was striven after in the reign 
of his son Meng-khoung, and Pegu was invaded year after year, but 



1869.] On the History of the Burma race. 77 

without success. The kings of Pegu at this time were no longer the 
old dynasty of Talaing race. The Shans from Zimmay and the 
adjoining states had occupied Martaban, and eventually succeeded to 
the throne of Pegu. These tribes of the Thai branch of the Indo- 
Chinese family, had been pouring down from their highlands by 
various routes through a long period of time. They gradually 
accomplished in the countries watered by the Irawati and the lower 
Salwin, a plantation and revolution similar to what had been worked 
out by the north men, in the British islands, and on the coasts 
of Western Europe in the eighth and ninth centuries. Had it no* 
been for the Muhammadan occupation of Bengal in the thirteenth 
century, it is probable that they would have penetrated into that 
country through Assam or Cachar. 

The continued attacks made by the kings of Ava on Pegu, pro- 
duced a counter invasion by Ra-dza-di-rit, who nearly conquered Ava 
in the year 766, A. D. 1404. The possession of guns or jinjals at 
this time, with which Prome was defended, is mentioned ; but it 
seems doubtful whether they can have been known in Burma at this 
period. 

The successful attack on Ava in the year 788, A. D. 1426, by the 
Shan chief of Mo-nhyin, renewed the Shan race and spirit in the 
kings of Ava. But the monarchy was weakened. From this time 
for more than a century, the kings of Ava were rather the heads 
of a loose confederation of Shan chiefs, whose states lay to the north 
of Ava on either side of the Irawati, than sovereigns of a Burmese 
kingdom. One curious result of this state of affairs was, that the 
rulers of the petty state of Toung-ii, originally Shan by race, gra- 
dually became identified with the national or Burmese party. This 
afterwards led to important results. The rulers of Toungu, more 
isolated from Shan influence than the Tsau-bwas to the north, became 
in fact Burmese. The character and couduct of the Shan chiefs, as 
disclosed in this history, entirely corresponds with the Tsau-bwas of 
the Shan country, of the present day. Each chief in his own state, 
which, in some instances, is but a few square miles in extent, is jealous 
of the least interference ; and they have not yet learnt to combine for 
their general safety, except on sudden emergencies, when they rise in 
rebellion against the Burmese. 
11 



78 On the History of the Burma race. [No. 2, 

In the country of Toungu we have seen that the ruler Meng-kyi- 
ngyo, who died in the year A. D. 1530, had reigned for forty-five 
years. During that period, while Ava was a prey to disorder, he had 
maintained his independence, and gradually increased his power- 
His son Meng-ta-ra Shwe-hti commenced his persevering attacks upon 
Pegu, overthrew that kingdom, and after a surprising career was 
assassinated at the early age of thirty-six years. It might have been 
anticipated, that here would have ended the fortune of the rulers of 
Toungu. But Bhureng Noung, the general of Shwe-hti, with won- 
derful enterprise, crushed all opponents, and combining the power of 
Toung-u, of Pegu and of Prome, accomplished the designs of Shwe- 
hti by conquering Ava and the north. This he effected with a mixed 
army of Talaings, Burmese, and Shans ; and though subduing the 
country where the Burmese people were probably more numerous than 
elsewhere, he claimed to represent the Burma race. 

A future chapter will describe the remarkable career of this ruler ; 
and the empire which he founded, extending from near the Burhain- 
putra river to the Mekhong, or great river of Cambodia. The 
dealings both of Meng-ta-ra Shwe-hti and of Bhureng Noung with 
the Portuguese, who, with their Muhammadan followers, are styled 
Ba-reng-gyi and Pan- the, the latter word apparently a corruption of 
Earsi, may also be illustrated from European sources. 

Memorandum. — The accompanying lists, Nos. 1 and 2, contain 
the names of the kings of Burma, who reigned contemporaneously 
at Myintsaing, Pan-ya, and Tsagaing, The list No. 3 contains the 
names of the kings of Burma who reigned at Ava from the foundation of 
that city, until it was conquered by Bhureng Noung in the year 1555 
A. D. The whole period of the reigns contained in the three lists, 
amounts to 257 years, or from A, D. 1298 to A. D. 1555. By the 
Burmese reckoning, as Ava was captured by Bhureng Noung in the 
month of March, before the current year 916 had been completed, 
there will appear by that reckoning one year less for the whole period 
than is shown according to the European Calendar. 



1869.] 



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1869.] The District of Ludiana. 83 

The District of Ludiana.— By T. W. Tolbort, Esq., G. S. 
[Received 17th May, 1869.] 

The following article is one of a series which the contributor 
has written, or purposes to write, descriptive of different districts in the 
Panjab. Most of the information it contains, has been derived from 
local sources. Much is legendary or trivial ; but the writer in pursuing 
his ovyn studies, has found the want in each district of a basis on which 
to commence historical or scientific inquiries ; and it is to supply such 
a basis, however meagre or deficient in scholarship, that he proposes 
to publish the series of papers referred to. 

Excluding topics of purely official or administrative interest, we 
shall find it convenient to arrange our account of the Ludiana district 
under two headings. 1, Natural Features. 2, History and kindred 
topics. 

1. — Natural Features. 

The Ludiana district is the most westerly of the three which 
form the Cis-Sutlej or Ambala division. 

It is bounded by Ambala on the east, by Firozpur on the 
west, by Patiala and other native territories on the south, and 
by the district of Jalandhar, from which it is separated by the 
river Satlaj on the north. The soil is sandy, yielding a rich crop of 
cereals and of grain, but is not so fertile for sugar cane and fruit 
trees, as in the neighbouring district of Jalandhar. The aspect and 
area of the district, have been much modified by a change in the 
course of the river Satlaj, which formerly flowed by the Ludiana fort, 
but is now six miles to the westward. The old bank of the river 
forms a ridge the whole length of the district, and a small offshoot of 
the river called the Buddha Nalah still flows in the deserted bed. 
The Ludiana district does not produce either mangoes or dates, but 
there is much to interest in its flora, and the writer regrets that 
he is not competent to give a detailed and accurate account of its 
botanical features. Some information on the subject may be found 
in a paper by Mr. Edgeworfch, Vol. VII. of the Asiatic Society's Jour- 
nal, page 751, and a short subsequent paper in Vol. XL, page 26. 
The Ludiana district appears nearly to coincide with what Mr. 
Edgeworth in the papers referred to, terms the " phalahi" tract. The 
12 



84 The District of Lddidna. [No. 2, 

principal trees are the kikar, pipal, jand, sissu, sirras, mulberry, bher 
phalahi, tamarisk, baklair (bakain, Melia sempervirens). 

There are a few fine banyans scattered at intervals. There are a 
few jamans (syzygium jamholanum) at Ludhina itself, but I have not 
seen any elsewhere in the district. At Machiwara and at Bhilolpur, 
in the north-east of the district, are a few impoverished mangoe trees, 
and there are some at Liidiana itself, but they bear no fruit ; in the 
neighbouring zillahs Jalandhar, Hoshiarpur, and Ambala, they 
come to perfection. One of the most common trees in the belt or low 
land along the river, is called the pilkhan. Near Pakhowal is a 
remarkable grove of keham trees, respecting which the tradition is 
current that they can never be counted, no two visitors giving the 
same tale, although apparently the number is small. The bakain is a 
well known tree of ready growth, but of no great ability for timber. 
It is a species of Melia (sempervire?is), and consequently akin to 
the Nim, possessing some of the medical virtues for which the latter 
is so famed. Its leaves are long and pointed, like those of the Nim, 
and its fruits are about the size and shape of marbles. Akin to the 
bakain, with similar fruit but with leaves somewhat broader, is the 
Dek, which I find in Forbes Watson under the botanical name of the 
Nim, though it appears to be a different species from the well known 
tree of Hindustan. Next to the irrepressible kikar, the most charac- 
teristic tree in this district is the " reru," which I cannot find in Forbes 
Watson, but which Edgeworth describes hesitatingly as Acacia leu- 
cophlcea. Its foliage is darker then the common kikar. It is common 
on the western, or Firozpur, side of the district, and is rare on the 
eastern side. 

With regard to smaller shrubs and herbs, some make their 
appearance with the Kharif after the autumn rains, and others with the 
Rabi", in spring, while many remain during the whole year. In the 
neighbourhood of Khanah, a nettle-like plant with large bright green 
leaves and white flowers, which covers all the lower hills, is common, 
but it is not found in those parts of the district from the Himalayas. 
It is called by the natives " basuta" ; but this is a word used very 
generally and vaguely. While this plant is found only in the west 
of the district, the " karil" (capparis decidua ?), so characteristic of the 
Multan desert, is confined to the eastern half, becoming more com- 



1869.] The District of Ludidna. 85 

mon as the Firozptir boundary is approached, but nowhere so abun- 
dant as in the Multan division. In the neighbourhood of Machiwara, 
I have noticed numerous clusters of a shrub 5 or 6 feet high, called 
" Samalu." It seems always to grow in such clusters, forming a 
natural kind of hedge or coppice ; I have not seen detached shrubs. 
The leaves are in triplets with two smaller below. They are long 
and narrow at both ends, darker above and whitish beneath. I believe, 
this is the Vilex trifolia. 

Bat the three shrubs abovenamed, are not in any sense character- 
istic of the district. Much more common are the following. The 
bher, a species of Zizyphus or jujube, is almost as general as the 
kikar tree. Many parts of the country are covered with a smaller shrub 
like the bher, and I presume also a species of Zizyphus. This is called 
" jhari." Its small leaves, mixed with white bhusa, are given as 
food to oxen. Of course the omnipresent " ak" or " madar" is found 
in abundance here as everywhere else. Royle has devoted two or 
three pages of his book on the fibrous plants of India to the economi- 
cal uses of this plant, Calotropis gigantea and Hamiltonii. So far 
as this district is concerned, I believe the only use made of it is 
to apply the milky juice externally to stings or parts suffering from 
rheumatism. Its soft but pungent down makes an admirable stuff- 
ing for pillow-cases. 

Besides the Ak, there are three weeds, which deserve separate men- 
tion from their abundance. First the " chtiris roz." This shoots up 
during the autumn rains in every field. In the winter, the stalk 
becomes dry, contrasting in colour with the small tuft of canes at its 
base. At this time, the flower spike, when rubbed, gives out a 
very pleasing cinnamon-like scent. This, no doubt, is a species of 
Andropogon. Another troublesome weed goes by the name of 
"piyazi," on account of its resemblance to the onion. The leaves 
and stalk are like those of an onion, but it has no smell, nor does 
it seem to produce a bulb. The flowers which grow in a spike, 
are small and pretty, bell-shaped, white in colour with light brown 
stripes. This weed is a constant intruder in the corn fields. 

There is a third very common leguminous weed, which seems 
to bear several names, among which are " maha" and " malula." It 
looks like a wild vetch. Between Samrala and Machiwara, and 



86 The District of Ludi ana. [No. 2, 

also in many other parts of the district, the ground is covered with it. 
It is used as fuel by the gram roasters. The " akas bel" or dodder, 
cuscula reflexa, which is common on the Jalandhar side of the 
river, looking very pretty as it covers the hedge-rows with a yellow, 
silk-like net, is also found here, hut is not so common. The cactus 
which makes the favourite hedgerow in the Jalandhar Duab, does 
not come to perfection here. " Aliya" and " henna" succeed 
better. 

I may add to my list of common weeds easy of identification, 
the " itsit" (trianthema pentandra), a creeping plant which spreads 
over the ground ; the " bhakhra" or " gokru" (pedalium murex) 
also recumbent, the fruit of which is used by the natives for gonor- 
rhoea, the " hulhul" (cleome vicsosa f) of which the seeds possess 
anthelmintic and other virtues, and the " papra" or " shahbra," which 
is used for cutaneous diseases and is, I believe, the " Fumaria 
officinalis" or fumitory. 

Of course this is by no means an exhaustive list of the Ludiana 
flora. There are many plants that I know by their native, but not 
by their scientific names ; and doubtless there are many more which 
have not come under my observation at all. The garden plants are the 
same as those cultivated elsewhere in the Panjab and North-West. 

2. — History. 

Doubtless the province of Sarhind, through which the classical 
Saraswati flowed, and which was the scene of so many struggles for 
empire in Muhammadan times, possessed historical interest from the 
very dawn of Brahmanical religion ; yet the traces of ante-Musal- 
man civilization are few. There are extensive ruins of undoubted 
antiquity at a small village called Sunet, about four miles from 
Ludiana on the Firozpiir road. The settlement report speaks of 
it as an old Kajpiit city, said to have been renowned throughout 
Hindustan for its size and splendour. Coins and large old bricks with 
figures on them, are constantly dug up from its remains. 

The most common impression on the bricks is that of three or four 
fingers of the human hand. There are no standing ruins ; but broken 
bricks are found on the surface for a great distance, and excavations 
beneath what are now c'orn fields, uncover walls and floors of brick 



: 



1869.] The District of Litdidna. 87 

so extensive, that for centuries past they have supplied Ludiana 
with much of its building material. People say, that the masonry 
work is mostly upside down, the smooth and marked side of 
the bricks which one would expect to find uppermost, being on 
the contrary downwards. This may perhaps indicate that Sunet 
was overthrown by some sudden convulsion of nature, perchance 
an earthquake, and the popular traditions are in accordance 
with this supposition. I have been unable to trace the authentic 
history of Sunet, but the story of its fall, a mixture of Hindii and 
Muhammadan fable is as follows : There was once a king at Sunet, 
named Raja Mauj Gend or Panwar, who treated his subjects with 
great violence and cruelty. This king was afflicted with an ulcer, 
and was told that human flesh would do it good. So an order went 
forth to bring him a human being, as occasion required, from each 
household. 

One day it so happened, that it|was the turn of a brahman widow, 
who had an only child, ten years of age. The myrmidons of the 
tyrant came to carry off the child, when its mother's tears moved 
the sympathy of a holy man, Shah Qutb, by name. He, after a vain 
attempt to turn away the soldiers, swore that they should never see 
their homes again, and so it happened. They turned towards Sunet, 
but both Sunet and its raja had disappeared from the face of the 
earth. 

Next to Sunet, the town of most undoubted antiquity is Machi- 
wara. There is a local tradition that a woman named Machodri, the 
grandmother of the Pandavas, founded it. I do not find any mention 
of Machodri in Talboys Wheeler's book. The paternal grandmother 
of the Pandavas was a daughter of the Raja of Kasi. Of the mater- 
nal grandmother nothing is said. The mother bore the name of 
Madri, Of her, Talboys Wheeler writes — 

"Madra is the ancient name for Bhootan, and there seems some 
reason for believing that Madri belonged to one of the mountain 
tribes occupying the southern slopes of the Himalayas, but probably 
much further to the westward than the country of Bhootan." This 
is not inconsistent with the story that Machiwara may have been 
founded by some ancestor of the Pandavas ; but these myths are too 
vague and various to be of any historical use. 



88 The District of Ludiana. [No. 2, 

Another tradition connects the name Machiwara with that of 

some Raja Maclihandar. It is much more probable that the word 
simply means " the fisherman's village," mdchhi being the word for 
fish. There are several other villages on the Satlaj and on other 
rivers, bearing names either identical or nearly so. Whether we adopt 
a simple or a far-fetched etymology, the antiquity of Machiwara is 
undisputed. Besides Sunet and Machiwara, there is reason to believe 
that a third town, Tihara, was of importance in pre-Islaoiic times. 

But if the etymology given by Edgeworth be correct, the name 
Tihara will appear comparatively modern, being used to denote the 
low land by the river, which paid one-third of the produce as revenue 
while the " Chauhara" tract only paid a quarter, and the '" Pachdie" 
two-fifths. 

The settlement report states : " There are traces of the town having 
become a ruin previous to the general Muhammadan invasion of India, 
in consequence of the internal feuds either of the Rajputs or of 
some other Hindu race with theirs." 

The settlement report refers to some Raja Biroyt as governor of 
Tihara about the time of Rai Pithora, when Shihab-uddin Ghori 
invaded India; and to a Raja Shami, a Gaisi Rajput as ruler of 
Bhilolpiir; but the dominant tribe of Rajputs in the neighbourhood 
of Sunet seems to have been the "Punwars." 

Alexander never touched the Ludiana district. His encampment 
on the Hyphasis or Satlaj was probably below its junction with the 
Beyas opposite Firozpilr, and as no special mention is made of any 
important nation on the left bank of the Satlaj, we may presume that 
the Ludiana district was included in those vastce solitudines which 
arrested the Macedonian's progress. 

The history of the district in Muhammadan times is, as might have 
been expected, much more detailed and authentic. It was a portion 
of the province of Sarhind, which w T as ever the battle ground of 
Muhammadan India. But to give a detailed history of the province is 
not our object, we merely select special allusions to the district itself. 

For many years after the invasion of Taimtir, the banks of the 
Satlaj appear to have been the scene of a succession of struggles 
with various lawless tribes. First, we find mention of Turks under 
Malik Toghan, then of an impostor who appeared near Machiwara, 






1869.] The District of Ludidna. 89 

and falsely gave himself out as Sarang Khan, the deceased viceroy 
of Multan, lastly of the Gakkhars under a famous chief named Jasrat. 
The city of Ludiana owes its origin and name to the Lodis, and 
its early history is thus given in a local account. The country 
was overrun by Beloches (?). The cultivators represented the matter 
to the emperor Sikandar Lodi, who sent two generals, Yusuf Khan 
and Nihang Khan, also Lodis, to punish the marauders. They encamped 
near the site of the present fort where, in those days, there was a 
village called Marhota. Having driven out the Beloches, they heard 
that the Gakkhars were plundering on the north side of the river. 
So Yusuf Khan crossed the river, subdued the Gakkhars, and founded 
the city of Sultanpur (now in Kapurthalla territory), where he 
settled. Meanwhile Nihang Khan remained at Marhota, to which 
he gave the name Ludiana. He was followed by his son Mahmiid 
Khan, and the latter by Jalal Khan, who built the first Ludiana fort 
with Sunet bricks. Jalal Khan had two sons, Haibat Khan and 
Tahir Khan. The latter died without offspring, the former left 
two sons £\xi Khan and Khidr Khan. It was in their time that 
Babar overthrew the Lodi dynasty of Delhi. Members of the Lodi 
family continued to reside at Ludiana and Bhilolpiir after the down- 
fall of their empire ; but there is a tradition that they were massacred 
in Akbar's time ; at any rate no descendants of the family are now 
to be found. Their tombs and other buildings, which were once a 
prominent feature near the fort and perhaps in the direction of the 
European residences, are now levelled with the ground. 

In the beginning of 1555, a great battle was fought at Machiwara, 
doubtless the town so called in the Ludiana district. The battle is 
thus described by Farishta. 

" Sikandar Shah Sur in the meantime had ordered Tatar Khan and 
Habib Khan with an army of thirty or forty thousand horse, from 
Dehli against Humayun. Notwithstanding the great superiority in num- 
ber of this force, Bairam Khan Turkman resolved to hazard an action, 
and having advanced boldly to meet the Indian army, pitched his camp 
on the banks of the Satlaj at the town of Machiwara. It being cold 
weather, the Indian Afghans kindled great fires of wood in their 
camp at night, of which Bairam Khan took advantage, and crossed the 
river with a thousand chosen horse. He now advanced to their 



90 The District of Ludidna. [No. 2, 

camp without being discovered, when he began to to gall those who 
crowded round the fires with arrows, which threw them into disorder. 
The Afghans (notorious for blundering), instead of extinguishing 
their fires, which prevented them from seeing their enemies, who had 
a fair view of them, threw on more wood ; and the whole of Bairam 
Khan's army having crossed the river, fell upon them on all sides, and 
routed them. The Afghans, on this occasion, lost all their elephants, 
their baggage, and a number of horses. Bairam Khan sent the elephants 
to Humayun at Labor, and remaining encamped at Machiwara, he 
dispersed detachments in all directions, and occupied all the country 
up to the walls of Dihli. The king was greatly rejoiced, when he 
heard of this victory, and conferred on Bairam Khan the title of 
Khan Khanan." 

In the Am i Akbari, three mahals are named, which are still included 
in the modern district. They are, Ludidna itself with a revenue of 
2,294,933 dams; Tihara, 7,850,809 dams; and Machiwara, 653,552 
dams. Each of these is described as having a biick fort. The darn 
in Akbar's time was the fortieth part of a rupee. 

During the supremacy of the Moguls, Ludiana is seldom mentioned 
in history, but before referring to subsequent events, we will give a 
short account of a distinguished Rajput family known as the Rais, 
who have at times been more or less influential in this neighbourhood. 
The account is furnished by one of themselves. 

About the year 1308, Sumbat, there was a Raja of Jaisalmir and 
Bhatnir, named Dulchi Ram or Bersi. His ancestor, Raja Mokal, 
had built a fort called after himself, where Faridkot now is, Mokal's 
servants inadvertently seized the famous saint Farid-uddin Shakar- 
ganj, whose shrine is still at Pak Pallan, and compelled him to 
labour. On discovering the saintly character and miraculous powers 
of his workman, Raja Mokal called the city by his name, Faridkot. 
Dulchi Ram had a son, Tulsi Das, who came in the direction of the 
Panjab, to see Faridkot. At that time Sayyid Makhdum Jahanivaii 
resided at Jaisalmir, and through his influence Tulsi Das embraced 
Islam, and assumed the name of Shaikh Chachu. So Shaikh Chaclui 
came as far as Hattur, and colonised a village in the neighbourhood, 
called Chakar. Hattur itself had been founded by a certain Raja, 
Jagdeo Sing, and his descendant was at first hostile to the new- 



1869.] The District of Ldditina. 91 

comers, till mollified by Shaikh Cliacliu, who subsequently took ad- 
vantage of his presence at a wedding to murder him. Shaikh Chachii 
then took possession of Hatttir. He had two sons, Pahru and Nopal. 
The former remained in Hattur, where an 'idgdli, built by him, is 
still standing, while Nopal founded the village of Shahjahanpur, near 
Raikot. Pahru had two sons Rai Dalla and Rai Jaggii. They 
rented from 'Ala-uddin Grhori (Khilji ?) the perganahs of Tihara, &c., 
and received the title of Rai Raian. At that time, their possession 
extended from Firozpur to Machiwara, and, as their descendants are 
fond of saying, comprised 1360 villages. They also acquired some 
villages on the other side of the Satlaj. Among these was one named 
Dalla (after the founder Rai Dalla), near Sultanpur in Kapurthalla. 
The village still bears his name. Rai Dalla had a son Rai Kamal- 
uddin, who received the title Sultan for his military services in the 
south. 

To enumerate all the branches of the Rais would be a minute and 
profitless task. Many of the towns and villages in the Ludiana district 
were founded or re-founded by them ; some still bear names of indivi- 
dual members of the family ; and others, as for instance Jagraon, Rai- 
kot, and Talwandi Rai, have incorporated the word Rai itself. It is 
also said that many members of the family settled in other parts of 
India, even as far as Patna on the one side and the province of Gujrat 
on the other. One Rai Kulla colonised Talwandi Rai in Sambat 
1535. About Sambat 1600, another member of the family Fath Khan 
rebuilt Bassian, which had been in ruins before, and which went to 
ruin again after his death. A second Rai Kulla built Raikot in Sambat 
1643. Jagraon, at present the second commercial city in the district, 
w T as founded by another member of the family Kamal-uddin 1125, Hijri, 
There are different derivations of the name Jagraon ; some say that it 
means Jagah Raian, the place of the Rais ; but the more probable 
explanation is, that " Jag" was the name of a Rajput who preceded 
the Rais, and that the two names are united in the word Jagraon. 
Omitting minute and unimportant family details, we come to Rai Kulla 
who, in Sambat 1743, threw off his allegiance to the emperor of Dihli. 
'All Muhammad Rohila, governor of Sarhind, reduced him to submis- 
sion for a time, but was then called off by the inroads of the Sikhs, 
and Rai Kulla established his independence. He died in Sambat 1826. 
13 



92 The District of Liididna. [No. 2, 

His Hon and successor, Rai Muhammad, died in S. 1850, leaving the 
inheritance in the hands of a child, Rai Ilyas. The Sikhs took advantage 
f his tender age, to appropriate Dharmkot and other portions of his 
dominions. In S. 1856, Baba Sahib Sing Bedi of Una in the 
Hoshyarpvir district, and others pressing him hard, Rai Ilyas hired the 
assistance of the adventurer George Thomas, then ruler of Hansi, and 
known here as " Jarj Sahib." Thomas got a lakh of rupees for 
his services, and with his assistance the Sikhs were driven across the 
Satlaj. Three years after this, young Ilyas was out hunting in the 
bir, half way between Jagraon and Sidlniwan. He was holding a 
drawn sword, when suddenly his horse reared with him. He fell and 
ran the sword into his thigh, inflicting a mortal wound. His mother 
Rani Nur-unnisa then became chief of the Rais ; but in S. 1863 and 
S. 1864, corresponding to A. D. 1806, and 1807, Ranjit Singh overran 
most of her dominions, leaving her only Raikot itself. In A. D. 1831, 
Nur-unnisa died, and was succeeded by another lady, Rani Bagbari, 
widow of Ilyas. On her death, Raikot lapsed to the British Govern- 
ment. 

We now return to the general history of the district. The invad- 
ing armies of Nadir Shah, Ahmad Shah Durani, and the Mahrattas, 
must have frequently crossed the district, but have left few traces 
behind them. A local history states that Nadir Shah, on some 
complaint being made, ordered a general massacre in Ludiana. I 
am unable to say whether this is true or is merely a local version 
of the Delhi massacre. Ahmad Shah Durani gave Machiwara and 
other portions of the district to Bhikam Khan, Nawab of Maler 
Kotla. The Maler Kotla family who are still sovereign princes, 
claim descent from a faqir, Hazrat Shaikh Sadr Jahan, disciple of 
Baha-ul Haq, and this faqir is said to have been he who sold the 
empire of Delhi for 2000 dinars to Bahlol Lodi. 

The struggle for supremacy, between Sikh and Musalman during 
the letter half of the eighteenth century was much more important 
in its permanent results than these invasions from Kabul, and it is 
much fresher in the memory of the people. This neighbourhood 
is classic ground in Sikh history. Machiwara and Bhilolpur were 
the scene of Guru Govind Singh's adventures and persecutions 
(see Macgregor's History, chapter V., pages 88 and 94), and Sarhind, 



1869.] The District of Ludiana, 93 

even in its desolation, is to every Sikh an accursed spot, as the city 
where the Guru's two sons were murdered. In 1762, a great battle 
was fought about twenty miles south of Liidiana between Ahmad 
Shah and the Sikhs, a battle in which the Sikhs were defeated with 
great slaughter, and which they still remember by the name of 
" Gliulti Grhara" (Cunningham's History of the Sikhs, pages 100-101). 
But in the following year the Sikhs gained as great a victory, 
sacked and destroyed Sarhind, and established their supremacy 
throughout the province. The Sodhis established themselves atMachi- 
wara ; the Jagadii, Jhind, Nabah, and Patiala chiefs in the south, 
and the Allmwalia family at Jagraon. Liidiana itself was occupied 
for a time by Hindu Raj p fits of the Halwara got. They were ex- 
pelled and succeeded by the Rais under Rai Kulla. During the 
rule of his successor, Rai Muhammad, in S. 1822, Nattu and Chuhar, 
his representatives in Ludiana, repaired the fort, each mahaila of 
the city building a portion. For some years, they kept off the Sikhs 
by payment of black mail, but the neighbourhood was laid waste. 
When the plundering expeditions of the Sikhs were announced, a 
drum was sounded to give warning, and the people took refuge in 
the fort. The city was plundered over and over again, by Bhag 
Sing Bheriya, by the sardars of Khanah, by Karm Singh Narmalla 
of Shahabad, by Bhanga Sing of Thanesar, and others. On the death of 
Rai Muhammad and the accession of the child Rai Ilyas, the en- 
croachments of the Sikhs became greater ; but the thanahdar of the 
Rais at Ludiana, whose name was Husain, defended the city with 
great bravery. It was then that Bedi Sahib Sing, already referred 
to, invaded the territory of the Rais. He penetrated as far as Maler 
Kotla, destroying Maler itself, and profaning the shrine of Shaikh Ji. 
Most of the Jat zamindars fraternised with him. At last, one night, 
the citizens of Ludiana admitted the Bedi, while the Rais retreated 
to the fort. Then it was that the Rais applied to George Thomas, 
and by his assistance expelled the Bedi. To oppose Thomas, Lai 
Sing of Kaital and Bhag Sing of Jhind applied to Perron, the well 
known French general in the Mahratta service. He sent a subordi- 
nate, whom the local history calls Loi Sahib (probably Louis Bour- 
quin), who defeated Thomas. But the Rais found means to appease 
the conqueror, and wore allowed to retain their dominions on* paj% 



94 The District of Ludidnd. [No. 2, 

meiit of a nazrana. On the death of Rai Ilyas, his mother Niir-unnisa 
appointed two G-ujars, Ahmad and Madahi, as her deputies. They 
rebelled, and took possession of Liidiana and Jagraon for themselves. 
Nur-unnisa was obliged to re-engage the brave and faithful tkanali- 
dar Husain. The rebels applied for assistance to Bhanga Sing 
of Thanesar, who was glad of the opportunity for interference. There 
were numerous battles. Husain valiantly protected his mistress 
against the rebels, Ahmad and Madahi, who were shut up in the 
fort, on the one hand and against Bhanga Sing on the other. Bhanga 
Sing was wounded, and was nearly defeated, when unhappily 
Husain was slain. His followers lost heart, the Rani fled to 
Raikot, and the people of the city deserted their property and their 
homes. Bhanga Sing remained eleven days, plundering and laying 
waste the city, burning all that was consumable. This was in 
Sambat 1860. So Ahmad and Madahi remained masters of Ludiana 
and Jagraon till 1862, when Ranjit Sing overran the country, and 
gave the city to Bhag Sing of Jhind. In S. 1864, or A. D. 1809, 
Sir David Ochterlony came here, and repaired and occupied the fort ; 
but the city and cantonment site remained with the Jhind family 
till the death of Sangal Sing, when they escheated to the British 
Government, in A. D. 1835. While these events were taking place 
at Ludiana itself, numerous Sikh sardars had established themselves 
in various parts of the district, where their descendants still hold 
jagirs. The most important of these families is that of Maland, a 
branch of the Phulkia clan, and consequently related to the rajas 
of Patiala. Their ancestors appear to have lived for some time at 
Sahnah, a town in the extreme south of the district which still belongs 
to their jagir. In A. D. 1762, Man Sing took possession of Maland, 
which has since given its name to the family. His son Dalel Sing 
was the most distinguished of the sardars. His tomb is a prominent 
building at Maland. The jagir has been since divided into three. 
The other Sikh jagirdars in the district all trace their origin to the 
general appropriation made by the Sikh army after its great and 
final victory over the Musalmans, when Sarhind was destroyed. 

We have now brought the history of the district down to the time, 
when it merges in that of British India. Some memorable events 
liave occurred of later years ; but it is not our work to narrate them 



1869.] The District of Liididna. 95 

The battle field of Aliwal is in the district, and during- the mutiny 
a skirmish took place here with the Jalandhar mutineers (see Cave 
Browne's "Panjab and Delhi," pages 251 to 264. 

An account of the Ludiana district would not be complete without 
reference to the new sect of Sikhs, the Kukas, who have lately made 
some noise in the Panjab. Their founder, Ram Sing, is the son of a 
carpenter, named Jassa Sing, and lives at Bhaini, a small village some 
15 miles to the east of Ludiana. He is over 50 years of age, is 
married, and has had two daughters married, to one of whom fur- 
ther reference will be made, He served in the Khalsa army between 
1844 and 1846. There is a story that, in 1850, Bam Sing was engaged 
in the shop of one Panjaba, at that time a well known carpenter of 
Ludiana, and embezzled a large sum of money belonging to his em- 
ployer. With the capital so obtained, he started a shop at Bhaini in 
partnership with some one else who, after a time, served Ram Sing 
the same trick that the latter had played Panjaba. After this, Ram 
Sing left for the Rawal Pindi district, and there became the disciple 
of an Udasi faqir, named Balak Sing. 

From him Ram Sing received the religious impulse which has 
since influenced his career. Balak Sing himself was but little known, 
and has been dead for 8 or 9 years. Ram Sing began to proselytize 
about 1858, and assumed the title of Bhai in 1860. 

Ram Sing, like most other reformers, repudiates the character of 
innovater, and professes to be merely a restorer of the old religion. 
He is a purist Sikh, acknowledges and reveres the ten gurus, and 
the granths, and preaches the unity of God. He differs from the 
orthodox Sikhs chiefly by a more stringent enforcement of morality, 
and by his iconoclastic tendencies, condemning the erection of tombs 
and shrines. Notwithstanding these tendencies, he is constantly visiting 
the sacred cities of the Sikhs, Amritsar, Mukatsar, and Anandpiir 
Makkowal. Like other Sikhs, the Kukas wear the " kes" or long hair, 
and are initiated by the sacrament " paul." Ram Sing condemns ex- 
cessive lamentation for the dead as being distrustful of the Deity. He 
particularly warns his disciples against foolish extravagance in their mar- 
riage expenses. He teaches them to believe in " heaven" and u hell." 
A disciple and namesake of Ram Sing gave me the following list of 
virtues especially inculcated by his guru — fear of God, faithfulness, 



96 The District of Lddiana. [No. 2, 

purity and cleanliness, truthfulness, benevolence, consciousness of the 
Deity's presence, compassion, abstinence from covetousness, abstinence 
from perjury. Particular stress is laid on truthfulness, and it will, I 
think, be admitted that as a class, the Kukas are remarkable in this 
respect. On initiation, a sentence or " mantra" is whispered into the 
ear of the convert, which he is told to repeat constantly to himself, but 
never to divulge. The Kukas have frequent religious meetings. 
They sit round a large fire, one reads the granth, and others repeat 
favourite slokas. This continues till many work themselves into a 
state of great excitement, and it is, I presume, from the cries they then 
utter, that the name Kukah or " Howler" has been given. Many of 
the common slokas or sayings among the Kiikas have an iconoclastic 
purport. Thus — 

Pahila maro Pir Bannoi 
Phir maro Sultana 
" First destroy Pir Bannoi 
" Then destroy Sultana." 

Pir Bannoi is a saint, whose shrine is in the state of Patiala, 
while the Sultan referred to, is the famed Sakki Sarwar, whose 
shrine is in the district of Dera Ghazi Khan. Kukas may be recog- 
nised by the unusual whiteness and cleanliness of their garments, 
and by a very large and prominent turban. They often carry a small 
club or hatchet, and also a small blunt knife. There is a proverb 
applied to Sikhs generally that they have four /is — Karad, Kes, Kanga, 
Kachh, viz. a knife, long hair, a comb, and short-drawers. The total 
number of Kukas has been estimated at 60,000. Converts are chiefly 
made among Jats, Tirkhans, Chumars and Mazbis, besides a few Mu- 
hammadans. Ram Sing has appointed from twenty to thirty apostles 
under the title of Subahs. Of these, Sahib Sing is the chief, and he, 
it is supposed, will succeed Ram Sing. For a time, Ram Sing was 
kept under surveillance by Government, and this rather added to his 
eclat. For two years past, he has been at liberty to go where he 
chooses. He has attended the great Sikh festivals, but has been 
rejected by the orthodox guardians of the temple. On the occasion 
of his visit to Anandpiir Makkowal in 1867, a riot was with difficulty 
avoided. During the last twelve months there has been an undoubted 
diminution of enthusiasm and deterioration of morals among the new 



1869.] The District ofLudidna. 97 

sect. Scandals have arisen, culminating in the murder of Ram Sing's 
own daughter by her husband, it is supposed, on suspicion of unchas- 
tity. But the sect is still of importance ; the disciples regard Ham 
Sing as the incarnation of the deity, as the same being who animated 
in succession the ten preceding gurus. A very worthy Kuk-a known 
to the writer, expressed himself as confident that this was the case 
because of the wonderful and ecstatic thrill which pervaded the 
disciple, when he heard the sacred "mantra" from his teacher's 
lips. 

We now proceed to give a short account of the prevalent local 
castes and a few phrases exemplifying the local dialect. 

Out of a total of 879 villages, 532 belong to Hindu Jats ; 76 to 
Muhammadan Jats, 98 to Muhammadan Rajputs, 87 to Gujars, and 42 
to Raians. The statistics of the more important Gots are as follows : 
among Hindu Jats,— Gil 97 villages, Dhaluval 95, Sandhu 82, Garewal 
55, Punaich 41, Upal 22. Among the Muhammadan Jats— Kursa 27 
villages, Tar 10, Moliwval 9. Among the Rajputs — Manj 52 villages, 
Ghorewal 13. Among the Raians — Karu 22 villages, Rahil 12, 
Narii 10. These constitute the agricultural population. Here, as 
to the west of the Satlaj, the Khattris are the great commercial class. 
Their principal gots are Chirimunj, Nande Khullar, Jerath at 
Ludiana itself ; Bahl, Kapur, Mahre, Seth, Beri, Senchar, and 
Dhir at Jagraon ; Batte, Sohndi and Karir at Machiwara, and 
Bahlolpur ; Sahgal and Thapar at Raikot ; Had and Cham at Khanah. 
But the gots of Khattris are innumerable. There are a great many 
Mnias of the gots Gar, Goyal, Sital, Mital, Eran, Dheran, Basal, and 
Kasal. The brahmins are mostly engaged in retail trade, and are not 
influential. Leaving out of view a few Roras and other castes, the 
two most important commercial castes remaining to be noted are 
the " Suds" and the " Bhabras." As they have not been described 
in Campbell's ethnological sketch, our readers may be interested in 
a short account of them. 

The caste Bhabra is of the Jain sect, and except a few Mnias here 
and there, I have not heard of any " Jains" in the Panjab other than 
these " Bhabras." The following account is by one of themselves. 

About eleven hundred years ago, there was a holy man at Osanag- 
gari in the country of Gujrat. His name was Rattan Deo. He changed 



U8 The District of Ludiana. [No. 2, 

the name of the inhabitants from Rajput (?) to Oswal. The Bhabras 
were originally Oswals, and the name Bhabra is peculiar to 
the Panjab. At Dihli, the Oswals generally go by the name 
Jauhari, because they are generally employed as jewellers. The 
name Bhabra was originally Bhao Bhale, or " good brother." The 
peculiarities of the Jain religion need not be detailed here. Abstin- 
ence from all animal food, and an excessive regard for animal life 
are its most remarkable tenets. 

The " Sud" caste is very different from the Bhabra, though both 
are money-lending. Suds like the Kaiths of Bengal are lax in matters 
of eating and drinking. They are much less religious than Khattris, 
and they have a very bad name for dishonesty. Perhaps most 
judicial officers in this neighbourhood will admit that of all classes 
the Suds and the Zargars, or goldsmiths, are the most given to cheat- 
ing. The chief gots among the Suds are Kaski, Mihan, Kulle, Shahi, 
Dosahj. 

Among the Kashmiri residents of Ludiana, besides ordinary Muham- 
madan caste names, there are three principal castes or gots, Bat, 
Bande, and G-amani. 

In order to exemplify the local dialect, I will first render in it the 
sentences given by Mr. Campbell at the end of his appendix A, and 
will then add a list of a few local words which have struck me as 
peculiar. 

What is your name ? 

Tera ki naun hai ? 

How old is this horse ? 

Es ghore di ki 'umr hai ? 

The price of that is two rupees and a half. 

Ohda mul dhai rupaiya hai. 

My father lives in that small house. 

Mera pyii os chhote kothe vich ralmda hai. 

Give this rupee to him. 

Ih rupaiya oh nu dih. 

Take those rupees from him. 

Oh rupaiye oh ton le le. 

Beat him well and bind him with ropes. 

Oh nu klnib mar ate rassi nal ban de. 



1869.] The District of Ludidna. 99 

Draw water from the well. 

Kue vichon pani kad le. 

Walk before me. 

Mere sahmne clialo. 

Whose boy comes behind you ? 

Kis da inunda tere magar aunda hai ? 

From whom did you buy that ? 

Tain oh nu kithon mul liya ? 

From a shop-keeper of the village. 

Pind de hatwania kolon. 

How far is it from here to Kashmir ? 

E ton Kashmir nu kinni dur hai ? 

How many sons are there in your father's house ? 

Tere pyu de ghar kinne puttar ham ? 

I have walked a long way to-day. 

Aj main dur te sail kiti hai. 

The son of my uncle is married to her sister. 

Mere chache da puttar ohdi bahn nal vyaha hoya hai. 

In the house is the saddle of the white horse. 

Chitti ghore di kathi ghar vich hai. 

Put the saddle upon his back. 

Kathi ohdi pith utte kas de. 

I have beaten his son with many stripes. 

Main ohde puttar nu bahut mar mari. 

He is grazing cattle on the top of the hill. 

Oh pahar utte dangar charanda hai. 

He is sitting on a horse under that tree. 

Oh os darakht hetan ghore te baitha hai. 

His brother is taller than his sister. 

Ohda bhara ohdi bahn nalon wadda hai. 





Local words and phrases. 


mallomalli 


by violence. 


berwa 


details. 


sith dena 


to throw. 


aujar jana 


to lose one's way. 


tih 


a mound of ruins. 


14 





100 



The District of Ludidna. 



[No. 2, 



kainla" 

aukha 

nivin 

barkha 

uprant 

lirli pasi 

parli pasi 

aidki 

jwon 

parar 

mohandra 

kup 

bata sata 

lahnda 

chharda 

pahar 

sarmaili 

chakan 

goliara 



blockhead. 

difficult. 

low, not elevated. 

rain. 

in future. 

on tins side. 

on that side. 

this year. 

last or next year. 

year before last. 

face, appearance. 

stack (of bhusa, cV:c). 

exchange, barter. 

west. 

east. 

north. 

south. 

to lift up. 

heap of manure. 

right. 

left. 

a young bullock. 

jewels, &c. 

watercourse of a well. 

brick kiln. 

a lean mare. 

to mend. 



nil gao. 



sajja 

khabba 

wahra 

tagada 

bidh 

awah 

tair 

gathna 

rojh 

mainh buffalo. 

Religious fairs and pilgrimages are of such interest to the people 
of this country, that they call for a description notwithstanding the 
absurdities connected with them. There are two great bathing- 
fairs held here, the " bhet chandas" and the " baisakhi." And immense 
concourse of people meet at Ludiana on the 11th Rabi" ussani to 
celebrate a festival called the " Roshani." This is in honour of one 
of the greatest saints in Muhammadan tradition, Shaikh 'Abdul Qadir i 
Jilani, who is spoken of as Pir Sahib or Piran i pir. Herklots in 



1869.] The District of Liididna. 101 

his translation of the Qaniin i Islam devotes one chapter to this saint 
under the name of Pir i Dastgir (pages 237 to 241). This saint, 
who is esteemed by educated Muhammadans the chief among Walis, 
was horn in the year 471 H. in Jilan (Gilan) During.thirty-three 
years, he prepared himself for the dignity of wali. He died in 561 
A. H., being then 90 years of age, and was buried at Bagdad. In per- 
sonal appearance he is described as a handsome man. Among the 
greatest and most popular of his miracles are the following. While 
he was an infant at the breast, the month of Ramazan came round. 
The neighbours were prevented by the clouds from seeing the moon, and 
were in doubt whether they should begin the fast or not. On inquiry 
from the parents of 'Abdul Qadir, they found that he had refused 
the breast ever since sunrise, and this indication of the precocious 
young saint was accepted as conclusive. 

Again a mother was travelling with her son to celebrate his marriage 
with the betrothed. As they were crossing the river Indus, a 
storm arose, and upset the boat. The boy was drowned, but the 
old woman escaped to the bank. There she remained for twelve 
years praying to the Pir i Dastgir ; at the end of that period the 
saint appeared, and at her request prayed that the drowned boy 
and his comrades might be restored to life. Twice the holy man 
prostrated himself on the ground without result ; after the third 
prostration, the boat and its passengers reappeared on the river. 
The cause of the delay was that the bodies of the drowned had been 
devoured by fish, and the fish in their turn had become the food 
of men, many of whom had died in the interval. It had been 
necessary to collect the scattered fragments of the drowned before they 
were re-animated. On another occasion the saint converted a thief 
who was in the act of stealing from him, and made this same thief 
the Qutb or Chief among the darweshes of the city. 

A fourth and equally notorious anecdote refers to the punishment 
inflicted on a wali named Shaikh fan'an for disputing the supremacy 
of Piran i Pir. The latter had composed a qacida in which the 
following couplet occurred : 

" 1 amt he resident of Jilan, my name is Muhiyyuddin, and my foot 
(is on the necks of men," Shaikh gan'an denied that 'Abdul Qadir'sfoot 



102 The District of Ludiana. [No. 2, 

was on Ms neck, on which 'Abdul Qadir told him that the foot of 
a pig should be placed there. This was brought about by the 
charms of a swineherd's daughter who captivated the frail " wall," 
and made him carry a litter of newborn swine. She would more- 
over have compelled him to eat pork had not Shaikh 'Abdul Qadir 
compassionately saved him from infidelity, and restored him to his 
right mind just as his hands were stretched out, to raise the forbidden 
food. 

The shrine at Ludiana was founded according to the tradition 
by a disciple of 'Abdul Qadir, named Shaikh Mahmud Makki who 
had established himself at Ludiana, whence he made frequent pil- 
grimages to his teacher's tomb at Baghdad. 

Next in importance to the Roshani fair is that held at the village 
of Chapar about sixteen miles from Ludiana in the direction of 
Maler Kotlah. This fair is connected with a most remarkable super- 
stition, which I cannot yet unriddle, but which I suspect is derived 
from some aboriginal religion. The divinity, or saint, in whose 
honour the fair is held, goes by the name of " Guga," and the shrine 
itself is called lt marl" or " marhi." The original " marhi" is supposed to 
be situated at some indefinite locality to the south ; but there are 
numerous small " maris" in this district besides the large one at 
Chapar. They are always outside the village ; in size and shape 
they are not unlike an ordinary Hindu samahd. The worship seems 
to consist in burning a (i chiragh," and in salaaming with the forehead 
lowered and with hands, palm to palm, " matha tekna" as it is called. 
The worship is in some way connected with the snake. At Chapar, 
though not in the smaller maris, there is a figure of a snake on the 
dais inside the shrine. Persons who have been snake-bitten, are 
taken to the mari for cure, and there is a special " mantra," called 
" jhara," recited for their recovery. There is also a custom called 
" til chasli" of throwing down rice and til seeds in places frequented by 
snakes. This Guga worship, though specially favoured by the lower 
classes,is not confined to any sect. At Chapar, the guardians of the shrine 
are brahmins, and only Hindus of good caste actually cross the threshold, 
but while the front of the marhi is allotted to them, the Muhammadans, 
Chumars, and Churas have each of the three remaining sides. Many of 
the smaller maris are under the guardianship of Muhammadan mirasis. 






1869.] The District of Ludidna, 103 

There are a great many wonderful tales chiefly of metamorphosis 
connected with Guga, but I have not yet obtained any rational 
or satisfactory account of the superstition itself. The inquiry is 
interesting, as it may throw light on ethnological questions and on 
the old snake-worship of India. The Chapar fair is held in the 
north of Bhadon. 

Still more numerous than the shrines of Guga are those of the 
famons Sakhi Sultan or Sakhi Sarwar, the Musalman saint whose 
great place of pilgrimage is on the frontier beyond Dera Ghazi Khan. 
In almost every village there is one of these shrines spoken of as 
the u than." Attached to them is a class of priests or rather mission- 
aries called " bharais." These make converts, and collect pilgrims 
for the annual caravans to the great shrine. This shrine is spoken 
of as Nigaha, and the qatllas are called " sangs." Thursday appears 
to be the day sacred both to Guga and to Sakhi Sultan. 

The great saint or divinity of the Churas, or Pan jab-sweepers, 
goes by the name of " Lai Beg." They erect a green flag in front 
of their houses, place chiraghs by its side, and then pay their 
devotions to the flag. They are very exclusive in their religious 
dogmas, maintaining that there will be no salvation in a future 
life for any but sweepers, though possibly a few Muhammadans may 
be admitted to heaven by inadvertently taking the name " Lai," 
when they repeat the halima "La Illah, &c. 

I may conclude this account of the Ludiana district with a few 
words respecting the old Muhammadan capital Sarhind, which though 
in Patiala territory, is very near the Ludiana border. Sarhind is 
now a city of desolation; not a mere mound of bricks like Sunet, 
but a collection of standing ruins imposing from their size and 
extent, but entirely desolate. The total area of the ruins is about 
ten miles round. The two most prominent ruins are those of the 
fort and of the governor's Palace or 'Am Khac. A road of white quartz 
connects the two and crosses a substantial Moghul bridge. Near the 
'Am Khac, is a large bank with a causeway leading to an island. 
Sarhind was long the residence of numerous families of Sayyids, and 
almost every third building seems to have been a mausoleum. The 
streets are crowded with these tombs mostly of one pattern, with 
three domes and a double roof. Most of the buildings have under- 



104 The District of Ludidna. [No. 2, 

ground apartments. There is a large number of wells, and each of 
them has a chamber connected with it. The Sikhs have built a 
Grurdiwara on the spot where Grovind Sing's two sons were murdered. 

These extensive ruins, which bear a melancholy testimony to the 
departed grandeur of Muhammadan rule, have been sold by the Raja 
of Patiala as " ballast" for the use of the Railway. Strange to say 
coins or trinkets are seldom found in excavating, nor could I discover 
a single inscription on any one of the thousand tombs and houses 
which cover the ground. 

About 20 miles from Sarhind is another old Muhammadan city call- 
ed Pail, of which also frequent mention is made in Farishta. This 
is still an imposing old city, but presents, like Sarhind, the appearance 
of desolation, though it is not like Sarhind a ruin. 

I send herewith two packets of coins. Those marked A are mis- 
cellaneous, but were collected chiefly in the Ludiana district ; of 
those marked B., one I believe or perhaps more than one was found 
at Sunet. [Vide Proceedings, Asiatic Society Bengal, for June, I860.] 



JOURNAL 



OF THE 



ASIATIC SOCIETY, 



Part I.— HISTORY, LITERATURE, &c. 
No. III.— 1869. 

Baddoni and his Works. By H. Blochmann, Esq., M. A., Assistant 
Professor, Calcutta Madrasah. 
[Received 1st April, 1869.] 
I. — Introduction. 

This paper is the first of a series of essays which I intend to write 
from copious notes collected by me on the Arabic and Persian editions 
of our Bibliotheca Indica. The object of the essays is to supply pre- 
faces and introductions to those works of which merely texts have 
been printed, to collect whatever biographical information we possess 
of the authors of our editions, and to remark on the style of their 
productions. Though the subject matter, especially in the case of our 
historical publications, has received much attention, the style of the 
authors presents many interesting features, inasmuch as we can trace 
in their works the growth of the Persian language in India. I also 
intend giving translations of new and interesting passages, and thus 
prepare the way for systematic translations. The more texts the 
Asiatic Society prints, the more necessary will it become to translate 
the works. This is of great importance for our historical texts : as 
long as we have no translations, the Historians of the Bibliotheca 
Indica will be a treasure under lock and seal. 

The great difficulty connected with the translation of our works is 
this, that in most cases the translations will have to be made in India, 
15 



106 Baddoni and his Works. [No. 3, 

where the MSS. which were used by the editors, still exist. In some 
works the geographical difficulties are so great, that they could not 
be well overcome by a translator in England ; in others the allusions 
are so pointed that without some familiarity with the people, and some 
instruction and assistance from good native teachers, it would be 
almost impossible to write a faithful translation. Not all our works 
are as easy in style as the Iqbdlndmah, the Pddishdhndmah, or 
Sayyid Ahmad's edition of the Tuzuk-i-Jahdngiri, which works any 
one who has made fair progress in Persian could translate. The texts 
of these works, moreover, are in a satisfactory condition. 

It was therefore with much pleasure that the Society lately learned 
that two of its members, Mr. T. W. H. Tolbort, and Mr. C. J.. 
Lyall, are about to entrust to the Society their MS. translations and 
abstracts of the Tdr'ikh-i-Firuzslidlu, and the reign of Akbar by 
Nizam i-Harawi. 

For the present paper I have selected the work known as the Tdrikh- 
i-Baddoni, partly because I found a perusal of the work of great assist- 
ance for my critical edition of the Ain, partly because of all Indian 
Historians Badaoni is the most difficult to be understood ; and I take 
this opportunity to acknowledge the obligations under which I lie to 
the Joint-Editor, Maulawi A'gha Ahmad 'Ali, for the assistance I 
received from him in preparing a MS. translation of Akbar's Reign (the 
second volume of Badaoni), from which some of the extracts below 
are taken. Badaoni is the only author among our Historians, to 
the peculiarities of whose character and opinions it is possible 
to trace the plan and the execution of his work. The opinion 
now current regarding Badaoni — which opinion is also held by 
a recent writer on Indian Historians in the Journal of the 
E. A. Society of Great Britain for 1868— is that the value of Ba- 
daoni's work lies in its giving us a view of the character of the great 
Emperor from an opposite point ; secondly, that he was a bigoted 
Moslem ; thirdly, that he could not tolerate the extremes of toleration 
to which Abulfazl and Faizi allowed the Emperor to go ; fourthly 
that the bitterness of the author impaired his judgment ; fifthly, that 
his work when read by itself does injustice to Akbar ; sixthly, that 
he writes " in unmeasured terms" of Akbar; and seventhly, that "his 
work may even give a very erroneous impression of the character, and 



1869.] Bad&om and his Works. 107 

particularly of the motives which actuated the greatest sovereign that 
has ever ruled the destinies of India, in many of the measures of his 
government." It is one of the objects of this paper to vindicate Ba- 
daoni, and to shew that with the exception of the third statement, 
which is a personal matter, every one of the remaining six points is a 
statement capable of being disproved by quoting from his works. 

But before proceeding to my task, I shall give a short outline, because 
I have chosen a historical writer for my first essay, of the history of 
our editions, as I can trace it from the records and journals of our 
Society. The following remarks then may serve as an introduction 
to the Historians of our New Series* 

II.— Sir Henry Elliot's Scheme and the Bibliotheca Indica. 
It may at first sight seem surprising that before the appearance, in 
1849, of Sir H. M. Elliot's Index to the Historians of Muhammadan 
India, but little was done for determining the sources from which 
the history of the Muhammadan period should be compiled. When cir- 
cumstances lead men to pay attention to a new branch of knowledge, 
it is outlines rather, and comprehensive sketches, which are required, 
than critical details. But when, in the course of time, a fair know- 
ledge lias been gained of the subject and its scopes, men will proceed 
to analytical enquiries; and after gaining an insight into the sources, 
they will exercise the power of selecting that w T hich is original from 
that which is borrowed. The attention which scholars before and at 
the time of Elliot paid to Indian History, was, however, by no means 
slight. This is shewn by the numerous translations which have been 
made by Anderson, Bird, Briggs, Chalmers (MS.), W. Davy, Born, 
Erskine, Gladwin, W. Hollingbery, C. A. Mackenzie (MS.), Miles, D. 
Prize, H. T. Prinsep, J. Reynolds, Bowlandson, C Stewart, D. Shea, 
A. Troyer, White, J. Wilkins, &c, several of which translations were 
printed at the cost of the Oriental Translation Fund. 

But it is the works of Sir H. M. Elliot, and his posthumous pa- 
pers which, for years to come, will form the sound basis of critical 
studies. Sir H. M. Elliot, shortly before 1847, if I am not mistaken, 
proposed to the Government of the North West to lithograph a uni- 

* Since writing the following remains, the New Series of our Bibliotheca 
Indica was reviewed in the Times of the 26th March, 1869. 



108 Baddon'i and his Works. [No. 3, 

form edition of the Historians of India. Though this proposal was 
not accepted for want of funds for such an object, Sir H. M. Elliot was 
asked to prepare an Index of the Historians, so that the proper MSS. 
might be selected and deposited in the College Library of Agra. 
The ' Index' thus called for by the Government of the N. W. * insen- 
sibly expanded into several volumes,' of which the first and only one 
was printed at Calcutta in 1849. The unexpected death of Sir H. 
M. Elliot put a temporary end to the completion of his Index. 

In March 1863, Mr. A. Grote proposed to the Philological Committee 
of our Society, to carry on the publication of Sir H. M. Elliot's papers, and 
on the 30th April of the same year the Committee [Messrs. A. Grote 
(President), E. C. Bayley, W. N. Lees, Rajendra Lala Mitra, and the 
Secretaries, Messrs. W. S. Atkinson and E. B. Cowell] reported to the 
Society as follows : — 

" The Committee have under consideration a proposition which has 
" for its object an endeavour to secure the publication, even in an im- 
" perfect form, of the valuable materials which the late Sir H. Elliot 
" had collected for his work on the ' Muhammadan Historians.' 

" It was the wish of many members of our Society eight years ago 
" to offer the Society's aid to Lady Elliot in carrying out the author's 
" project, but no proposition was made because it was hoped and 
"understood that the more powerful assistance of the Home Govern- 
li ment would be given to that end." 

" The Committee are aware that the late Board of Controul in their 
" letter, dated 4th August, 1856, to Professor Wilson, and Messrs. 
" Morley and Bayley, sanctioned the printing of the first three Vols. 
" of the Elliot MSS., which had been left ready for press, on the 
" understanding that the payment by the Court in respect of the 3 vols. 
" is to be strictly limited to the sum of £500, excluding the remaner- 
11 ation to the gentleman who may undertake the superintendence of the 
"publication. It was hoped that the publication of the further 
f* volumes might be effected by means of private efforts." * * * 

" Mr. Bayley who had examined all the materials, reported on them 
" thus : — Vols. 4 and 5, far advanced ; 6 and 7, materials and out- 
" lines only ready ; 8 nearly as far advanced as Vols. 10 and 11, which 



1869.] Baddoni and his Works. 109 

" are about, say, half ready ; Vol. 9 in an equally forward state with 
" the three first vols.* 

" The arrangement which was made with Mr. Morley for publish - 
" ing the work to the extent of the Board of Controul's grant 
" was terminated by that gentleman's death, and no similar 
" arrangement has since been found feasible. It seems to the Com- 
" mittee that there is great risk' of the late Sir H. Elliot's labours 
" being altogether lost, unless the Society comes forward with an offer 
" to undertake the superintendence of the publication. * •* # * 

" The materials to be placed at the Committee's disposal by Lady 
"Elliot. With Mr. E. Thomas' cooperation in England, the Com- 
" mittee will be in a condition to determine what they will require 
"to be sent out, and what portion may be left with him, or accessible 
"to him, for compliance with references made to hi^i from this 
" Committee." 

Circumstances, however, to the great regret of the Committee, prevent- 
ed the proposal from being carried out ; but Sir H. M. Elliot's papers 
are now being published in England under the able editorship of 
Professor J. Dowson. 

Though the departure of Sir H. M. Elliot from India, and his 
untimely death, had put an end to the immediate completion of his 
work, the collection of MSS. detailed in the ' Index' was commenced, 
and actively pursued. In 1855, the late Mr. Colvin, then Lieutenant- 
Governor of the North West, at the suggestion of Mr. E. Thomas, 
B. C. S , entrusted to Mr. H. W. Hammond, then Secretary of the 
Sadder Board of Revenue, the task of collecting and collating MSS. 
of the Muhammadan Historians of India. Mr. Hammond issued the 
following notice — 

lL ^-^ jjt ^jy^* K cJjj a^a* &j£ v K lJ L?^y JO"* 

* Vide also Dr A. Sprenger's Manuscripts of the late Sir R. Elliot, J. A. S. 
Bengal, Vol XXIII. 



110 Baddoni and his Works. [No. 3, 



♦jjlj A/oUa^s:*^ ^.Jjtyj| <X>cH:k &X&j3 i_JjLJ' 






lsj^\ f^jy^ * /0 ^ j*?\ (j>^ A <-ftMA&3 ^5^^ 






" The Government intends to print the undermentioned books, for 
•which purpose several MSS. are required for each work. Should any 
one possess MSS., he is requested to send them bearing by Bangy- 
dak to the Secretary of the Cadr Board, A'grah. After printing the 
books, the MSS. will be returned, together with a copy of the printed 
work gratis. Should any one be willing to part with his MSS., they 
will be bought." 

" Tarikh i Farishtah,* Khulacatuttawankh, Chhachhnamah, Tarikh 
i Sind, Tarikh i Yamini (in Persian),* Tabaqat i Naeiri,*' Fimzshah i 
by Zia i Barani,* Finizshahi by Shams i Siraj, Extract from the 
Zafarnamah,* Makhzan i Afghani,* Muntakhabullubab,* Tarikh 
i Chagatai, Babari,* Humayuni,*" Akbarnamah,* Sawanih i 
Akbari, Badaoni,* Zubdatuttawarikh, Maasir i Raliimi, Maasir 
i 'Alamgiri, Jahangirnamah, Padishahnamah* with its sequel, Ex- 
tract from the Hadiqatuccafa, 'Ibratnamah, Tarikh i Iradat Khan, 
Tarikh Nadiruzzamani, Siyarulmutaakhkharin,* Extracts from the 
Tarikh i Muzaffari, Extracts from the Muntakhabuttawarikh, Ex- 
tracts from the Hadiqatulaqalim, Wagcaf,* Tuzuk i Tiinuri.* 
12th September, 1855." 

* The works marked * have since been either printed or translated. 






1869.] Baddoni and his Works. Ill 

The number of MSS. which Mr. Hammond succeeded in purchasing 
or borrowing amounted to no less than 67. They were — 

Tarikh-i-Firuz-Shahi by Ziai Barani, 6 MSS. ; Tarikh-i-Firuz-Shahi 
by Shams Siraj 'Afif, 3 ; Iqbalnamah i Jahangiri of Mu'tamid Khan, 6 ; 
Tuzuk i Jahangiri, by the Emperor Jahangir, 3 ; Maasir-i- Jahangiri, 
1 ; Siyar al-Mutaakhkharin, 3 ; Tarikh-i-Farishtah, 3 ; Khulacat ut- 
Tawarikh, 2 ; Zubdat ut-Tawarikh by 'Abdul Haq, from Mu'izz ud- 
din to Akbar, 1 ; Zubdat ut-Tawarikh by 'Abd ul-Karim, from 
Muhammad Shah to E. I. Company, 1 ; Akbarnamak, Part I., 4 ; 
Idem, Part II., 1 ; Sawanih i Akbari, 3 ; Shah Jahannamah, 1 ; 
Tarikh-i-Baclaoni, 2 ; Maasir i 'Alamgiri of Muhammad Saqi, 1 ; 'Alam- 
girnamah i Dosalah, by the same, 1 ; Maasir i 'Alamgiri, by Munshi 
Muhammad Kazim, 1 ; Tarikh-i- 'Alamgiri, author unknown, 1 ; Mun- 
takhab ul Lubab, 1 ; 'Ibrat-namah, Yol. II,, 1 ; Tarikh i Muzaffari, 3 ; 
Tabaqat i Timuriah (abstract of Vol. I.), 1 ; Zafarnamah, 1 ; Tuzuk i 
Timuri, by Amir Timur, 2 ; Tarikh-i-Timuri (by ?), 1 ; Malfuzat i Amir 
Timur, by Muhammad Afzal, 1 ; Nadir uz Zamani, by Munshi Mahdi, 
3 ; Khula9at ut Tawarikh, 3 ; Hadiqat ul Aqalim, 1 ; Idem, abstract of, 
1 ; Makhzan i Afghani, 1 ; Maasir ul Umara, 1 ; (???) Sikandari, 1 ; 
Tarikh Mamalik i Hind, 1. 

1 TheMSS.of ZiaiBarani'sTarikh-i-Firuz-Shahi,' says Mr. Hammond, 
1 were carefully collated, under my supervision, by Maulvi Faiz Ahmad, 
Sarishtahdar of the Board of Revenue at Agra, a man well versed in 
Oriental literature, a good Persian and Arabic scholar, and much 
employed by the late Sir Henry Elliot. He disappeared during the 
mutiny, and I never could ascertain any particulars regarding his fate. 
In collating the MSS. he was assisted by two competent Munshis. One 
copy of Zia i Barani's history, belonging to Sayyid Ahmad, was pre- 
pared for press, and (I believe) formed the basis of the text lately 
printed in Calcutta. This and one other MS. of Zia i Barani alone 
escaped. All the others were placed by me in a strong chest on 
leaving India in 1856, and were deposited in the Record Office of the 
Board of Revenue at Agra, which edifice was burnt during the 
mutiny. There were in the same box some MSS. of Arabic and 
Persian Dictionaries.' 

1 The MSS. of Shams i Siraj 'Afif's history were also collated, and 
some others commenced upon. I defrayed from my private means 



112 Badaoni and his Works. [No. 3, 

all expenses of collection or collation of the MSS. herein referred to. 
I have no idea whether any grant for purposes of publication was 
subsequently made by the Government of India.'* 

The year before Mr. Hammond had been commissioned to collect 
the Agra Library MSS., Mr. Morley's Catalogue of the Historical 
MSS. of the R. A. S. made its appearance. In the absence of the 
completing portion of Sir H. M. Elliot's Index, the publication of 
this catalogue was of the greatest importance, whilst it is still one of 
the best indexes to the Historical works of other Muhammadan 
countries. 

The loss of 67 MSS. of 35 historical works is irreparable. Any one 
who has been collecting MSS. in India, knows how difficult it is to 
obtain any at all. The paucity of MSS. at the present day, is due to 
vermin, the climate, the impoverished status of many Muhammadan 
families, but especially to the introduction of printing and litho- 
graphing, which has made kdtibs superfluous. The number of pro- 
fessional copyists is very small, and daily decreasing. Bearing 
moreover in mind that historical works, as also dictionaries, are from 
their voluminousness more rarely copied than Diwans and other light 
reading, we should not have been surprised, if the loss of the Agra 
MSS. had frustrated the last hope of carrying out Sir H. M. Elliot's 
scheme of issuing, in India, editions of Native Historians. 

It was therefore fortunate, as it was patriotic, that the Philologi- 
cal Committee of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, in 1859, took 
up the scheme, and resolved to print in the New Series several works 
on the History of Muhammadan India. The minute book of the 
Philological Committee shews that it was Mr. A. Grote, its President, 
who first advocated the editing of Muhammadan Historians. He says 
in his minute of the 26th September, 1859 : — 

" I am strongly in favour of publishing the works of some of the 
il Persian Historians of Muhammadan India. The N. W. Govern- 
" menthad, it will be remembered, a project for bringing out a series of 
" such histories. This, Mr. Muir tells me, has, for the present, been 
11 abandoned, all the materials collected for the publication having 
" been destroyed at Agra in 1857. The only MSS. which escaped, 
" were those of Zia i Barani, which Mr. Hammond had taken home 
* Vide Journal, R. A. S. 1868, p. 475. 



1 8(59.] Baddoni and his Works. 113 

" with him ; and which will probably be placed at our disposal, if we 
" decide on undertaking its publication. I will hereafter make some 
'•suggestions as to the historians to be selected, should the Com- 
" mittee concur generally in the propriety of including this class of 
" works in the New Series." 

In the minutes of the Committee (26th Sept. 1859) I find the 
following entry : — 

" Present — The President, Capt. Lees, Rev. J. Long, Babu 
" Rajendra Lala Mitra, and the Secretaries [Messrs. W. S. Atkinson 
"andE. B. Cowell]. I. Resolved that a new Series of the Biblio- 
" theca Indica be commenced. IV. The President proposed that the 
" Society should undertake to publish some Muhammadan Historians 
" particularly Zia i Barani (vide Minute attached). Approved of. 
" Information should be collected respecting MSS. and a competent 
"editor." 

These recommendations were adopted by the Council of the 
Society. The Committee soon gave proofs of its continued activity. 
At the meeting of the 16th January, 1860, a letter was read from 
Sayyid Ahmad Khan of Muradabad, offering to edit Zia i Barani. 
It was resolved to accept his offer, and to ask him to send the MS. 
to Calcutta. 

On the 12th April of the same year, Mr. Grote circulated the 
following extract of a letter written by Mr. Morley to Mr. E. 
Thomas — 

"I am much pleased to find that Persian texts are to be printed 
in the Bibliotheca Indica, and that Mr. Grote begins promisingly. 
I should not at all object to send my collated transcript of JBailiaqi, to 
India, if I were sure that it would be printed, but not else. I wrote 
it, in the first place, faithfully from my own MS. which you have, 
and in it is noted every variant, without reference to sense, from Sir 
H. Elliot's MS. and the one in the Paris Library. Printing a correct 
text from my collated transcript would be an easy task for any 
painstaking Persian scholar. 

P. S. The Baihaqi amounts to 372 pages, small 8vo., 19 lines 
in a page." 

The editing of Bailiaqi was happily not interfered with by the 
death of Mr. Morley. At the meeting of the Committee on the 15th 
16 



1 14 Baddoni and Jiis Works. [No. 3, 

August 1860, the President announced the decease of Mr. Morley ; 
but he added that Mr. E. Thomas had seen the Executors, and had 
secured from them the promise that the MS. of Baihaqi should be 
sent out to India. On the receipt of Mr. Morley's transcript, it was 
immediately forwarded, as had been done with Sayyid Ahmad's 
Firuzshahi, to Major Lees' press. 

In their Annual Report for 1861, the Council announced to the Society 
that four fasciculi of Zid i Barani and two fasc. of Baihaqi had been 
issued. The completion of both works was announced in the Annual 
Report of our Society for 1862. At the annual meeting the President 
(Mr. A. Grote) remarked : — 

" The series of Persian historians is one, in the progress of which I 
take a special interest, an interest borrowed from others, but not the 
less genuine for not being original. The late Sir H. Elliot and Mr. 
John Colvin were the first movers, as is generally known, on behalf 
of the publications in question, which the active co-operation of Mr. E. 
Thomas had just pressed into a project, when the troubles of 1857 
caused all idea of it to be dropped. It was resumed some three years 
ago by the Philological Committee at the suggestion, I believe, of 
myself, since I, as your Secretary, had been all along in close com- 
munication with those friends whom I have just named. The first 
work, the Tarikh i Firuzshahi of Zia i Barani, which the Committee 
undertook to recommend to the Council, was that which was to have 
opened the series under the auspices of the North- Western Govern- 
ment. I indulge in the hope that much may yet be done towards 
carrying out, not only thus partially, but in its entirety, the task to 
which Sir H. Elliot had devoted himself, and which was occupying 
him when he died. The mass of valuable materials which he had 
collected, ought not to be allowed to remain inaccessible to the many 
who desire to consult them and profit by them." 

On the 23rd April, 1862, Mr. E. B. Cowell proposed that the 
Tarikh i Baddoni by 'Abdul Qadir be undertaken in the Series of 
Indian Historians. At the same meeting, Major Lees also, guided 
by Morley's Catalogue, proposed to edit such portions of the Tabaqdt 
i Nltciri as had a reference to India. The minute Book contains the 
following entry : — 

" VI. Read a Memorandum by Capt. Lees connected with the 



1869.] Badaoni and his Works. 115 

prosecution of Persian and Arabic publications by the Society, and 
resolved that the Committee cordially concur with him in the pro- 
priety of publishing the Tabaqdt i Ndgiri." The Memo, alluded to, 

I have not been able to trace among the records ; but the substance of 
it may be embodied in Major Lees' remarks on p. 465 of our Journal 
for 1864. Regarding the Tabaqdt i Ndciri, he says : — 

" Of the contents of the work, the late Mr. Morley in his Catalogue, 
" gave a brief outline ; and from the examination I made of the book, 
" his remarks appear to convey an accurate impression of its value : 
"of the propriety then of our publishing the portion mentioned [Grhori 

II Dynasty up to Naciruddin Mahmiid], there could not, I think, be a 
" question." 

Mr. Cowell's proposal to print the Tarikh i Badaoni was accepted 
on the 8th April, 1863. The following entry refers to it : — 

a Capt. Lees' Report on the MSS. of the Tarikh i Badaoni was 
read and approved ; but his suggestions relative to the Tabaqat i 
Akbari to be deferred to a future meeting." 

It is a matter of regret that the printing of the Tabaqat i Nizam i 
Bakhshi* was allowed to be deferred. The three very inferior MSS. 
of the Tarikh i Badaoni were handed over to Maulawi Kabiruddin 
Ahmad / who edited the second volume (Akbar's reign) ; afterwards, 
for the first and third volumes, they were given to Maulawi Agha 
Ahmad 'Ali of the Calcutta Madrasah.f The completing fasciculus 
of the whole work, together with a short biographical notice of Badaoni 
in Persian, has just been issued. 

The Annual Report for 1864 announced the completion of the 
Tabaqat i Ndciri, and the issue of five fasciculi of Badaoni. 

During 1865, the historical editions were vigorously proceeded with. 
On the 22nd June, 1864, Major Lees proposed that the Iqbdlndmah i 
Jalumcfiri should be printed. Though it - was of little advantage to 
print this work as it is a verbatim extract from the Tuzuh i Jahdngir'i% 

* Called by mistake Nalclisabi on p. 468 of our Journal for 1864. 

f Vide Journal A. S. Bengal for 1868, No. I., p. 20. 

j I have collected the places in the Iqbalnamah which contain, either 
new items of information, or differences from the Tuzuh, and trust to have- 
shortly leisure to put them in form of «n essay. If one of the two works is to 
be translated, it must be the Tuzulc (Sayyid Ahmad' s edition). There are few 
works which contain more collateral information than the Tnzuk. 



116 Bad don i and Ids Works. [No. 8, 

which had been printed the year before by Sayyid Ahmad of Alighur 
(1864), the Committee and the Council resolved to print it. The 
MSS. were handed over to Maulawis 'Abdul Hai and Agha Ahmad 
'Ali, whose edition is carefully got up, and generally free from typo- 
graphical errors. 

On the same day also, the Committee resolved to publish a 
revised edition of the Ain i A/cbari, and to apply to Government 
for a special grant. Dr. A. Sprenger, to whom Sir H. M. Elliot also 
owed so much in his search for rare MSS., had, on several occasions, 
even before the New Series was commenced with, pointed out to the 
Philological Committee the importance of a critical text of the Ain. 

On the 12th November, 1865, Major Lees proposed that the Com- 
mittee should print the Pddishdhndmah of 'Abdul Hamid i Lahori, 
and the ' Alamgirndmah by Muhammad Kazim. The latter was edited 
by Maulawis 'Abdul Hai and Khadim Husain, the former of whom lately 
favoured the Society with a minute Index (now printing) of names, an 
Index geographicus, and a List of Errata which, in the absence of a 
translation,* will be of great assistance. The MSS. of the Pddishdhndmah 
were handed over to Maulawis 'Abdurrahim and Kabiruddin Ahmad of 
the Madrasah. The work is rather bulky, and awkward for references 
being made to it, especially as there is no index of names, &c. Its 
style, however, is easy, though not half as polished as the elegant 
Alamgirndmah. 

In 1866, the Government of India granted Rs. 5000 for a critical 
edition of the Ain, which was commenced in March 1867. Up to the 
present moment, eight fasciculi of the text, and three of an English 
version have been printed. 

On the 2nd March 1868, Major Lees, shortly before his departure 
for Europe, proposed that the Committee should print eight other 
historical works, including the Tabaqdt i Akbari, of which the Council 
selected the voluminous, but valuable, Khdfi Khun, which is now 
being edited by Maulawi Kabiruddin. The endeavours which have 
been made to collect MSS. for the Madsir i 'Alamgiri have not been 
successful. 

» A portion of 'the ^ Alamgirndmah (passages relating to Burma and Assam) 
has been translated (Library A. S. Bengal, No. 32). 



1869.] Baddoni and his Works. 117 

III. 

A Biography of 'Abdul Qadir. 

'Abdul Qadir was born on the 17th Rabi'ussani 947 (21st August, 
1510) at Todah,* in the Sirkar of Rantanbhur, which belonged to the 
pdbah of Ajmir. Regarding the year of his birth, he says in his 
history — " In this year Slier Shah gave the order to build from Ban- 
gal to Rahtas in the Panjab (a distance of four months' travel), and 
from Agrah to Mandu in Mai wall, at every kos, a house for travellers 
with a Masjid and a well. He appointed for each sardi a Muazzin 
and an Imam (leader of the prayer), and even a Muhammadan and a 
Hindu, f who were to provide travellers with water and the indigent with 
food. He also planted, on both sides of the road, trees which formed 
an avenue in the shade of which people could travel. Even nowa- 
days, though fifty-two years later, the traces of this road are in many 
places visible. During the reign of this good king, justice was every- 
where so efficiently provided for, that an old man, for example, might 
have anywhere lain down to sleep with a golden plate in his hand, and 
yet no thief would have taken it away from him. Thanks be to 
God that during the reign of such a king the author of this history 
was born ! I might apply to my case the words which our blessed 
prophet said of the time of his birth, ' I was born during the reign 
of the just king [Naushirwan the Just]." 

We know nothing of the circumstances of 'Abdul Qadir's father, 
whose name was Muluk Shah ibn i Hamicl.J The family appears to 
have chiefly lived at Basawar, or Bhasawar, a town of the district of 
Bayanah on the route from Agrah to Ajmir, and generally spelt on 
our maps Bissoioer or Busoivar. There 'Abdul Qadir spent the first 
years of his life (II, 236). His maternal grandfather, Makhddm 
Ashraf, took much interest in him, and taught him the elements of 
Arabic Grammar (II, 63). It appears that Makhdum Ashraf held a 
military post ; for 'Abdul Qadir states that, in 955, his grandfather 
was with the contingent of Farid Tdrin, a commander of Five thousand, 
at Bajwarah, near Bayanah (f iibah of Agrah). About that time, his 

* I, p. 363; II, p. 236. 

f Hindus will not drink water from the leather bags of the water-carriers. 

t }J> P- 252, Sir H. Elliot in one of his extracts from Badaoni calls 'Abdul 
Qadir's grandfather Jdh, according to the reading of the MS. belonging to the 
Society which he used. All other MSS. have Hdmid. 



118 Badioni and his Works. [No. 3, 

father Muluk Shah, went to Sambhal, where ' during the reign of 
Islem* Shah (952 to 960)' 'Abdul Qadir learnt to read and chant the 
Qoran. At Sambhal also lived Shaikh Panjd, the spiritual guide 
fpir i dastgir) of his father Muluk Shah. The Shaikh who was a 
pupil of the famous Shaikh Adhan of Jaunpur, was as distinguished 
for his profundity in pufism, as for the beauty of his voice, and for his 
talents of speech and address ; and it is perhaps from him that 'Abdul 
Qadir acquired the fine intonation which subsequently recommended 
him to Akbar. In 960, while still at Sambhal, 'Abdul Qadir studied 
Muhammadan law under Miyan Hatim and Shaikh Abulfath, son of 
the renowned Shaikh Ilahdiyahf of Khairabad (II, 286). With the 
former 'Abdul Qadir studied the Kanz ifiqah i Hanafi, and became in 
time his direct disciple fmurid i rasMdJ, when Hatim honoured him 
with the cap and the ' tree' of his own teacher 'Azfzullah. Hatim, who died 
in 969, must have been a Shaikh of great renown ; for not only has 
'Abdul Qadir placed him first among his biographies of the learned of 
Akbar's reign (Vol. Ill), but Abulfazl has done so likewise in his list 
of the learned (Second book of the Ain). 

During 'Abdul Qadir's stay in Sambhal, Basawar and the surround- 
ing districts were plundered by Hemii in his expedition (961) against 
Ibrahim Khan ; and the exhausted state of the district was rendered 
mere pitiable during the dreadful famine of 962, when 'Abdul Qadir 
witnessed the death from hunger of thousands and the dreadful sight 
of man eating man (I, 423). During the sack of Basawar by Henm, 
the library also of 'Abdul Qadir's father perished. 

In 966, the third year of Akbar's reign, 'Abdul Qadir accompanied 
his father to Agrah, where he lived in the house of Mihr 'Ali Beg 
Saldoz, who subsequently rose to high dignity. After a journey with 
Mihr 'Ali Beg (related in Elliot's Index, p. 233) to the fortress of 
Chanar, 'Abdul Qadir continued his studies in Agrah, under Shaikh 

* Islem, witli the yd i majhul (e), is the vulgar and Indian pronunciation 
for Islam ; hence we also find towns called Islenvptir. This change (imdlah) 
of a long a to e has in many words become classical. Another well-known 
Indian example is haweM, the environs of a town, for hawdlt, which has now-a- 

days taken another meaning. But ^xl*»| } with the imdlah, is never pronounced 

islim. Vide Elliot's Index, p. 229, note 2. 

f Ildhdiyah is the Hindustani for the Persian Ildhddd. Another form is 
Allah diyahy pr. God has given, Theodore. So also Ildhdbdd and Allahdbdd, 
Ildhwirdi Khan and Allahwvrdi Khan. 



18G9.] Badaoni and his Works. 119 

Mubarik of Nagor. This Mubarik is one of the most remarkable men 
of Akbar's reign. He bad the good fortune of seeing his eldest son, 
Abul Faiz, acquire the renown of being the second greatest poet that 
Hindustan has produced ; whilst his second son Abulfazl became the 
greatest statesman and patriot that Muhammadan India can point 
to. Shaikh Mubarik was, moreover, one of the principal causes of 
Akbar's apostacy from the Islam. The heretical influence which he 
even exercised on 'Abdul Qadir, who at that time had commenced rigour- 
ously to walk on the path of the law and the commentaries, is clearly 
visible in his belief in the approach of the Millennium, of which I 
shall say a few words in connection with 'Abdul Qadir's character. 

The law studies which Abdul Qadir continued at Agrah, remained 
his favourite occupation to the end of his life. Under Shaikh Mubarik 
he had made friendship with Abul Faiz and Abul Fazl ; under Qazi 
Abul Ma'ali, a lawyer who had come to Agrah from Bukhara, he had 
Naqib Khan as class fellow (hamdars), who subsequently played an 
important part under Akbar and Jahangir. 

Thus we see that, as far as education and society were concerned, 
'Abdul Qadir enjoyed all those advantages upon which success in after- 
life depends. 

In 969, 'Abdul Qadir and Shaikh Muhammad, his younger brother, 
had to mourn over the death of their father. His body was carried from 
Agrah to Basawar. In the following year, Makhdum Ashraf also, 
'Abdul Qadir's grandfather, died at Basawar. " Thus in the space of 
one year," says 'Abdul Qadir in chronicling these events, u nothing 
but grief entered my heart, which up to this time had been so thought- 
less ; and sorrow which I had hitherto avoided, stepped up in all its 
ruthlessness and attacked me. The meaning of ' It has hef alien me' 
became now clear to me, and I saw the truth of what my father had 
once told me, " that my light-mindedness would last as long as he was 
on earth ; but afterwards people would see how I would go on without 
him, and how I would scorn the world and everything connected with 
it." 

'Abdul Qadir soon after removed to Badaon (oJjI^J)* where he 

* The word Badaon has the accent on the penultima, and a final nasal n ; 
hence badaoni, with a short o or u, and the Shakl i Harazah above the wdw, 
an inhabitant of Badaon. The transliteration Badauni, which I. have seen in 



120 Badaoni and his Works. [No. 3, 

stayed till 973. He then removed to Patiyala (JIUJo), and was intro- 
duced to Husain Khan, the Jagirdar of the town. This man was at 
once the Bayard and the Don Quixote of Akbar's Court. He belonged 
to the chiefs who under Humayun had re-conquered India ; hence he 
was in high favor with Akbar, who had raised him to the dignity of a 
Commander of Three thousand (Am Second Book, Ain 30, No. 53). 
But he was a pious monomaniac ; he thought of nothing else but 
treasures and gold bars concealed in the Hindu temples of the Sawalik 
Range, and he undertook predatory expeditions, from which he re- 
turned poorer than he had been before. His enthusiasm was ever in 
advance of that of his men who, badly equipped as they were, had 
not only to surfer hunger and thirst, but never found the gold bars 
for which they and their master got their heads broken. "When 
Governor of Labor, he used to eat bread made of oatmeal — ' his fare 
was not to be better than that of his prophet.' He would not indulge 
in the luxury of a chdrpdi, or bedstead — ' had not saints slept on the 
ground ?' It was known that he had never committed an unchaste deed. 
Property he had none. The contingent which he ought to have kept as 
a Commander of Three Thousand was never in proper order ; and though 
Akbar had added the town of Shamsabad to his jagir, his liberality 
towards the poor and pious left him no money to get horses for his 
men. On one occasion (II, p. 94), he lost for this reason the com- 
mand of an expedition. Sometimes he had not a horse for himself ; 
or his servants had to bring him a horse, because he had given away 
his last and only horse as a present. " Money kept at home," said 
he, "is a thorn in my side." A poet said of him — Khan i mitflis, 
ghuldm i bdsdmdn — ' A poor lord with rich subjects.' When, in 983, 
he died from, a wound which he had received on his last expedition 
in search of Hindu gold bars, he was one lac and a half in debt ; but his 
creditors tore up the receipts, partly because he had no assets, partly 

some works, is misleading ; for -JjltXJ has the ivazn of ^JlfUix) u — u — , and 
Baddnni would be w .LxULo 3 \j . For ^ \&j ^ we find an old spell- 
ing cy|^, wi th a nasal n after the AUf. The spelling &yj±J> with a yd after 
the alif, is quite modern. 

The town was famous as the ' abode of saints.' The ' Chronicle of Badaon,' 
published in Urdu by the Eohilcund Library Society, gives the names of fifty- 
one * worthies.' 



1869.] Baddoni and his Works. 121 

because they loved the man. He was tall of stature, and possessed 
immense physical strength. He fought like a lion. His war cry was, 
" Death or victory !" ; and when people asked him why he did not 
say u Victory or death," inverting the order of his battle call, he said, 
" Oh, I do long to be with the saints that have gone before !" 

His piety and reverence for the Sayyids, the learned, and every thing 
Islamitic, frequently led him into serious mistakes. Once, at Lahor, 
a Hindu had come to one of his meetings, who wore a long beard as 
Muhammadans do. Mistaking him for a co-religionist, the old 
warrior shewed him every mark of respect, and even humility. When 
people informed him of his mistake, he gave the order that every 
Hindu at Lahor should sew a piece (tukra) of cloth over the place 
where the sleeve is sewn to the coat ; and the rigour with which 
he exacted compliance to his order, procured him the nickname of 
Tukriyah, the Patcher. Nor would he allow Hindus to use saddles 
(z'm) when on horseback, because the Muhammadan law denies 
infidels this boon ; but he only allowed them a wallet fpaldnj. 

Another time, at Lak'hnau, he appointed a man as his Vakil, 
because he was a Sayyid, when sometime after his relations, to his 
infinite disgust, told him that his Vakil was a Shi' ah. 

The last expedition which Husain Khan led, was as much directed 
against the imperial collectors who oppressed the poor, as against 
Hindu temples with hidden gold bars ; and Akbar had the greatest 
difficulty in believing that Husain Khan had not rebelled. " People," 
says 'Abdul Qadir, " think him mad ; but he is wise and lowly in heart." 
His piety was so sincere, that Badaoni thinks that Akbar would never 
have renounced Islam, if Husain Khan had remained alive. 

This was the man to whom 'Abdul Qadir, in 973, had been intro- 
duced, and whose service he entered. He had at that time the 
idea of going to Court ; but the liberality of Husain Khan and the 
regard he shewed to learned men, induced 'Abdul Qadir, for the pre- 
sent, to give up all thoughts of applying to Akbar. He preferred the 
appointment of Cadr of Husain Khan's jagir. As such, he had to 
look after the poor of the district, and attend on his master for religious 
matters, as leading the prayer, &c. 

During the nine years (973 to 981), which 'Abdul Qadir remained 
with Husain Khan, he shared the transfers, and the adventures 
17 



122 Badaoni and his Works. [No. 3, 

of this Knight- errant of the Crescent. In 974, when Akbar and 
his grandees were engaged in suppressing the rebellion of Khan 
Zaman, which ended with the defeat and death of the rebellious chief 
at Mungarwal, near Allahabad, 'Abdul Qadir lived for a short time in 
Agrah, where he met Mirza Nizam uddin Ahmad (II, p. 99,) who 
subsequently wrote the Tabaqat i Akbari, and became his warm 
friend. 

In 975, 'Abdul Qadir married a second wife at Badaon (II, 105). 
Of his first marriage he has left no record. The event was the 
occasion of a pretty Tarifch, — ^ ^—j^. &>J* ^° <^^, ' I said, a 
moon in conjunction with a sun,' which gives 975. 

Soon after, 'Abdul Qadir followed his patron to Lak'hnau, to 
which place Husain Khan's jagir had been transferred by Akbar. 
'Abdul Qadir made use of his stay in Audh to visit the principal saints 
and the learned men of the time. The sojourn at Lak'hnau was, 
however, of short duration ; Husain Khan's jagir was again transferred 
to Kant o Golah (Shahjahaupur), and mortified at the transfer, the 
old hero set out on an expedition against Hindu temples and their 
hidden treasures.* 'Abdul Qadir did not accompany him, but asked 
for leave to go to Badaon where he got his younger brother, Shaikh 
Muhammad, married. The union, says Badaoni, was productive of 
mischief, and appears to have led, towards the end of 977, to the 
death of Shaikh Muhammad. 'Abdul Qadir's sorrow at this loss was 
increased by the death of his infant son 'Abdullatif. The Tarkib- 
hand in which he has expressed his grief (II, pp. 127 to 132,) is very 
fine, and shews the powers of his poetical genius. 

In the beginning of 979, 'Abdul Qadir rejoined Husain Khan at 
Kant o Golah, where he continued his duties as almoner. In the 
same year ' a dreadful event' befell Badaoni, which is best related in 
his own words (II, p. 136). " I went to Makkanptir, which belongs to 
the Sirkar of Qanuauj, in order to visit the tomb of Shah Madar.f 

* This expedition has been translated in Elliot's Index, pp. 235, 236. The 
corresponding passage in the Text edition will be found on p. 125, of the second 
volume of Badaoni. Lines 6 to 8 are unintelligible ; for c J^.,3 read Jck^ • 

for bainiha read hainaha ; Ij^ has no sense ; for ^jljJJ we expect the name 
of a town. 

f Vide Garcin de Tassy, La Religion Musulmane dans l'lnde, p. 52 (second 
edition). The word Qanuauj is differently pronounced. The spelling Kanauj 






1869.] Baddoni and his Works. 123 

As it is the case with all men that are { brought up on pure milk,' light- 
mindedness — Adam's legacy, and the source of repentance, cruelty, 
ignorance, sorrow, and injury — brought me into a foolish scrape. 
This light-mindedness I called love, and after getting entangled in the 
net of voluptuousness, I had to suffer what fate had ordained. An 
extraordinary row took place in the vault where the saint lies buried ; 
but it was not only Grod's anger, but also His mercy, that I was made 
to suffer for my crime in this world. Some people belonging to the 
family of the beloved got hold of me, and inflicted nine sword 
wounds on my head, hands, and shoulders. But the wounds were 
only skin wounds, with the exception of the wound on my head ; for 
my skull sustained a fracture, and the brain was laid bare. Besides, the 
vein of my little finger had been cut through. I fell into a swoon, 
and thought it was all over with me. But by and by I recovered 
and got well. I hope, I shall likewise get off as easily in the next world. 
At Bangarmau,* I fell in with a skilful surgeon, under whose care my 
wounds commenced to heal up within the course of a week. In my pains, 
I vowed to perform the rite of pilgrimage to Makkah ; but this vow 
has up to the present time (1004) not been fulfilled. * * * From 
Bangarmau I returned to Kant o Golah. After the bath of recovery, 
however. I was again confined to my bed. May (rod Almighty 
reward Husain Khan with a place in Paradise ; for he tended me 
with the care of a father and a brother, and did more than man can do. 
As the cold of the season made my wound quite numb (gazak), he 
prepared for me a salve of Tamarix, and also fed me on Tamarix 
sweetmeats. At last I went to Badaon, in order to consult another 
physician. He re-opened the wound, which brought me to death's 
door. Once while in a state of torpor, I had a dream. A number of 
collectors of taxes had taken me up to heaven, where I saw a daftar, 
a Dhodn, and clerks. Some mace-bearers, who resembled the mace- 

or Qanauj, is very common ; but several verses of the Shahnamah and 
Nizami's Sikandarnamah read Qannauj, with a double n, as is proved by the 
metre ; vide Vullers' Diet, under g-jiif. Dawson's edition of Elliot's works (II, 

p. 52), quotes a commentator who spells Kinnauj, which is also the spelling- 
given in the Taqtvim ulbuldcm. 

* yoAj\j. The Kin spells this name yoSsi Bangarmau. Our maps have 
Bingermow ; it lies in Audh (south), and belonged to the district of Undm 
(on our maps Onao, on the Lak'hnau railway). There are many towns in Audh 
and Bareli, the names of which end in mau. 



124 Badaoni and his Works. [No. 3, 

bearers attending on the kings of the world, with staffs in their hands, 
got hold of me, and hurried me about, when one of the writers who 
looked over a sheet of paper, said, li This is not the one." Trembling 
all over I opened my eyes ; but from that moment I felt relieved, and 
the story which I had often heard when a child, proved true."* 

The perusal of this ' lovescrape' makes upon us a different impression 
from what it will make upon a Muhammadan. First of all, 'Abdul 
Qadir's " beloved" was a young boy. But whilst we, in censuring 
'Abdul Qadir, would expect that the thought of his family and his 
office, his education, and his religious sincerity, should have pro- 
tected him against committing or attempting an unnatural crime, a 
Muhammadan would rather look upon the whole story as a mere 
example of the power of love. In the East, it is a recognized fact 
that love to a boy renders a man mad, and makes him in the eyes 
of his neighbours an object of sympathy rather than of censure. 
The element of immorality enters but slightly. Even now-a-days, 
when such cases come to the notice of educational officers, the 
excuse constantly brought forward is, that the offender had tem- 
porarily become a hafir — a phrase only too frequently borrowed 
from the poets, — and that such love scandals are matters of fate as 
every thing else, so that the ends of justice are better met with by 
watching or locking up the boy than punishing the offender. As 
'Abdul Qadir has related the story himself, we might feel inclined to 
give him the credit of being an unbiassed historian who will even relate 
events to his own disadvantage. He certainly might have suppressed 
it ; but the story is related as a ' dreadful event,' and deals more with 
the thrashing and the wounds he got than with the crime itself. 

Later, in 989, when he was forty-two years old, 'Abdul Qadir once 
more experienced the power of love (II, p. 297) ; and though he 
wilfully absented himself from Court, in order to be near the beloved 
boy, the affair was more platonic, and ended in a few ghazals and an 
often repeated desire of dying during a meeting with the beloved. 

* I. e., that when a man dreams of death, it signifies life. The study of 
dream books is as profitable as the study of the proverbs of a nation. If we 
compare the interpretations which different nations attach to one and the same 
dream, we discover most curious coincidences and contrasts indicating a differ- 
ence in national character. Lithographed Khwdbndmahs command a most 
extensive sale in the bazars of India. 



1869.] Badaoni and his Works. 125 

Whilst recovering from his wound, 'Abdul Qadir witnessed the 
total conflagration, in 979, of the town of Badaon. 

Towards the end of 981, 'Abdul Qadir fell out with his old patron, 
Husain Khan, in whose service he had been for nine years (II, 172). 
He does not state the cause of- the disagreement ; but to judge from 
his remarks, he felt himself wronged. Husain Khan in vain asked 
Badaoni's mother to intercede for him : her son had made up his 
mind to go to Court, and thus carry out the plan which he had made 
before entering Husain Khan's service. 

'Abdul Qadir was introduced to Akbar by Jalalucldin Qi'irchi, a 
commander of Five Hundred, and a personal friend of the emperor, and 
by Hakim 'Ain ul niulk, one of the Court Doctors. " As in those days," 
says Badaoni, "knowledge was a marketable commodity, my mere arrival 
at Court procured me His Majesty's favorable notice. He made me 
at once join a disputation which was going on among some learned 
men ' that beat the drum of profundity, and in their pride, care for 
no one.' His Majesty watched me closely. With the help of G-ocl, 
my force of character, my subtle understanding, and youthful boldness, 
gained the victory. The emperor praised me very much, and remarked 
that I was the man for Haji Ibrahim of Sarhind. As His Majesty 
wished to see the Haji defeated in argument, he appointed me as 
opponent. The manner in which I acquitted myself, entirely satisfied 
the emperor. But Shaikh 'Abdunnabi, the renowned gadr of the 
realm, disliked me, as I had not consulted him before my presentation 
at Court. But when, during the discussion, he saw me placed on the 
opposite side, he did according to the proverb, ' He who has been 
bitten by a serpent, will eat opium,' and gradually allowed his dislike 
to change to friendliness." 

Immediately after 'Abdul Qadir's introduction at Court, Abulfazl 
was presented to the emperor. 'Abdul Qadir hated and envied 
Abulfazl from his first appearance at Court ; he must have known 
him in the house of his father who was their teacher, and may have 
looked upon him as a younger school comrade. The high opinion 
which Akbar had formed of 'Abdul Qadir's learning and disputational 
powers, was transferred to Abulfazl, who not only possessed 'Abdul 
Qadir's learning, but the boldness of thought and breadth of opinion 
which dazzled the Court, and excited the jealousy and envy of the 
'TTiamas. 



126 Baddoni and his Works. [No. 3, 

The mistake which 'Abdul Qadir made in the very beginning, and 
which he would not rectify, though even advised by Akbar himself, 
consisted in this, that he preferred for his services a grant of land 
(madad i ma'dsli) to having his name entered on the list of the army 
(ddgh Jcardari). These were the two roads for young, ambitious men at 
the time of Akbar. But c joining the army' had in those days a 
different meaning from what it now has. A civil service did not exist : 
every servant of the government, or rather every servant of the king, 
was on the rolls of the army, and though perhaps in civil employ, 
was liable to field service, and had to keep up a contingent of horses 
and beasts of burden, which at stated times were mustered by Akbar. 
The custom then obtained to brand the animals {ddgh hardan) at 
each muster, after which the troopers got their pay from the 
treasury, and the officers received their assignments on the revenue 
of the districts where they were stationed. A young man, therefore, 
on joining the service of the emperor, got a commission as Dahbdshi 
(commander of Ten), or as JBisti (commanded of Twenty), to which 
offices salaries of Rs. 100 and Rs. 135, respectively, were attached. 
Promotion was rapid and depended upon personal exertions. 

'Abul Qadir, however, did not care for the ' brand' of the emperor. 
Mir Sayyid Muhammad, the Mir y Adl of the empire, strongly advised 
'Abdul Qadir to join the army. " Young man," said he, " do not run 
after a grant of land, and do not submit to the insolence of the Qadrs 
(III, p. 75). Take the brand of the emperor ; see only how grand 
and proud His Majesty's officers are." " As I would not listen," said 
'Abdul Qadir, subsequently, " I had to see what I saw and had to 
suffer what I suffered." 

Abulfazl at once submitted to the ddgh ; and whilst 'Abdul Qadir, 
when he wrote his history, had to struggle hard for the retention of 
the one thousand Ugliahs of land which Akbar had granted him, his 
younger school comrade was prime minister of India, and was in 
receipt of a salary of Rs. 14,000 per mensem. 

About a year after his introduction to Akbar, 'Abdul Qadir ' on 
account of the beauty of his voice,' was appointed Court Imam for 
Wednesdays (II, pp. 206, 226). As such, like the Imams of the 
other six days, he had to be present at the five daily prayers. The 
Eunuch Daulat Hazir, whose duty it was to call 'Abdul Qadir, when 



1869.] Baddoniand his Works. 127 

the people were ready for prayer (iqcimat), appears to have given him 
much annoyance. " After having been appointed Imam," he says, 
" His Majesty told me to join the army ; and giving me an 
inconsiderable sum of money for an outfit, he ordered me to take a 
Bisti ship, and to bring the regulated number of horses to muster. 
Shaikh Abulfazl, who had lately joined Court, and who, to use 
Shibli's phrase with respect to Junaid [two celebrated saints], had 
come out of the same oven as I, accepted at once, cunning and time- 
serving as he was, the military career. He brought his horses to 
muster, and shewed himself so officious, that he ultimately received 
an apppointment as Duhazari, and was made minister of the empire. 
But inexperienced and simple as I was, I could not bring myself to 
join the army, and thought of the verse which a Sayyid of Inju [Mir 
Jamaluddin Husain] had said when in similar circumstances, l You 
make me join a contingent, and appoint me to a command of Twenty. 
Good God, if my mother saw me in this wretched plight !' My wish 
was to be content with a grant of land which the emperor might 
bestow upon me as a means of livelihood ; I thought of quietly 
retiring from the bustle of the Court, and passing my life in study and 
independence.* * * But this wish has not been fulfilled. In the 
month of Shawwal 983, I applied for leave, which was not granted. 
His Majesty said he would exempt me from military duties, and gave 
me about one thousand bigliahs of land. This was at that time the 
maximum allowed to such as applied for grants, and corresponded 
to the salary of a Commander of Twenty ; but on account of the 
unwillingness of the Qadr ['Abdunabi] and the wretchedness of the 
present hard times I could not get more. Uufortunately the thousand 
big'hahs were described in my grant as madad i ma' ash [not as ajagir, 
which is given for services at Court] ; and as on several occasions I re- 
presented that it was impossible, on so small a grant, to live constantly 
at Court, His Majesty promised to let me have an increase on the 
military list. Shaikh 'Abdunnabi, the ^adr, told me plainly that he 
had never seen a man of my class getting so large a grant of land. 
The promised assistance from the military list has, however, remained 
up to the present time [1005] buried in the will of God, though 
twenty-two years have elapsed. Times have now altered ; and 
though once or twice I had a present, His Majesty's promise was a 



128 Badaoni and his Works. [No. 3, 

beautiful mirage. My attendance at Court has brought me no profit, 
and I look forward to an act of God's mercy, to get rid of the awkward 
fetters which have fallen on my neck." 

The part which 'Abdul Qadir took in the religious discussions 
held by Akbar at Fathpur Sikri, has been noticed in my translation 
of the A'in i Akhari, (pp. 171 to 179). Though his argumentative 
skill raised him in the eyes of the emperor, 'Abdul Qadir, in the 
pride of his success, forgot that he challenged his own set, and was 
actively working against his own advantages ; and when after the 
downfall of the 'Ulamas in 987 (Ain y pp. 186, 187), and the res- 
umption by Akbar of nearly all grants of madad i ma? ash tenures 
throughout the whole empire, 'Abdul Qadir was allowed to retain his 
thousand bigliahs, he owed his luck more to the generosity of Akbar, 
who never forget an old servant, and to the good will of Faizi and 
Abulfazl, his old school comrades, than to distinguished services of 
his own. 

In 983, 'Abdul Qadir once more met with old patron, Husain 
Khan, who had been brought to Fathpur Sikri dangerously wounded 
on one of his customary expeditions. The wound was badly treated, 
and would not heal up, dysentery (is-hdl i Icabid) having acceded, to 
which the hero succumbed (II, p. 228). In the beginning of 984, 
'Abdul Qadir joined an expedition against Rana Kika, whose strong- 
holds, G-ogandah and Konbhalner, were to be attacked by Rajah 
Man Singh. When the expedition started from Ajmir, where Akbar 
had visited the tomb of the Saint Mu'in, 'Abdul Qadir accompanied 
for a short distance some of the courtiers that took part in the 
expedition. " As I felt much inclination," says he, " to join an 
expedition against Infidels, I returned, and reported myself to Shaikh 
'Abclunnabi, and asked him to obtain for me the permission of the 
emperor to go to the scene of war. Though he had no objection, 
he left the matter to his headman, Sayyid 'Abdurrasul ; and as he 
delayed to accede to my wishes, I applied to Naqib Khan, whom I 
looked upon as my brother. At first, he was unwilling, and said, 
" If the emperor had not appointed a Hindu* as Commander, I would 

* The jealousy of the Muhammadan courtiers was always roused when a 
Hindu was appointed to a high command. Even when Todar Mall, in 971, 
was appointed to assist Muzati'ar 'Ali, then minister of finance, the Muham- 
madan^ courtiers, in a body, complained to Akbar, and asked the emperor, to 



1869.] Baddoni and his Works. 129 

have been the very first to apply for permission to go." I replied 
that I looked upon the emperor as the Commander, and had nothing 
to do with Man Singh ; but I had resolved to go. One day, when His 
Majesty sat on a high dais in the tomb of Mu'fn i Chishti,* to 
which a ladder was attached, Naqib Khan mentioned my request. 
" Is he not an Imam," asked the emperor. " How can he go?" Na- 
qib Khan replied that I was anxious to join a religious expedition, 
whereupon His Majesty called me and asked whether I was in 
earnest. I said, I w'as ; and when the emperor enquired after my 
reason, I replied, u I wish to make my black whiskers red [with the 
blood of infidels] in Your Majesty's service." " You may go," said 
Akbar, " and bring me the news of victory." After this he 
fell into a reverie, and then prayed devoutly a Fatihah [the open- 
ing chapter of the Qoran]. But when from within the dais I 
tried to shew my gratefulness by touching the feet of His Majesty, 
he drew them back ; but he called me as I returned from the office of 
the Diwan, and giving me a handful of Ashrafis (goldmuhurs) — in 
all fifty-six, — he bade me adieu. On taking leave from Shaikh 'Abdun- 
nabi, who in those days had become my well-wisher and had over- 
come the dislike which he had formerly taken to me, he exhorted me 
not to forget to include him in my prayer before battle ; for accord- 
ing to a genuine tradition, the Prophet had said that the battle line 
was the place where man had his prayers heard. I also asked the 
Shaikh to read a Fatihah for me. I then got my horse ready and 
set out with a few friends whose thoughts and plans were similar to 
mine." 

" The expedition from the first to the last, was successful. I took 
the news of victory to Fathpur Sikri, as also the famous elephant of 
Rana Kika, which to capture had been one of the objects of the 
expedition." 

Towards the end of 984, 'Abdul Qadir fell ill ; but he afterwards 
joined Akbar at Dipalpur in Malwah, and accompanied him, in Rajah 

remove Todar Mall. " Have you not each," said Akbar, " a Hindu manager 
on your estates ? Why do you complain, if I do as you do ?" Bad. II, 96. 
In another place, Badaoni says, <; The Hindus are indeed mighty fellows ; the 
soil belongs to them, and they have half the army." 

* The great veneration in which Akbar held this saint, explains the inscrip- 
tion yd miSin, O helper ! which we find so often on his coins. 

18 



130 Baddoni and his Works. [No. 3, 

985, to Ajmir (p. 251). The emperor, at that time, allowed several 
courtiers to go to Makkah. 'Abdul Qadir also applied ; but Akbar 
made his permission dependent upon that of Badaoni's mother, who 
naturally refused to let her only son and supporter go. On returning 
to Dihli, 'Abdul Qadir heard at Rewari that one of his wives had been 
delivered of a son, to whom the Emperor gave the curious name of 
'Abdul Hddi. The words Yd Hddi, Guide, were at that time fre- 
quently on Akbar's lips.* But as the child died six months later, 
'Abdul Qadir took leave and went to Basawar. Though he overstayed 
his leave, he was let off without punishment. On his return to Fath- 
pur, in 986, he presented the Emperor a short work entitled Kitab- 
ulahddis, on the excellence of expeditions against infidels and the 
importance of practising archery. This book was 'Abdul Qadir' s first 
work ; for the translation of the At'harban, which, at Akbar's re- 
quest, he had commenced as early as 983, had not been continued. f 

The discussions on religious subjects were in the meantime con- 
tinued at Fathpvir Sikri with increasing zeal, and took a heretical 
character. In fact from 986 'Abdul Qadir ceased to look upon Akbar 
as a Muslim. He says in a remarkable passage (p. 255) — perhaps the 
most ' hostile' in his whole history — " His Majesty till now [986] 
" had shewn every sincerity, and had diligently been searching for 
*' truth. But his education had been much neglected, and surrounded 
il as he was by men of low and heretic principles, he had been forced to 
" doubt the truth of Islam. Falling from one perplexity into the other, 
" he lost sight of his real object, the search of truth ; and when the 
" strong embankment of our clear law and excellent faith (millat i 
a baizdj had once been broken through, His Majesty grew colder and 
" colder, till after the short space of five or six years not a trace of 
<{ Muhammadan feeling was left in his heart. Matters then became 
« different." 

'Abdul Qadir from now felt uncomfortable at Court. The 'Ulanias 
to whose downfall he had contributed, were gradually banished to 
Bengal and Bhakkar ; the Court was full of rabid Shi'ahs who 
openly in the State hall reviled the companions of the Prophet, and 
with heretical sophists who sneered at Muhammad, and turned th e 

* This passage has been translated by Sir H. Elliot, Index, p. 247. 
+ Y%&e Ain translation, p, 105, note 1, 



1869.] Baddoni acid his Works. 131 

Emperor's head with mysticism and pantheism. 'Abdul Qadir there- 
fore withdrew to the background, and performed on darbdr days the 
customary kornish (or salutation) from a distance. He used to take 
his place at the door c where the shoes are left,' apparently an in- 
different looker-on, but mourning in his heart for the contempt which 
Akbar and many of his grandees evinced for everything Islamitic. 

In 987, 'Abdul Qadir had another addition to his family. He 
called his son Muliiuddin (reviver of the faith), without consulting 
the Emperor. In the same year he nearly lost his thousand big'hahs. 
Akbar, as related in the Ain (p. 270) had been busy in resuming the 
SaijdrgMl lands of the 'Ulamas, and had just deposed 'Abdunnabi, 
the padr of the realm, upon whom we may look as the last Qadr of 
tha Moghul Empire in India.* He personally inspected the docu- 
ments detailing the grants held by the 'Ulamas, who had been ordered 
to come to Court. 'Abdul Qadir also was examined by the Emperor 
at Ajmi'r (Ramazan, 987). " I think," said Akbar, " his grant speci- 
fies the condition under which it is held." Qazi 'Ali, by whom 
'Abdul Qadir had been taken before His Majesty, replied, the condi- 
tion was, that he should attend at Court. " Then has he been 
ailing," rejoined the emperor, " that he has been so often away with- 
out leave ?" " No," said Ghazi Khan, one of the courtiers that were 
present, " but his good luck has been ailing." Several others also 
interceded for him and desired the Emperor to leave him in possession 
of his grant, though the Imamship was abolished ; for at that time the 
five daily prayers were no longer openly observed at Court, and 
'Abdul Qadir's services were no longer required. When Shahbaz 
Khan observed, " He is always in attendance on Your Majesty," 
Akbar said, " I force no one to serve me ; should he not wish to re- 
main in attendance, let half the grant be resumed." As soon as 'Abdul 
Qadir heard this, he made a saldm, as if he was pleased with 
the decision ; but the Emperor was vexed and turned away his head. 
As the courtiers, however, again advised him not to let him go, Akbar 
issued no order, and 'Abdul Qadir retained his thousand big'hahs. 

* Historians have hitherto paid no attention to Akbai*'s gigantic struggle 
with the office of the Cadr. In this point, he resembles such Roman Catholic kings 
as successfully interfered with the property of the Church and monasteries. The 
Jaunptir Rebellion of A. H. 987 (Bad. p. 276) arose from Akbar's interference 
with religious matters and the almost ruthless manner with which he cancelled 
the grants of the Mullas. 



132 Baddoni and his Works. [No. 3, 

Dissatisfied as he was with the religious innovations spreading at 
Court, poverty compelled him to remain with the emperor. But in 
989, he again absented himself ; and if it had not been for Abulfazl 
and Khwajah Nizamuddin Ahmad, the historian, he would have been 
dismissed. 'Abdul Qadir says (p. 296J— " On the fifth Zi Qa'dah, 
989, His Majesty returned from Kabul to Agrah. 1 had been absent 
from Court, and had stayed for a whole year at Basawar, fettered by 
a deep attachment fta'alluq i khatire \izimj a clear dispensation 
(mazliare tdm) of the Almighty. Little caring for the world, I passed 
my time in spiritual independence ; but I suffered much grief and 
sorrow. [This is the love affair alluded to on p. 124.] At last, on 
the sixth of the same month, I went to Fathpur and paid my respects, 
when His Majesty asked Abulfazl why I had not accompanied him 
to the Panjab." " He belongs," said Abulfazl, " to the grant- 
holders," and I was let off. But before this, when the emperor was- 
in Kabul, he asked one day <^adr Jahan to present all grantholders 
present in the camp, and draw up a list of such as were absent. 
When my name was read out among the absentees, Khwajah Nizam- 
uddin Ahmad, with whom the year before I had become very intimate, 
very kindly reported me sick, which counted as present. And in 
reality, attendance on a person, before whom one stands in hope and 
fear, is worse than sickness. But the Khwajah wrote me letter after 
letter, asking me to go at least as far as Labor to meet his Majesty, 
as I had been otherwise neglectful ; and he reminded me that it was 
important to adhere to the formalities of the world. But an hour 
spent with the beloved appeared to me better than eternal life. What 
did I care about wisdom of going the ways of the world, and the 
interest and the disadvantage of others ? I put my affairs into the 
hands of God ; for after all, He does what He wishes. 
Leave all thy cares to God, and live happy, 
If thy accuser has no mercy, He will have compassion. 

* * * And even now [1004], after seventeen years, the remem- 
brance of his lovely shape has not vanished from my heart. I cry as- 
often as I think of him. Would that I had died in the wretchedness of 
my love grief I" 

In the meantime, Akbar's Divine Faith' (din i ildhi) had made 
much progress, and 'Abdul Qadir who had no longer to lead pray- 



1869.] Baddoni and his Works, 133 

ers in the Mosque of Fathpiir, was commissioned to execute literary 
tasks ; but inasmuch as these orders were connected with the reli- 
gious views of the emperor, they were unwillingly and hesitatingly 
performed. The first task which was given him, was to assist in the 
composition of a historical work, to which Akbar beforehand had 
given the title of Tdrihh i Alfi* or History of the Millennium. The 
year 1000 A. H. was near, and Akbar had been nattered into the 
belief that he was the Qdhib i Zamdn, or Man of the Millennium, 
through whose agency Muhammadanism was to be totally changed 
[ Ain translation, p. 190] ; and the object of the new historical work 
was to represent the religion of the Prophet as a thing of the past. 
The coins of the realm even were to announce this fact, and their inscrip- 
tions exhibited the mysterious word alf, or millennium. But as Akbar 
had engaged nearly every literary man at court to take part in the 
grand work, the narrative was tinged with the heretical and Shi'itic 
prejudices of the joint authors ; and 'Abdul Qadir, who was a staunch 
Sunni, was soon called to account for certain facts which he had re- 
presented as having happened during the reigns of the early Caliphs. 
The Shi'ah account, it is well-known, of the events of that period 
differs remarkably from that of the Sunni s ; and Akbar who rejoiced 
in any record which reflected discredit on Muhammadanism and the 
deeds and lives of the prophet and the apostles of Islam, naturally 
preferred Shi'ah accounts, soon relieved 'Abdul Qadir of his portion 
of the historical work which was to appear " By Authority," and 
entrusted the execution of it to Mulla Ahmad of T'hat'hah who, 
from all accounts, indulged openly at court in the most vehement 
abuse (sabb o tabarrd), which Shi'ahs cannot and will not suppress 
as often as they hear the names of 'Omar and Abu Bakr.f At a later 
period, however, [in 1002] 'Abdul Qadir, after the murder of the 
Mulla,J was ordered to revise the whole work after its completion ; 
but knowing the propensities of the emperor, he limited his corrections 
to style and arrangement, without altering the party-coloured state- 
ments of the Shi'ah joint authors. 

* Vide Elliot's Index, p. 144. 

f A Shiali once told me that 'Omar appeared to them more ridiculous than 
Abu Bakr. They often use phrases which occasion mirth and laughter among 
themselves, though a Sunni would not know what they arc laughing at. 

% Vide Badauni, II, p. 392. 



134 Badaoni and his Works. [No. 3, 

Nor was 'Abdul Qadir more fortunate in his translation into Persian 
of the Mahabharat. Akbar even called him a Hardmkhur (sweeper) 
and a ShalghamkJiur (turnip-eater), " as if that was the share due to 
him for his labours." (Ain translation, p. 105, note 1.) At the 
same time, however, he was engaged in writing a Persian translation 
of the Ramayan, which after four years' labour he finished. In 
Jumada I, 997, he presented his work, after a second revision, to the 
emperor. "I had put," he says, " at the end of the translation the 
following verse by Hafiz — 

I have finished my tale, who will take it to the Sultan ? 
I have worried my soul, who will tell it the Beloved ? 

And this pleased His Majesty very much. He asked me how many 
juz [one juz=Uvo sheets of paper] there were? "At first," said I, 
" there were about seventy ; but after revising it, I got one hundred 
and twenty."* " But you must write a preface to it," replied the 
emperor, " according to the custom of authors." But I had no in- 
clination (inWasli) for it, as prefaces had to be written without the 
usual laudation (naH) of the prophet ; so I shut my eyes, and did as if 
I assented. I take refuge with God against the consequences of com- 
posing this black book [the Ramayan], which, like the book of my life, 
is nothing but wretchedness. Relating the words of unbelievers, after 
all, is not unbelief, and I earnestly denounce unbelief. * * * A 
few days after, His Majesty was reminded that he owed me a present 
for my translation. He said to Hakim Abulia th, " Just give him 
this shawl here, and let him have a horse, and some money," and to 
Shah Abulfath he said, " I give you the whole of Basawar as jdgir^ 
and the grantholders there are also yours ;" and mentioning my 
name, he said, u This man goes to Badaon ; and having neither 
seen, nor heard any thing against him,. I hereby transfer his grant 
from Basawar to Badaon." * * * As soon as I received the far-man 
specifying my transfer, I took leave for twelve months, and went to 
Badaon (p. 368). 

This transfer, in 997, from Basawar to Badaon is the cause why 
'Abdul Qadir has been called Badaoni* On his return, in 998 from 
Badaon to Court, he met his friend the Historian Nizamuddin 

* From the number of sheets which Badaoni presented, it may be'jnferred 
that the translation was an abstract of the contents of the liamayan, not a 
translation. 



1869.] Bad'oni and his Works. 135 

Ahmad. Daring his leave, lie intended to visit him in Gujrat, 
because as early as 993, he had been invited by Nizam, though he 
was prevented by circumstances from accepting the invitation. 

Not long after, Badaoni was again engaged in literary labours. " The 
emperor," he says, u had ordered me (p. 384) to re- write the 
Persian translation of the History of Kashmir by Mulla Shah Mu- 
hammad of Shahabad, a learned man well versed in argumentative 
sciences and history. I was to write it in an easy style. This I did, 
and in the space of two months I presented my book, which was put 
in His Majesty's library to await its turn for reading." This order 
was connected, it appears, with Akbar's stay in Kashmir, from the 
2nd Jumada II to 2nd Zi Qa'dah, 997, when he returned by way of 
Kabul in the beginning of 998. 

After revising the History of Kashmir,* 'Abdul Qadir received a 
portion of the Mu'jcm ul JBulddn, which Akbar, at the recommenda- 
tion of Hakim Humam, had given to ten or twelve people to trans- 
late from Arabic into Persian. Besides Badaoni, there were Mulla 
Ahmad of T'hat'hah, Qasim Beg, Shaikh Munawwar, &c.f These 
translations were made at Fathpur Sikri, " the old DiwanlcMnah 
having been changed to a MahtaWchdnah for the comfort of the trans- 
lators" (p. 344). Badaoni finished his portion in a month, and pre- 
senting it to the emperor, asked again for leave, which was hesitat- 
ingly granted, though Nizamuddin represented that the leave was 
necessary, as Badaoni's mother had just died. But Akbar did not 
make him a present, as was usual on departure ; " for f adr Jahan, 
who had been appointed padr of the empire, told me to perform 
before the emperor the sijdah, or prostration ; and when His Majesty 
saw that I was unwilling to do so, he told the f adr{ to let me off. 
But he was annoyed, and would not give me anything." 

* No copies have, till now, turned up of either Shah Muhammad's Histoiy 
of Kashmir, or Badaoni's revision. Abulfazl in the Ain (p. 106.) says that 
Shah Muhammad translated it from Kashmiri into Persian. 

f No copies appear to exist of the Persian translation of this valuable Geo- 
graphical Dictionary. The Arabic text has lately been published, in eight 
volumes, by Wustenfeld at the cost of the Deutsche Morgenl. Gesellschaft. 

£ This worthy Chief Justice set a bad example in this regard to pious 

Muhammadans. Subsequently he became a member of Akbar-' s ' Divine 

; Faith.' He also held office under Jahangir, and was exempted from perform- 

' jng the prostration, " because the Chief Justice of the empire could not well 

! be forced to act against the law of the Prophet." (Tuzuk.) 



136 Baddoni and his Works. [No. 3, 

'Abdul Qadir accompanied Nizaniuddin to his jagir, the town of 
Shamsabad, from where ill-health compelled him to go to Badaon. 
Whether his ill-health continued or not, 'Abdul Qadir again overstayed 
his leave. He also appears to have taken away with him from Akbar's 
library a copy of a book entitled Khirad-afzd, which he lost on 
his way to Badaon ; and though a collector of Sail mail Sultan Begum 
(one of Abbar's wives)* reminded him several times of the book, and 
his friends at court sent him several messages to Badaon, he was, as 
he says, unable to go (p. 377). 

This annoyed Akbar. He cancelled Badaoni's grant, and ordered 
him to repair to court, to answer for his conduct. Nizaniuddin and 
Abulfazl tried in vain to assuage the just auger of the Emperor. 

During the time Badaoni enjoyed, at Court and in Shamsabad, 
the company of Nizam, he commenced his polemical work en- 
titled Najdturrashid, and his historical work entitled Muntakhab 
uttawdrikh. Of the former work, the title of which contains the 
Tdrikh of its composition (999), I have seen two MSS. One — a bad 
one — belongs to the Asiatic Society of Bengal ; the other, a very 
superior one— I extracted from a heap of ' rubbish' in the Delhi col- 
lection of MSS. belonging to the Government. The extracts below 
taken from this work, will shew that it is a valuable addition to our 
knowledge of the religious questions which were discussed during the 
tenth century of the Hijrah, and gives a complete account of the rise 
of the Mahdavji sect, to which Badaoni, though not perhaps openly, 
belonged. 

* Vide Proceedings, Asiatic Society, Bengal, for August, 1869, p. 213, 1. 7, 
and p. 215, 1. 11. Babar in his Wdqi'dt says that he had three daughters — 
Gulrang Begum, Gulchihrah Begum, Gulbadan Begum (married to Khwajah 
Khizr Khan, Bad. II, p. 14). The TuzuJc i Jahdugiri (p. 113) and the Iqbdl- 
ndmah (p. 68) say that Salimah Sultan Begum was the daughter of Gidrukh 
Begum, who was a daughter of Babar's. Does this imply that Babar had /otw 
daughters? I consulted the two MSS. of the Madsirul Umard which are in 
the Society's Library, of which one is so excellent and correct, that it could 
be printed off without the assistance of other MSS. — an excellence rarely 
found among Indian MSS. ; in fact I suspect, the book is an autograph. This 
excellent MS. says that Salimah Sultan Begum was the daughter of Gulbarg 
Begum, but the inferior MS. reads Gulrang Begum. Perhaps time will clear 
up this confusion of names in the MSS. and our printed Historical texts. 
Vide my review of the TuzuJc, Iqbdlndmah, &c, in the Calcutta Review for Octo» 
ber, 1 869, entitled ' Jahangir's Death.' I am convinced that as soon as the 
existing MSS. sources of Indian History have been used up, we shall See how 
limited and inaccurate our knowledge of the history of this country really is, 
as far as details are concerned. 



1869.] Badaoni and his Works. 137 

Deprived as he now was of his income, Badaoni was soon forced 
to repent his carelessness and disobedience. He hastened to Akbar's 
camp at Bhambar, near the frontier of Kashmir, which he reached 
during the last month of the year 999 (p. 383). " Hakim Huraam," 
he relates, " reported my arrival to His Majesty, and said, I 
was anxious to pay my respects. The Emperor asked, how long I 
had overstayed my leave. Humam said, for live months ; and when 
the Emperor enquired after the reason of my absence, the doctor said 
that I had been ill, and that I had brought with me a representation 
signed by several nobles of Badaon, and also a certificate by Hakim 
'Ain ul Mulk of Dihli. 

His Majesty read through the papers, and said, " No, this sickness 
does not last five months." He would not allow me to attend the 
darbar. So I had to run about in the camp which the Emperor left 
at Rahtas in charge of Prince Danyal, whilst he himself went to 
Kashmir. Lonely and sorry, disappointed and aggrieved as I was, I 
read through the Eign i Hagin [a famous prayer book used all over 
the East], and fortified myself by repeating daily the QaQidah i 
Burdah till, at last, after five months when the Emperor returned 
from Kashmir, matters began to look up. He had expressed the wish 
to have a Persian translation of the great Historical work by Rashid, 
entitled Jdmi\ and some true and kindhearted friends, as Nizamud- 
din and others, mentioned privately my name to His Majesty, and I 
was, at last, at Lahor allowed to attend at Court (17th Rabi' I, 1000)." 

The state of Badaoni 's mind whilst 'running about in Danyal's 
camp', may be seen from Faizi's letter of recommendation to Akbar, 
which, however, arrived too late. Faizi, in Shawwal 999, had been 
sent, on a political mission, to Rajah 'Ali Khan, ruler of Asir and 
Burhanpur, and he had afterwards gone to B urban ul Mulk of Ahmad- 
nagar, to which place Badaoni, from Bhambar, had written, requesting 
him to intercede in his behalf. Faizi's reply was dated Jumada 
I, 1000, at which time Badaoni was already restored. But 'Abdul 
Qadir shewed Faizi's letter at Labor to Akbar ; for he says that Akbar 
ordered Abulfazl to enter the letter, which is a model of a letter of 
recommendation, in the Akbarnamah.* 

* Badaoni also gives a copy of the letter under his biographical notice of 
Fai/i (III, 303). The letter has been (indifferently) translated by Sir H. 

19 



138 Baddoni and his Works, [No. 3 



The translation into Persian of the Jam? i Rashidi, part of which 
was done by Badaoni, was completed by other learned men of Akbar's 
Court under the ' superintendence' fistigivdbj of Abulfazl himself ; but 
unfortunately no copies of it appear to be now extant, which is much 
to be regretted considering the comparative scarcity of MSS. of the 
Arabic original. [Vide Morley's Catalogue.] 

Badaoni was thus restored to favour and the possession of his 
thousand big'hahs. It seems as if after his restoration, the religious 
feeling which his past misfortunes and exclusion from Akbar's CJourt 
had called forth, had disappeared and given way to levity and spiri- 
tual indifference. He may have found it necessary to assume a more 
conciliating attitude towards the ' heretics' of the Court, and the 
members of Akbar's l Divine Faith,' who were in office and had partly 
brought about his pardon. He may have imitated the example of 
his friend Nizamuddin the historian, who, though a pious Muslim, 
managed to rise higher and higher in Akbar's favour by keeping his 
religious views to himself. But whatever the real cause of this 
inroad of worldliness may have been, Badaoni, towards the end 
of 1002, repented and thought it necessary to enter the fact in his 
history. " In this year," he says (p. 395), "I was punished by suc- 
cessive blows of misfortunes and lashes of adversity; but God 
created in me a new spirit, and led me to repent of the several wanton 
pastimes in which I had indulged, and the crimes which I had fre- 
quently committed against the orders of our Law. I acknowledge the 
viciousness of my deeds. 

Elliot, Index, p. 256. The words on p. 255, ' He (Shaikh Faizf) is commonly 
called the " chief of Poets," but he was in fact a mere Poetaster', are not in 
Badaoni, neither in the printed edition, nor in the MS. which Elliot used. The 
para, on p. 25(3 commencing, ' He had composed poetry for forty years, &c.' 
conveys, in Elliot's version, an impression very different from what Badaoni 
intends to convey, and is diametrically opposed to another passage (II, 396) 
where 'Abdul Qadir clearly says that ' Faizf s Nal Daman is a Masnawi the like of 
which, for the last three hundred years, no poet of Hindustan, after Mir Khusrau 
ofDihli, has composed.' The sentence which Badaoni pronounces on Faizi's 
poetry — and every one who has read even portions of Faizi's Diwan will 
agree "with him — is that he is somewhat frigid, and deficient in that soft 
and plaintive sentimentalism of modern Persian Literature, compared with 
which the Byronism of England and the Wertherism of Germany are nothing. 
Faizi's thoughts are grand and striking, and his language is classical de 
rigeur; but his poetry is so full of Shathiydt, Falchriydt, and Kufriydt (vide 
my ; Prosody of the Persians'), that " every one admires but no one remembers 
his verses." The extracts selected by Abulfazl of his brother's poetry in 
the Ain (at the end of second book) fully bear out what Badaoni says, and 
explain why Badaoni, though he censures, can yet warmly admire. 



1869.] Baddoni and his Works. 139 

Oh that this frame of mind would last for ever — Alas ! 
And I saw a good omen in the word istiqdmat (purity of intentions), 
by which I expressed the tarihh (1002) of my repentance. Shaikh 
Faizi also [who evidently felt amused at Badaoni's ' confessions'] 

favoured me with the following Arabic verse (metre Muiaqdrib) 

Laqad tdba ShaikM ' ' anilhaubate* 
Wa tarikhuhu sabiquttaubate 
" My friend, the Shaikh, has now turned from his wickedness." 
" And the words Sabiquttaubate (the old repenter) give the tdrikh." 
Badaoni adds, by way of explanation, (metre MujtassJ — 

The love of wine and sweethearts has vanished from my brain. 

And songs, and drums, and lyres, " enchant my heart no more." 
Faizi in his letter of recommendation states that Badaoni was well 
up in the melodies of Hindustan and Persia (naghmah i hind o wildtjat) 
and knew how to play chess, two-handed and four-handed (habit 
o gagliir), occupations which even now-a-days are looked upon as 
unlawful by orthodox Muhammadans, and which form the never- 
ending theme of discussion at their social meetings. In another 
passage also (III, p. 239), alluding to his former habit of composing 
love poems, he says that such poetry was current in the days before 
the Prophet, and that sincere repentance was better than such oc- 
cupations. 

Badaoni's ' repentance' was also connected with the loss of two of 
his friends. In the beginning of 1002, he buried Kliwajah Ibrahim 
Husain, an Ahadi, to whom he was much attached (p. 394). The 
Khwajah, according to a statement by Bakhtawar Khan,f was a cali- 
graphist of great renown, and had been a pupil of Sultan Bayazid, 
poetically styled Mir Dauri, whom Akbar had honoured with the 
title of Kdtib ul Mulk. But a heavier blow befell Badaoni in the 
death, on the 23rd ffafar 1003, of his friend Nizamuddm, the his- 
torian. The fine passage which he devotes to the memory of his 
friend and to his own sorrow, has been translated by Eiliot.J The 

* The final I counts as o, 400. 

f In the most interesting chapter of his Mvr-dt ul 'A'lam, which contains 
biographies of learned men, caligraphists, and poets. 

X Index, p. 185. In Sir H. Elliot's extract from the Madsir ul Uma/rd 
containing' the biography of Nizamuddin, p. 181, 1. 11 from below, read, Kan-i 



140 Baddoni and his Works. [No. 3, 

death of these two friends so affected Badaoni, that he resolved not 
to cultivate a new friendship with any other man and to look upon 
his bereavement as a warning from God. He says (p. 397, metre 
Khafif)- 

Thou art anxious to listen to a good sermon : 

The death of thy friend is a sufficient warning. 
A few months later, Badaoni again attracted Akbar's attention. 
Two days before the 10th Rajab, when the Emperor celebrated the 
fortieth nauruz since his accession, on which day promotions used to 
be made, Akbar "sat at the window (jliarokah) of the State hall, and 
called me ; and turning to Abulfazl, he said, " He is a heavenly- 
minded, young man, with the air of the fiifi about him ; but he is 
such a bigoted lawyer, that no sword is powerful enough to cut 
through the neck vein of his bigotry." Shaikh Abulfazl said, " In 
which book has he made the remark of which Your Majesty spoke ?" 
11 In this very Razmndmah"* replied Akbar; " and last night I asked 
Naqib Khan about it." " Then," said Abulfazl, " he must have been 
very careless." I now thought it necessary to go close up to the 
window, and represented to His Majesty that I had strictly adhered 
to the duties of a translator ; I had put down without alteration 
whatever the Pandits had told me, and I was ready to bear the conse- 
quences, should it be proved that I had put in words of my own. 
Shaikh Abulfazl took my part, and the Emperor remained silent." 

" The passage in my translation of the Mahabharat to which His 
Majesty objected, contains the last words of a dying Hindu sage, who 
advises all near him to give up carelessness, and only think of God : 
men should be wise and should not trust to knowledge acquired, but 
to good deeds done by them. Learning by itself was vain ; men should 
refrain from doing wicked actions, and ought to believe that every deed 
would once meet with its reward — after which words I had put the 
following hemistich (metre Bamal) — 

for Kathri, and on p. 183, 1. 2, read Shdham 'Alt for Shaham 'AH. Nizami 
finished his book in 1001, which Badaoni expressed by the word ,-xillLj (1001), 
— a very happy tdrikh. 

* Akbar had often the Mahabharat, or Razmndmah, as he called it read out to 
him. From the above passage it seems that Badaoni in the portion which he 
translated, had entered, or was accused to have entered, a remark offensive to 
the religious feelings of the Emperor. 



1869.] Badaoni and his Works. 141 

Every deed has its reward, evert/ act Us recompense. 
" These words [in italics] His Majesty thought referred to Islamitic 
notions of judgment, the day of resurrection, &c, in which he did not be- 
lieve ; for the transmigration of souls was his pet-idea. Hence he suspect- 
ed me of having smuggled into the text something which he called fa- 
qdhat, ' Lawyer's stuff.' But I impressed upon some of the Emperor's 
friends that every Hindu believes in rewards and punishments ; in fact, 
they say that when a man dies, the book in which his deeds have been 
entered, is taken by the angel of death to the king of Justice, who 
compares his good deeds with his wicked actions, and then says, 
' Let this man choose !' The man is then asked whether he wishes 
first to be carried to paradise as a reward for his good actions, and 
then to hell for his bad deeds, or reversely. When the period of 
requital is over, he is sent back to the world and receives a body in 
accordance with the excellence of his former deeds ; and so it goes on 
till by and by, he is freed from transmigration. 

" In this way I managed to get out of this difficulty." 
" On the clay of the Sharaf [nineteen days after the Nauritz], His 
Majesty said spontaneously to padr Jahan, " Do you think, I can ap- 
point Badaoni to the Mutaivalliship of the tomb of Mu'in i Chishti 
at Ajmir?" The f adr expressed his approval of this arrangement ; and 
for two or three months afterwards, I attended every darhdr in hopes 
of getting the appointment, by which I thought I would get rid of the 
miseries of Court life. I also wrote a few chapters and presented 
them, but got no answer. Soon after I was obliged to apply for 
leave * * ; and when towards the end of Bamazan, f adr Jahan asked 
His Majesty for orders regarding my leave, the Emperor said, " He 
has lots of work here, and I shall point it out to him from time to 
time. You better get another man for the vacancy [in Ajmir.] A 
few days later, His Majesty said to Abulfazl, tl He would do very well 
in Ajmir, it is true ; but his translations give me satisfaction, and 
I do not like to let him go. Abulfazl and others agreed with the 
! Emperor. On that very day I was told to complete the Bahrul 
I Asmdr, a book containing Hindu stories which at the command of 
Zainul 'Abidin,* a former king of Kashmir, had been partly trans- 

* No copies of this cm*ious work appear to be now extant. Zainul 'A'bidi'n 
was a contemporary of Sultan Buhlol Lodi and Mirza Abu Sa'id. Abulfazl says 



142 Badaoni and his Works. [No. 3, 

lated into Persian. I translated the new portions within the next five 
months, all in all about sixty juz. Soon after, the Emperor called 
me once to his sleeping apartment, and asked me the whole night till 
dawn about these stories. He also ordered me to re-write the first 
volume of [Zainul 'Abidin's] Bahrul Asmdr, because it was written 
in ancient Persian, no longer spoken, and told me to keep the MS. 
of the portion which I had made. I performed the Zaminbos, and 
commenced with heart and soul the new work. His Majesty also gave 
me ten thousand Muradi tangas [struck when Murad was born] and 
a horse as a present." (p. 402.) 

Thus Badaoni, in all his Muslim pride, had to temporise, and 
performed the prostration. 

Towards the end of the same year (1003), 'Abdul Qadir had to 
mourn over the death of two other friends, Shaikh Ya'qiib of Kashmir, 
known as poet under the name of (^rJr fytirafi, and Hakim 'Ain 
ul Mulk, his old patron, who died at Hindiah, his jagir. 

In the beginning of 1004, on the 10th f afar, Faizi also died. The 
circumstances attending his death form the conclusion of Badaoni 's 
History. 

Our hero soon followed his heretical friend to the grave. Akbar 
may have granted him the leave which, in 1003, he was unwilling to 
give. He died at Badaon before the end of 1004, at the age of fifty- 
seven years. 

The following particulars regarding Badaoni's death are of interest. 

The Khimnah i 'A'mirah* a valuable MS. collection of biogra- 

in the Ain that he had several works translated from Sanscrit into Persian — 
an additional example of attention paid by a Muhammadan ruler to Sanscrit 
literature. Vide Elliot's Index, p. 259, where on 1. 18 we have to read Mulld 
Sheri for Mulla Sliabri. So also on p. 251, of which the extract relating to the 
Mababharat is so badly translated, that I cannot bring myself to believe that 
it was translated by Sir H. Elliot himself. For a correct translation, vide my 
Ain, p. 105, note 1. 

As I mentioned the name of Sultan Bnhlol Lodi, I may state that the correct 
spelling is Buhlu.1. But in India, BuMul is generally pronounced Buhlol, with 
an o ; in our Histories, the name is generally spelled Behlol. BuMul is Arabic, 
and means graceful. 

# MSS. of this work are rare. I possess a very excellent, almost faultless 
copy, which I lately bought, together with a copy of tha Sarw i A'zdd, another 
similar though eai'lier work by the same author. Besides these two To 
rahs, there exists another by the same author entitled Lajj jj Tad i baiza, which 
was written before the Sarw i A'zdd. The latter work, the Sarw, contains valua- 
ble materials for a chronicle of the town of Balgram, and extracts from (an- 
cient) Hindi poetry. 






1869.] Bacldoni and his Work. 143 

phical and critical notices on the lives and works of Persian Poets by 
Ghulam 'Ali of Balgram, as poet known under the name of Azdd, has 
a short notice on 'Abdul Qadir of Badaon, in which the following 
sentence occurs — 

j I ci>l*j jLw cuwt j^lftJ|«>xP ♦.*.& ^ji[^t &S ^ai^i ci)^*'^ w-^Le 

" The author of the book, entitled Samrdt ulquds, who was Badaoni's 
pupil, says that 'Abdul Qadir died in 1004." 

The following much more valuable passage, translated into Urdii 
from the Muhhtacir i sair i Hindustan by Hakim Muhammad Wahid- 
ullah, was very kindly forwarded to me by Mr. A. S. Harrison, Bareilly 
College. 

l^yc | ♦ ♦ p &\*» 

u 'Abdul Qadir of Badaon, poetically styled Qddiri, was the Court Imam 
of the Emperor Akbar. He died in 1004, A. H. The poet Sheftah 
has expressed the TdriJch of his death in the following verse (metre 
Khafif)- 

He is a poet of fine language and fine thoughts. 

When he left this world, 

Sheftah said under tears, 

" Alas ! Qadiri is dead." 
This is an example of a Tarikh hatariq i ta?miyah. The third 
Micro 1 literally translated is — Sheftah took from the beginning of v2li| 
(tears), i. e., Sheftah added the letter Alif, with which ashk begins, to 
the numerical value of the letters of the last micra\ which gives 1003 
-\- 1 = 1004, provided we count *f as 1 -)- 5, and not as 8||, i. e. y 
1 + 1 + 5. 

The Urdu pamphlet, entitled Tarikh i Badaon, by Rai Bakhta- 
war Singh, Sub- Judge of Gorak'hpur (Bareily, 1868,) gives on p. 83 
the following particulars — 



144 Baddoni and his Works. [No. 3 

" 'Abdul Qadir of Badaon, famous for his Tdrikh i Baddoni. His 
tomb is close to the mangoe garden which lies in the environs of 
'Atapur, in the district of Badaon." 

Mr. Harrison informs me that a gentleman in Badaon has been 
at some pains to discover among the numerous and decaying tombs 
in 'Atapur the grave which encloses the remains of 'Abdul Qadir. 
But though his efforts have not been successful, it would be any thing 
but antiquarian sentimentality to continue the search for the resting- 
place of a man who has left us, if not exactly the fullest, yet the 
most original and independent history of the Great Emperor. 

The conclusion of this paper will follow in an early issue. It con- 
tains extracts from Badaoni's Najdturrashid regarding the Mahdawi 
Sect, in connection with which I shall make a few remarks on 
his character. Then follow extracts from the Muntakhsb. My inten- 
tion at first was to give in this paper Badaoni's remarks on Akbar's 
religion ; but as the extracts have since been inserted in my Ain 
translation, I think it will be more advantageous to collect such 
passages as contain historical information not to be found in the 
Akbaruamah, the Tabaqat i Nizami, and Firishtah. In collecting 
the original information from Badaoni's work, I have been guided 
by the excellent work, entitled Sawdnih i Ahbari, a modern compila- 
tion by Amir Haidar Husain of Balgram, the only critical work 
among the native Histories of India. I cannot in sufficiently strong 
terms recommend this book to Historians : it is a work that ought to 
have been long ago printed or translated. 

The next article concludes with notes on Badaoni's style, the text 
of the Muntakhao* and a valuable collection of Lectiones Variantes, 
which Mr. J. C. Lya'.l, C. S., Balandshahr, kindly placed at the dis- 
posal of the Society. 

Corrections &c. Page 110, I. 13 from below, and a few other places, 
read Firishtah, for Farishtah. — Page 116, last line. Add, ' since writing 
the above, a copy of the Madsir i ' ' Alain giri has been bought b} T the 
Society.' — Page 117, I. 4. I am somewhat doubtful whether Badaooi means 
this Todah, or the Todah Bhim in the Sirkar of A'grah, and not very far 
from Basawar, where B. spent his youth ; vide Ain text, p. 356. — Page 120, 
I. 1, read Patiy all— Page 127, I. 3 from below, read [1004,] for [1005.] 

* Especially the very fair edition printed by Nawalkishor, Lucknow, 1864. 



1869.] The Nineteenth Booh of the Gestes of Prithiraj. 145 



The Nineteenth (1) Booh of the Gestes of Prithiraj by Ghand 
Barddi, entitled li The Marriage with Padmavati" literally trans- 
lated from the old Hindi by John Beames, Usq., B. G. S. 

I have selected this spirited poem as a first specimen of translation 
from the Prithiraj a Rasa, and it must be regarded solely as an essay- 
in translation. Chand's language is archaic, his dialect is as much 
Panjabi as Hindi, dating from a time prior to the definite separation 
of the two languages, his poetic licenses are numerous and daring, the 
texts of the only two manuscripts I have yet had an opportunity of 
thoroughly studying, are very corrupt, and I have no Pandit to help 
me. I rely chiefly on my own resources. I have, however, used with 
very valuable results, dictionaries of Panjabi, Sindhi and Gujarati, and 
a glossary of the Marwari dialect. Still much remains uncertain and 
conjectural, and I am open to any criticisms, and ready to admit that 
I may have made mistakes where " tantum difficile est non errare." 

Book the Nineteenth. 

Here begins the marriage with Padmavati. 
Couplets (XT^T) 

1. In the eastern land there is a fort, lord of forts, 
Samud Sikhar, hard of access ; 

There lives a victorious hero, lord of kings 
Of Jadav race, strong-armed. (2) 

2. With retinue, (3) horses, elephants, much land 
And dignity of a Padshah (^fr^TT*? T H^T^) 
A mighty lord to all his servants 

With pomp and standards very splendid. 
Poem («frf^) 

3. With many (4) standards very splendid, 
Song and music playing five times a day,* 
Mounting ten thousand horses 

With golden hoofs and jewelled trappings 

A lord of countless elephants, 

A valiant army thirty lakhs strong ; 

* At his palace gate, as is the custom with Indian princes. 

20 



146 The Nineteenth Booh of the Gestes of Prithiraj. No. 3, 

A sole ruler wielding Siva's bow, 
Holding the earth in his sway. 
Ten sons and daughters all told (5) 
Chariots of beautiful colours very many, 
Storehouses, countless millions of wealth 
Had he, Padam Sen, the virtuous prince. 

4. Padam Sen, the virtuous prince, 
In his house was a wellborn dame, 
From her breast a daughter sprung 
Beauteous as a digit of the moon. 

5. Fair as a digit of the moon, 

Fairer than the whole sixteen digits ; 

In her childish guise she rivalled the moon 

When he has drunk the amrit juice. 

Like a lotus expanding through love of the moon-dew (6) 

She had stolen from the deer the glance of its eyes. 

She had [the beauty of] the diamond, the parrot and the limb. 

A pearl from head to foot, glittering like a serpent. 

Her gait [was like] a prince, an elephant, a lion, or a swan (7) 

She was endowed with a collection of all sorts of charms ; 

Padmavati was the highest type of woman Orf^«fY) 

Like an object of love created by Love himself. 

6. Like an object of love formed by Love, 
Formed in the perfection of beauty, 
Fascinating beasts, birds, and serpents, 
Gods, men, and saints likewise. 

7. She had all the auspicious marks [on her body] 
Well she knew the sixty-four arts, (^T^fT) 

She knew the fourteen sciences, (^TT) 

She was like the spring among the six seasons. 

8. Playing about with her companions 
In the gardens of the palace 

Her eyes lit upon a parrot, 
Then her mind was joyful. 

9. Her mind was very joyful, 

Expanding like a lotus in the rays of the sun 
Her red lips thirstily opening, 



1869.] The Nineteenth Boole of the Gestes of Prithirdj. 147 

Likening the beauty of the parrot to the oimb-hmt. 

She strove [to catch it] with eager eyes, (8) 

It resisted, fluttering and struggling ; 

Avoiding its beak, she seized it, 

Then she took it in her own hand. 

Rejoicing with joy, pleasure in her mind, 

Having taken it inside the palace 

In a beautiful cage, inlaid with jewels 

She was taking and placing it. 

10. In it she was taking and placing it ; 
Went to play, forgetting everything, 
Her mind slipped away from the parrot 
Joyfully calling " Ram, Ram." 

11. The parrot seeing the beauty of the princess, 
This form from head to foot, 

This finished work of the Maker, 
This peerless model of a woman. 
Poem 3\f3Tf. 

12. Wavy tresses fair to see, 

Rivalling the dawn, with a voice like the Koil ; 

Fragrant as the blowing lotus, 

Swan-like her gait, slow-paced. 

White-robed, her body shines, 

Her nails are drops of Swati [pearls] ; 

The bee hums round her, forgetting his nature 

In the flavour and fragrance of the god of love. 

The parrot looked with his eyes, and was pleased — 

[Said] " This beauteously moulded form 

" My Lord Prithiraj shall obtain 

" Forestalling Hara, the joy of Uma." 



13. Approaching the parrot, the princess 
Applied her mind to speak to it. 

It was a very accomplished Pandit-parrot 
Who spoke words distinctly. 

Arill metre, 

14. She asks with soft and gentle voice 



148 The Nineteenth Booh of the Gestes of Prithiraj. [No. 3, 

Saying " parrot, tell me true, 

11 What is the name of your country ? 

" What king rules there ?" 

15. Quoth the parrot, hearing the speech, 
u Dilli G-arh, the abode of Hindus, 

" There is the incarnation of Indra, the Chahuwan, 
" There is Prithiraj, the mighty hero." 
Paddhari metre. 

16. To the princess Padmavati 

He tells the tale again very clearly, 

In the place of the Hindus, the best of lands 

There rises the fort of Dilli, fair to see. 

The lord of Sambhari, the land of the Chahuwan, 

Prithiraj there rules gloriously. 

Sixteen years of age, a king, 

A long-armed monarch, a lord of the people. 

Lord of Sambhari, son of Somesar 

God-like in form, a very incarnation. 

Nobles and heroes all unequalled 

With arms like Bhim, powerful as Yama ; 

Who took the Pakkari Shah Sahab 

Three times they stopped him and turned him back. 

[Here a doubtful line.] (9) 
His word never fails, his arrow is piercing, 
Mighty his voice, death-dealing his hand. 
With seven thousand virtues like Had Chand, 
Brave and strong, a hero like Vikram, 
Among the Danavs an incarnation, merciful 
Over the four quarters of the -earth a king, skilled in all arts 
An incarnation of Kandarpa himself. 
Couplets. 

17. An incarnation of Kamdev is he 
The king, Somesar's son ; 

Scattering a thousand rays on the lotuses 
Like the sun, a guardian of mankind. 

18. Hearing the account of the glory of Prithiraj 
Transported with child-like joy, 



69.] The Nineteenth Booh of the Gestes of Prithirdj. 149 

Body, soul and thought fixed on the Chahuwan, 
She remained, blushing red. 

19. All her moon-like appearance passed away, ■ 
Her end approached ; 

Mother and father were anxious, 
Seeking for the maiden a husband. 
Poem. 

20. Seeking for the maiden a husband, 
They made enquiry on all sides ; 

They got Brahmins and Gurus, speaking, 
Telling, and explaining that matter, 
" A man, a king, a lord of men, 
With a large fort, inaccessible, immense, 
Accomplished, of pure race, 
Give to the princess, king ! 
Then send a Brahmin to make the betrothal, 
Virtuous, praiseworthy, as thyself ; 
[Let there be] joy and gladness in Samud Sikhar, 
Singing of songs, flags many." 
Couplets. 

21. To the North, in the Sawalikh hills 
In the fort of Kamaun, hard of access 
Rules a king, like the jewel in the lotus, 
With horses, elephants, wealth endless. 

22. The Brahman prepared the cocoanut fruit 

Having filled the chauk with pearls and (other) jewels, 
That the hero should pledge himself to the maiden 
With great joy making the alliance. 
Bhujangi metre. 

23. Smiling the king took the betrothal offering, 
For joy from door to door the drums were beat ; 
The lords of forts all speaking, agreed, 

All the kings of that family arrived. 
Came ten thousand horsemen renowned, 
Thirty-three thousand foot soldiers filling the place, 
Drunk with the moisture (from their temples) five hundred 
elephants 



150 The Nineteenth Book of the Gestes of Prithiraj. [No. 3, 

Like black mountains moving on earth, rank on rank. 
Came glittering like fire mingled with ice, 
Eighty-four horses, powerful and strong. 

With incomparable necks and hoofs, prancing and rearing. (10) 
Of the five colours, shaking their trappings. 
(There was) playing of instruments in five tunes, 
[A doubtful line (11)] 

In Samud Sirsikha (12) there was shouting for joy 
The marriage hall was adorned with garlands. 
The noble maiden, Padmavati, seeing the time (approach) 
Spoke to the parrot this word, being alone. 
" Quickly go thou, parrot, to the fair land of Dilli, 
" Bring hither the hero, the Chahuwan king. 
Couplet. 

24. " Bring thou the Chahuwan hero, 

" First tell him this message from me, 
" While the breath remains in my body 
" My beloved (shall be) Prithiraj the king." 
Poem. 

25. Beloved Prithiraj the king, 

Fitly having written a letter, she gave it, 
Arranging all the words of the invitation, 
On the twelfth of the moon he took it. 
Eleven hundred and thirty 
Sakh era truly, 

Thus ; — " Khattri of pure race ! 
" Hero ! save a maiden's life ; 
"On seeing this arise at once, hero ! 
" Delay not for one instant. 
In the space of five nights and days 
" (Come) thou as Krishna came for Bukmini.' ' 
Couplets. 

26. tl As Krishna to Bukmini, 
Thus, hero, lord of Sambhari ! 
On the western side of Siva's temple 
At time of worship, be present." 

27. Taking the scroll the parrot went, 



.869.] The Nineteenth Booh of the Gestes of Prithiraj. 151 

Flew through the air like the wind ; 
To where in Dilli, Prithiraj the king ; 

* * [defective line.] * * 

28. He gave the paper into the king's hand 
Opening, read it Prithiraj ; 

Seeing the parrot, he laughed in his heart, 
Made preparation for going. 

Poem. 

29. That very hour, that very instant, 

That very day, that very time, preparing, 
All his heroes and nobles 
He took, shouting " Boli bam." 
Mention also* Chand, the incomparable poet, 
The hero perfect in beauty, 
And his army, all its cohorts, 
A valiant army, thirty lakhs strong. 
To Chamand Eai, the land of Dilli 
And the fort, the lord of forts having given in charge ; 
Away went king Prithiraj then, 
Went away to the eastern land. 
Couplet. 

30. On the day the marriage procession went to Sikhar, 
On that day went Prithiraj ; 

On that very day to the Padshah 
Came at Gajjanain (13) the report. 
Poem. 

31. Hearing at Gajjanain the report, 
Arose the hero Sahabdin, 

Of Khurasan, and Multan, 

And Kabul itself the ruler. 

A terrible warrior in the clash of battle, 

A king with arms heavy as steel 

The earth shook (beneath him), Seshnag fled, 

In the sky the sun was hidden, it became night. 

* ofT^I^ evidently an imperative ; we must suppose the poet to be ad- 
dressing Lis muse, or to take a lower view of the case, perhaps he wanted a 
rhyme for wpfS in the next line. 



152 The Nineteenth Booh of the Gestes of Prithiraj. [No. 3, 

Turning aside streams, like the Sindhu river, 
Stopping the way, standing foremost. 
At that time to Raja Prithiraj 
Chand spoke on this wise. 
[What he said is not recorded.] 

32. Seeing that the city was close at hand, 
The hero advanced without fear. 

In Samud Sikhar there was a great noise, 
The sound of drums on all sides. 
The poet went before as a guide, 
Having prepared a horse for the princess (14) 
To see them, all the women 
Mounted to the windows and balconies gladly. 
The princess looked forth from her dwelling, 
Looking like the shadow of Rahu, (15) 
Peeping out at the window every moment, 
Watching for the coming of the Lord of Dilli. 
Paddhari metre. 

33. Watching the road in the direction of Dillf, 
Happy was she when the parrot returned. 
Hearing the news, glad were her eyes ; 

The maiden was elated with the tokens of love. 

She tore off the dirty clothes from her body, 

Purified, and anointed, and adorned herself with robes. (16) 

Called for priceless jewels (for her person) from head to foot 

Arrayed with the tokens of the king of love. 

Filling a golden tray with pearls, 

Lighting a lamp she waved it round. (17) 

Taking her confidante with he"r, boldly the maiden 

Goes as Kukmini went to meet Murari ; 

Worshipping Grauri, revering Sankar ; 

Circumambulating (18) and touching their feet. 

Then on seeing King Prithiraj, 

She smiled bashfully, hiding her face through shame. 

Seizing her hand, putting her on horseback, 

The King the lord of Dilli took her away. 

The rumour spread that, outside the city, 



1869.] The Nineteenth Booh of the Gestes of Prithiraj. 153 

They are carrying off Padmavati by force. 
Drums are beat, there is saddling of horse and elephant, 
They ran, armed, in all directions. 
" Seize ! seize !" shouted each warrior. 
Rage possessed the heroes and their King. 
Where King Prithiraj was going in front 
With all his army behind him, 
There the horsemen advancing arrived ; 
King meeting king, the warriors joined battle. 
When Prithiraj the King turns rein, 
The heavens stand still, the world-serpent shakes. 
The chiefs and heroes all look (awful) as death, 
Eager for blood on rushes the King. 
The bows let fly countless arrows, 
The deadly blades draw blood ; 

From the sweat of the wounds of the heroes on the field, 
A thick stream flows, and dyes the sand. 
As the warriors of the hardt smote. 
On the field fell heads and headless trunks of the foe. 
Couplets. 

34. The foe fell on the field of battle ; 
Turning his face towards Dilli, 
Having won the battle, went Prithiraj, 
All the chiefs were glad. 

35. He took Padmavati with him. 
Rejoicing, King Prithiraj. 
Thereupon of the Padshah's 
Arrival, there came a rumour. 

Poem. 

36. Of his arrival there was a rumour ; 
Came Sahabdin, the hero, 

" To-day I will seize Prithiraj," 
Said the Chief, loud shouting. 
Countless warriors raged for the combat ; 
The army formed in line ; 
With arrows, javelins, and spears, 
Catapults, (19) all arranged. 
21 



154 The Nineteenth Book of the Gestes of Prithiraj. [No. 3, 

Throwing as it were mountains of iron. 
The strong-armed lords of elephants met. 
On they came shouting, ha ! ha ! 
The army of Khurasan and Multan. 

Paddhari metre. 

37. The lord of Khurasan, Multan and Kandahar, 

With powerful sword, and unerring arrows. 

Rohillas, Firangis (20) with long beards, 

Crowds of Biloches with blazoned shields, 

With cat-eyes, and slavering jackal-mouths ; 

Thousands on thousands, powerful warriors, 

On the backs and flanks of their horses saddles and housings. 
***** 

***** (21) 

Dense masses of iron, and waving horse-tails, 

Irakis, Arabs, Tazis swift for victory ; (22) 

Turkis wielding mighty bows and arrows. 

Such sword-handling troopers in crowds. 

Though demons opposed them, they would not avail aught. (23) 

In their midst, Sultan Sahab himself, 

Such was his army as described in song (24) 

Him Prithiraj, the King surrounded, 

On all sides with standards, and noise of drums. 

Verses. 

38. With noise of drums, and with flags, 
(Came) the Chauhan Rana on all sides ; 
All the chiefs and heroes, 

Called to mind their potent spells. 

Prithiraj the King set on, 

The hero shook his reins with eagerness, 

Drawing his sword full swift, 

Strokes, quick as lightning, he struck. 

The gods stood curious in the sky. 

Drowned in blood (24) the earth was (one) stream : 

Hara rejoiced at the sacrifice (26) of heroes. 

At the shouts of the monarch and his host (27) 



1869.] The Nineteenth Booh of the Gestes of Prithiraj. 155 

Couplets. 

39. At the shouts of the monarch and his host ; 
The battle was very fierce, 

[An obscure line] (28) 
Neither yielded, neither conquered. 
Verses. 

40. None gave way, none conquered, 
Heroes and warriors stayed or fell, 
On the earth they fell in numbers. 
Making a very terrible fight. 
Here were trunks, there heads ; 
There hands and feet scattered wide ; 
Here shoulders cleft by the sword, 

There heads and breasts cut open at a blow. [hoofs. 

Here skulls (with their) teeth and foreheads crushed by horse 

Elephants' trunks and bodies likewise : 

When the Rana of the Hindus, with sun-like face, 

The Chauhan, grasped his sword. 

Bhujangi metre. 

41. The Chahuwan, the Hindu Rana grasped his sword, 
Rushed on the troop of elephants like a lion in his wrath, 
Severing heads and bodies, cleaving brows in twain, 

All the chiefs and heroes utter loud shouts. 
Shrieking and screaming in confusion they fled, 
Abandoning pride and shame, and begging for mercy. 
The elephants fled blindly, the Chahuwan overthrew them. (29) 
Surrounding them on all sides he turned them. 
The sun went down, (3) around was dark night, 
(The army) went searching (for the road) nothing was visible ; 
Leaning his head on his bow stood Prithiraj the King, 
Then he seized the Shah, who risked death and disgrace, 
He took him away quickly having routed his army. 
There fell chiefs five hundred there in the field outright. (31) 
Rajputs fifty were disabled in the fight, 

The song of victory was sung with flags and with beating of 
Couplets. [drums. 

42. Victory was to Prithiraj ; 



156 The Nineteenth Booh of the Gestes of Prithiraj. [No. 3, 

Taking the captive Shah with him : 

Towards Dilli he went, 

Crossing the passes, the mountains and the Ganges. 

With the fair Padmavati, 

And the Grhori Sultan. 

Reached the city of Dilli, 

The mighty-armed Chauhan. 

Verses. 

44. The Brahmins spoke and affixed the nuptial mark, 
Selecting (32) a fortunate moment, 

Made a bower of green bamboos, 
Adorned with clusters and garlands (of flowers). 
The Brahmins recited the Vedas, 

The homa sacrifice [was performed] on a platform before the hero. 
Padmavati was the peerless bride ; 
The bridegroom, Prithiraj, king of men. 
He fined Shah Shahabdi, 
Eight thousand pieces of gold, 

Having conferred gifts and rewards and dresses of six pieces (33) 
The king went up into his fort. 
Verses. 

45. King Prithviraj went up, 

Having released the hero Shahabdin : 
The King, his chiefs and warriors ; 
"With banners, and music, and shouting. 
[Moon-faced, deer-eyed women, 
Preparing golden dishes many 
Binding on pearls, joyously, 
Forming in a ring men and women all, 
Sang with joyful throats ; 
Waving chumris from hand to hand, 
With coronets on their heads.] (35) 
Couplets. 

46. The King ascended to the royal fort. 
The virtuous King, Prithiraj 

With very great and exceeding joy. 
The crown of the head of the Hindus. 



1869.] The Nineteenth Booh of the Gestes of Prithiraj. 157 

Here endeth the nineteenth chapter in the Gestes of Sri Prithiraj, 
composed by Sri Kavi Chand Bardai, entitled the seizure of Padma- 
vati in the fort of Samud Sikhar by Sri Prithiraj after a fight, and the 
fight between Sri Prithiraj and the Padshah, and the victory of Sri 
Prithiraj and the capture and release of the Padshah. 19. Finished. 

Notes. 

(1) In Tod's MS. the 20th. In the Agra MS. it is misplaced 
and occurs as the 24th, but in this MS. the whole of the Mahoba 
Samyo to which it is introductory, is omitted ; as it is also in Caulfield's 
MS. 

(2) Tod ir^TVW which I have translated ' strong armed *r?T = vm. 
Agra has ^IWT which agrees neither with rhyme or metre. 

(3) ^*r, /♦**■=», retinue, attendants. 

(4) Tod sr«T, Agra ^f^r. 

(5) Tod cjpf ^RW; Agra f^r <^it which makes no sense. 

(6) Tod fw THK, which is unintelligible ; Agra fa?r *{*k, ditto. I 
read ^Tȣ?r WK, i. e. ^fz<{ # ^ftt: (-im) $, conjecturally: 

(7) I read these lines thus W^f<T *TO #^fr ^ ?lf?r II ft^rarro 
^flr ^^^ II Tod and the Agra MS. read JRfe^ft which gives no 
sense ; f?^ I take to be for f?r^ ; the substitution of h for s is a 
Panjabi characteristic frequent in Chand ; W% is for Tff^T. The other 
reading f^ ^*TT*? I can make nothing of. 

(8) ^r ^f^uT, with eyes rounded like a disc (^sff), i. e. widely 
opened. 

(9) Tod and Agra f^fa ^ ^T^JI^T ^% ^m?< II the meaning of 
which is not clear to me. 

(10) The translation of this and the preceding line is purely con- 
jectural the MSS. have entirely different and irreconcileable read- 
ings. 

(11) ^^ ^f^^Tq fepT ^rf% ^T5J* Tod. Agra has ^^f W^, etc. 

(12) In this time the proper name of the place is given for the first 
time. The fortress is identified as Sriswagarh on the Pahonj not far 
from Kunch " in Eastern Bundelkhand. Elliot's History of India, 
vol. ii. p. 459. 

(13) Ghaznin. 

(14) Readings vary in the different MSS. That translated above is 
the only intelligible one. 



158 The Nineteenth Booh of the Gestes of Prithirdj. [No. 3 



(15) The princess when in health was compared to the moon, 
when sick she is likened to the moon under an eclipse, caused as the 
Hindus believed by the demon Rahu. 

(16) Here again I have constructed an intelligible reading out the 
varying and obscure versions in the MSS. 

(17) This is an allusion to the ceremony called drtd or welcoming 
the bridegroom. 

(18) The ceremony of prachlcshinam or walking round an object 
to be revered, keeping the right side always nearest to it. 

(19) Tod and Agra g^cjr rfFC^ ^3 ^*=ft*T, I at first translated this 
li muskets and arrows," but arrows have already been mentioned in 
the line above (^T^r) ; and it is very doubtful if guns and gunpowder 
could have been known at that early age, moreover the next line 
speaks of throwing mountains of iron ; I therefore suppose some sort 
of heavy machine for throwing stones or darts, such as a catapult or 
mangonel, is intended. 

(20) The mention of Feringhees here is curious. If the blazoned 
shields in the next line, the heavily caparisoned horses and iron 
armour apply to them, we might almost suppose some band of old 
crusaders had found their way eastwards ! I suspect the whole pass- 
age however to be a modern interpolation. The word translated 
" beards" is WST«ft which is found in no dictionary. I connect it 
with the Sanskrit sjpg, Prakrit ^3KT Sindhi Tr^, — It is merely a con- 
jecture however. 

(21) These two lines are a puzzle. They stand thus — 

^£3»^TT<T is probably Persian -t^la-w scarlet cloth, and I should 
like to read ^T*TT for <ffaT, so as to make it descriptive of scarlet caps, 
which were distinctive of the Mughal cavalry, as in later times of the 
Kizilbash their descendants. The second line I give up entirely, as it 
stands at present. 

(22) I read WctI #5! rTTSft, isfij£ J^, the MSS. both have xr#t. 

(23) In both MSS. fViT *i?r ^W ^ ?rw ^T^T, i. e. fsfrR'Vrr ^iTW 
fW§ %t fcfrr-JT ^i^r (= fa§*r) %T?r ll 

(24) m? strictly, means ' muttering prayers,' but Chand uses ^ 
and «ipt for chanting verses, or even for speaking. 



1869.] The Nineteenth Booh of the Gestcs of Pritldraj. 159 

(25) xw*t WH" = ^7&F*r. (26) oj^r = 5TJU i. e. sjw 

(27) I read ^ WZ* JT*T *TC*T IK i. e. W ( = 3T^t) ^npR;i %*TC ^T 
^fT^" % (^^TT^T ^fr) «r*;f ^X, hero of heroes, monarch, leader. 

(28) fa^WT^^fw»rqT<T the meaning of which is not evident, nor 
how the words should be divided. 

(29) This line varies in the two MSS. Tod has ferltf ^Tfcfl Kim 
^ ^T*T *R^7 II Agra ^Tt I^T ^^ ^^T^T ^KT II I adopt the latter with 
the change of the last word to ^3T No verb cR«?T exists in Hindi, but 
in Sindhi there is ^TW to overthrow, cause to fall, and %T^T is used 
in Panjabi in the sense of scattering. 

(30) Both MSS. have ^3f% which is absurd. I propose to read «if% 
which is the earlier form of ^f%, as the setting of the sun and not its 
rising must be meant. 

(31) I read with Agra xfT "tffc ^ ^ ?r^f ^<f ^^. This last word 
only occurs when a rhyme is required for t?T^ ; it would seem to be 
connected with Hindi ^TSf (Sansk. ^r^), clean. I look on it as an ex- 
pletive and translate it c outright.' Tod's version of this line is 
unintelligible. The whole of this Bhujangi is very corrupt. The Agra 
leaves out three whole lines and patches up a fourth with part of one line 
and part of another. It differs also entirely in some lines from Tod, 
but oddly has rather the better readings of the two. 

(32) The word translated ' selecting' is *p:€fa, which is for xjrfB" 
participle of a verb xf^3"*rf, the last syllable lengthened metri gratia. 
It occurs once before in this book at stanza 22, where I have translated 
it ' prepared.' It is probably the Sanskrit fsjfw^n, which would 
be in Prakrit qf^f T, whence ^tT<3T and ^K^. Chand is not particular 
about ^§ and ?: ; thus we have n?Trr for xrsff, 5f ^ for oj ^, etc. The 
meaning would be to fix, settle, arrange, place, apply, etc. cf. Benfey 
s. v. ^JT, also Bopp. Gloss. Comp. ib. 

(33) Tsre^T 1 ?, lit. ' six dresses.' I suppose this to mean dresses of 
honour, as we should say ' khil'ats of six pieces.' 

(35) The whole of this passage in brackets is omitted from the 
Agra MS., and I think it is an interpolation. The style is different 
from the rest, and it is somewhat out of place in the story. Moreover 
the last line of 44 is repeated in the first line of 46, as well as in the 
beginning of 35, which is unusual. The sixth line is partially unintel- 
ligible to me. 



160 The Nineteenth Booh of the Gestes of Prithirdj. [No. 3, 

Persian and Arabic words in this book are haslim, hazdr, mahal, 
hdgh, zanjir, dwdz,jang,fauj, khds, rnir i tir, nishdn, salclat,faih, tez, 
as war, Idzi, sultan, tegli ; these occur chiefly in the passages relating 
to the Musalman troops. 



JOURNAL 



OF THE 



ASIATIC SOCIETY 



Part I.— HISTORY, LITERATURE, &c. 

No. IV.— 1869. 

Translations from Cliand. — By F. S. G-rowse, Esq., M. A., B. C. S. 

The two specimen translations from the Father of Hindi Poetry 
which I have submitted to the criticism of the Society, were, I 
believe the first that had appeared since the year 1838, when Col. 
Tod contributed to the Asiatic Journal a version of the Kanauj 
Khand. I have lately had an opportunity of comparing his transla- 
tion with the original, and find that notwithstanding its apparent 
close adherence to Indian modes of expression, it is in fact extremely 
loose and untrustworthy ; though no doubt it contains many sugges- 
tions calculated to smooth the path of a future translator. Consider- 
ing the novelty of my undertaking, the comparative failure of my 
only predecessor, the inherent difficulty of the text, and the imperfect 
condition of the MS. in my possession, I felt little confidence in the 
result of my labours, and would gladly have welcomed the suggestions 
of competent critics. I was also in great hopes that such suggestions 
would not be withheld, since it appeared that the poem had recently 
excited considerable curiosity among oriental scholars. In these 
expectations, I have been completely disappointed, and the accuracy 
of my rendering has remained altogether unchallenged, from the 
indifference of the public, I fear, rather than from any more flattering 
cause. 

22 



162 Translations from Chand. [No. 4, 

I learn, however, from the September Proceedings of the Society 
that Mr. Beames (to whom the Philological Committee have entrusted 
the task of editing the complete poem) has prepared a separate trans- 
lation of another canto, and has published a short specimen of it. It 
so happens that the portion selected is contained in one of my MSS. 
I have referred to it m my second paper, vol. 38, page 4. So far as 
I can judge from the English, the text used by Mr. Beames coincides 
closely with mine ; but our views on the interpretation of many 
passages are far from coincident, as I will shortly proceed to shew. 

I wish in the first place to reproduce the original text. This will 
occupy no great amount of space, since the passage in question consists 
only of 40 lines ; and so very little of the text has ever yet appeared 
in print that many to whom MSS. are inaccessible may be glad to 
have a further specimen of it. Mr. Beames too will thus be able to 
see at once where difference of rendering is due to difference of 
reading. To the text I will append my own translation and subjoin 
a few notes, more especially at the points of divergence. 

I am aware that it is much easier to detect flaws in another man's 
work, and to avoid them in rebuilding on the same plan than it is to 
succeed in constructing on an independent basis ; but I cannot be 
justly impugned for essaying only the inferior task, since two of my 
own attempts already published are equally open to adverse criticism, 
and I propose to conclude this article by adding a third to the series. 
It will be, I hope, by a stringent examination of them that Mr. 
Beames will repay me in kind for my strictures on his performance. 

Here follows the text of Mr. Beames' translation, as it stands in 
the Mainpuri MS. 



1869.] Translations from Chawf, 163 

^T < <d P^fjlfd d 4 ^ d M <*i5j f*r^pre*s^?: 10 

f^jrf^^^f^iT^^^r^fnft 15 



fq «T W3 JRcf"srf*r*TfeT <tt wa^fw^s; 30 






?pnj rr^T^^rftTTfff ^r9f*nr fsq^g 
si v 

Notes. 

Line 1. The second disi may be taken with the preceding words 
as a preposition meaning ' towards ;' or with the following words as 



164 Translations from Chand. [No. 4, 

the first number of a compound, disi-garh-nipati, l lord of all forts on 
earth' : the former seems preferable. 

2. Bijai certainly may mean ' victorious,' but I think it better to 
regard it as a proper name. Bliurga is a word I have never met 
elsewhere ; it may be for bhiigat, l spread through the world ;' but 
more likely for the Sanskrit blirisa, ' extensive.' Mr. Beanies may 
have Jddav for jihi ; but whence he obtains his epithet ' strong- 
armed' I cannot conceive. Is it intended as a rendering of mahima 
bhurga ? 

4. Sevalii, which Mr. Beames takes to be a substantive, is clearly 
a verb. He also confuses the Hindi nisdn, l a kettle drum,' by no 
means an uncommon word, with the Persian nisltdn ' a standard.' 
One would have thought the epithet bahundd, ' loud sounding' was a 
sufficient guide to the true meaning. To translate bahundd by ' very 
splendid' is decidedly original. 

5. Here din must stand either for din prati, * every day,' or for din 
bhar, ' all day ;' I can see no reference to ' five times a day.' 

6. Nor here to ' golden hoofs ;' can Mr. Beames have taken nag 
for nahh ? 

7. Mr. Beames has entirely omitted the words ' hay sankhi.' 

8. Apparently Mr. Beames has wrongly divided the words, thus 
getting liar at the end of the line, and then seeing the words kar and 
patra, has jumped to the conclusion that some reference is intended 
to liar's j i. e. Siva's, bow ; the real meaning is something quite 
different. 

9. The text speaks of ten sons only, no daughters : and the 
meaning is, not that Padamsen had ten sons, but that he was one of 
ten brothers. 

12. ' From her breast a daughter sprung.' This is rather awk- 
ward English, and not at all required by the original, which literally 
translated is, 'she had one fair daughter.' Nor in the preceding 
line is there any mention of ' house :' apparently either suglmr or 
gliarni has been wrongly divided. The word bhdn, l the sun' has 
been totally omitted. 

14. The words in this line should be divided thus : Bdl vais sisutd 
samir : evidently Mr. Beames has split them up into Bdl vai sasi sutd, 
but even then they cannot bear the meaning he gives them. Vais is 
for avasthd. 



1869.] Translations from Cliand. 165 

15, 16. These lines are difficult, but not corrupt. The emendation 
suggested by Mr. Beames, in his translation since published is quite 
unnecessary. Even with such emendation, the words could not yield 
the sense he gives them. 

17-20. The first of the two couplets here omitted by Mr. Beames 
is certainly extremely obscure ; the second is simple enough. 

22. Mr. Beames's rendering can scarcely be correct ; since the 
Hindus reckon not fourteen but only six sciences. 

23, 24. These lines are somewhat remarkable, as being the only 
two out of the forty which Mr. Beames has translated with absolute 
accuracy. Certainly they are not very difficult. 

26. The comparison is not between the parrot and the bimb, but 
between the bimb and the girl's red lips. 

27. The words uroj ur are altogether omitted. 

28. Nothing in my text about ' avoiding its beak.' 

31, 32. Here Mr. Beames omits much and exactly reverses the 
sense of what he retains. 

35. Sudes must mean 'well arranged,' not 'fair to see.' The 
latter half of the line has nothing that corresponds in the slightest 
with Mr. Beames's translation. 

36. The difficulty here is evaded. The reading of my text ' giddW 
must I think be corrected to ' biddh? Bais-sandhi is an uncommon 
expression, but is thus explained in the Sringar-saurabh : — 

Balapan jovan dubu milat hoti jo sandhi. 

Ja son kabi sab kahafc bain Bais-sandbi anubandbi. 

37. The nava sapta sobha form one of the standard poetical com- 
mon-pluces, and I am surprised that Mr. Beames is not familiar with 
the expression. His translation is quite unwarranted by the original, 
and the same remark applies to his version of the next three lines. 

In these observations, I have taken for granted that Mr. Beames's 
text is substantially the same as mine, and I have little doubt that 
such is really the case. If, however, this supposition is incorrect, and 
I have thereby done him an injustice, I feel sure that the Society 
will allow him to vindicate the accuracy of his scholarship by printing 
the forty lines as they stand in his MS. I now proceed to offer a 
translation of my own, which however imperfect, will be found, I am 
confident, rather more faithful to the original. 



166 Translations from Cliand. [No. 4, 

Translation. 

Towards the eastern quarter is a princely fort, Samud-sikhari, the 
impregnable ; its king the heroic Bijai, of highly exalted descent : 
lord of thousand horses, elephants and lands, of imperial dignity ; all 
puissant chiefs do him service 'mid the din of deep-sounding kettle- 
drums. 

'Mid the din of deep-sounding kettle-drnms, there is daily equip- 
ment of heroes, mounting ten thousand horses, their bodies gleaming 
with gold and jewels. There too innumerable elephants, myriads of 
horses, a warrior host with thousands of men, each bearing the royal 
umbrella, all of equal dignity. Ten were his sons, all gallant and 
fail', comely as the dawn, with countless stores of treasure; but 
comeliest of all, Prince Padam-sen. 

The comely prince, Padam-sen, had a noble spouse; by her one 
daughter, brilliant as the sun, lovely as the new moon. 

Lovely as the new moon, did I say ? nay, lovely as the moon in its 
fulness ; sweet as nectar was the grace of her blooming maidenhood. 
As the opening lotus, or the circling bee, or the wanton wagtail, so 
glittered her fawn-like eyes. The pearl, the parrot and the swan lost 
all courage in her presence, shimmering as a fish in a stream. The 
horse, the elephant, and the car lent her each its own special grace ; 
this lotus of Prince Padam-sen must have been fashioned in female 
form by Kamadeva himself. 

Fashioned by Kamadeva himself, a form of ideal beauty, stealing 
the hearts alike of gods, men, saints, cattle, birds and deer. Her 
body had all marks of good fortune ; she was familiar with the sixty- 
four arts; and well-formed in all her members ; she was graceful as 
the Spring. Laughing and playing with her companions in the 
garden of the palace, she beheld a parrot ; great delight filled her soul. 

Great delight filled her soul as when the swan sees the sun ; as she 
bit her red lips, they seemed to the flock of parrots like a himh. The 
bird flies round her ; she startled, looks down to her breast ; vehement 
desire takes her soul, she catches it in her hands. Gladly she detains 
the little Love, and goes with it into the palace ; there in a cage 
studded with many jewels, she takes and places it. 

There she takes and places it, forgetting all her sport, and with irre- 
pressible delight begins teaching it to say Ram, Ram. The parrot, see- 



1869. J Translations from Chanel. 167 

ing her face every day, was very happy. ' Surely this charming Padmini 
is the perfection of the Creator's work ; her wavy hair so trim, her 
lips and teeth red with betel juice, her form just budding into woman- 
hood as the lotus, stately as the swan, with all the graces of Love 
himself, adorned by the sixteen arts of the toilette, and with strings of 
pearls ; the eyes of all beholders are charmed, and they deem her a 
Venus embodied. May Siva and Uma, whom I worship, beholding 
my devotion, grant the union of Prithiraj (thus sings the Bard Chand) 
with this branch of the tree of Paradise.' 

I hope scholars will do me the favour of comparing the above 
translation first with the Hindi text and then with Mr. Beames's 
transformation of it. I conclude this article with a short extract 
from the Benares MS., being the third of my original series. 

In my former papers I have described the opening of the poem and 
shewn how the Mahoba war was provoked by Parmal's massacre of 
the fifty wounded Chauhans who had wandered off from the main body 
of Prithiraj 's army after an engagement with the Muhammadans. 
From that point I continue the narrative. 

"When the news reached Prithiraj at Dilli, his indignation was extreme. 
He at once summoned a Council of State, and finding all the chiefs 
unanimous for war, commenced immediate preparations for the cam- 
paign. An auspicious date was fixed by the priests, after performing 
a s'dkal horn, and the army had marched into encampments outside the 
city, when — 

Translation of the latter part of Canto IV. 
An envoy from king Mahil meets Prithiraj on the road before 
Dilli* and tenders a letter, saying : " Alha and Udal, the king's 
servants, are in the battle as the angel of death to the enemy ; ad- 
vance no further till you have slain Mallakhan and his puny force."f 
This is the letter sent by the king to Prithiraj : " First put Mallakhan 
to death, then reconnoitre the city of Mahoba ; having well recon- 
noitred, urge on your march thither by night and day. There is but 
I a small force at Sarsa ; you are a man of valour, ravage their land ; 
I gird on the sword for the fray, if there be any courage in you, king 
1 of Sambhar. This is the advice I give, writing the letter with my own 

* c On the road before Dilli' — Dilli sapathai. 
f ' Puny force' — Chhari-bhir Mallakhan Ico. 



168 Translations from Chand. [No. 4, 

hand. Mallakhan's army is contemptible, utterly destroy it. Sarsa 
borders on Mahoba, there pass the frontier. The chief of his warriors 
have gone indignant to Kanauj : the Ohandel has lost his senses, and 
stays still at Mahoba. There he stays careless, leaving all to me ; 
I support his throne, and rule the entire land. Rouse your indigna- 
tion, Chauhan, answer me as a king ; take Parnial a prisoner, plunder 
the city of Mahoba." 

Such was the letter given by the messenger to Prithiraj ; the king, 
as he read it, was more delighted than words can tell. That instant 
he wrote in answer to the prince : " If the Chandel Raja be conquered, 
half the kingdom shall fall to your share." Again and again he 
repeats the same words in writing to the Parihar.* " If the land be 
conquered, I promise you dominion over one half of the whole realm. "f 
Mahil's envoy G-opal spoke and said to the king : " Should Alha and 
Udal by any chance return from Kanauj all our arrangements}; will 
come to nought. The king has grievously outraged§ them and banished 
them from the city ; still, remembering their duty to their lord, when 
they hear of his distress, they will hasten to his side." Having 
uttered this caution, the messenger took the letter and departed. The 
Chauhan army started to ravage the country of the Chandels. 

In the year 1140, on a Wednesday in the month of Kiiar,|[ the lord 
of Sambhar gathered his army and set forth to wreak vengeance on 
Parnial. When the assembled army broke up and marched from 
Dilli, earth trembled. ^f In the van were 500 elephants, huge as the 

* ' The Parihar'— that is, Mahil. 

f The couplet stands thus : ^\\ ?{f% ^^f 

Here aphiya is said to be a Marwari. word signifying ' to give ;' and 
one Pandit to whom I shewed the passage assured me that tabhd is also a 
Marwari word used in connection with aphiya to imply a solemn donation. Of 
this, however, I feel doubtful and prefer to take tha Jcahat bhd as three words, 
meaning ' I tell you.' 

X ' All our arrangements' — ^j ^ tqj i$ jj-^j ^ Here raul is apparently 
for haul. 

§ Grievous outrage — ^f^ -^sj 

|| The word in the text is ikkmds : I am not certain what month is intended. 

•ff The couplet stands thus — 

m^ ^T oT^ f%Wl S' xf1%3[ *£S ^ tMfa^ Pf fa*, which may also be 

translated — When the assembled army marched from .Dilli, forest trees were 
broken, the earth-supporter trembled. 



1869.] Translations from Chanel. 169 

ten guardians of the universe, and 100 exultant champions, each of 
whom could turn to night 10,000 ordinary mortals. The king gave 
Kanh command of this advanced guard, and halted at Fort Gopachal. 
Here Amarsi sent to his aid* from Chitrakiit 20,000 horse and 30 
elephants. When Prithiraj fixed his camp at Gopachal, all the people 
deserted their homes and fled to hide in the woods and mountain 
caves. Then Kaimas gave this wise counsel ; u Mallakhan is a strong 
and haughty chief ; get the better of him by a pilgrimage to Batesur- 
By the death of Mallakhan your fame will spread though the world." 
As Kaimas advised, so he acted. With clash and clang of soul-stirring 
music the army marched ; earth quivered and shook ; Seshnag's 
thousand hooded heads trembled at the weight. The Chauhan gave 
heed to the stratagem Kaimas had devised ; no news of the halt at 
Gopachal reached the Chandel. The army lingeredf on the road to 
Batesur ; the king of Sambhar struck off apart from the main body 
of the host. With him were 500 elephants, breaking down forts as 
huge as mountains, their riders equipped with splendid^ spears. 
Under each chieftain were 500,000 men ; as the Chauhan army march- 
ed, the earth-supporter's head shook. From Gopachal Prithiraj made 
a cross-march to visit the shrine of Mahadeva. 

When his camp broke up from Gopachal, the crowd of elephants 
spread over the whole face of the earth. Under the tramp of his 
horses' hoofs, mountains were ground into powder as small as mustard 
seed. A moving canopy of dust warded off the rays of the sun. 
The Chauhan army with its gallant array of knights made forced 
marches, and with loud strains of martial music all arrived at Batesur. 
Summoning priests and bards to join his warrior train, the king in an 
ecstasy of devotion adored Sankara after bathing at Brahmanal 
Attended by bards and sages to the Batesur temple, he touched the 
feet of the deity and reverently circumambulated the image. After 
bathing, he made an offering of 10 elephants, 100 horses and 2000 
pieces of gold ; all these gifts he bestowed upon the Brahmans. Then 

* ' Aid' — ^fficr for the Persian humaTc. 

f ' Lingered.' The word in the text is f"TlT T tne precise meaning of which 
was doubtful, till a day or two ago when I heard it used by a rustic in Court to 
express the slow movement of a man whom the Police had apprehended aud 
were dragging off to the lock-up. 

X Splendid ^[^ft^f, probably for Persian asl or asil. * Spears' — q^TCf* 

23 



170 Translations from Cliand. [No. 4, 

taking in his hand lotus and other flowers with fruits, roots, and incense, 
he presented them in the temple. Reclining on a couch of husa 
grass, the king adored with clasped hands : " Grant me victory, 
Ahinath, then again will I visit thy shrine." The oracular lord of 
creation vouchsafed response and said : " The Chauhan army shall 
conquer, but perish in the conquest. Many wounded men shall fall 
in the battle, bereft of life ; you shall be protected by the grace of 
Brahma and Gorakhnath." The king bowed his head on hearing 
this, and great joy filled his soul : " Come life, come death, be victory 
mine, then heaven is won." 

The Chauhan left the temple of the eternal Siva rejoicing ; the 
army panted for the fray, the trumpets gave a dread sound. As they 
marched from Batesur, the elephants led the van ; all the Chauhan 
forces met at the Charmavati. The trumpets gave a fierce sound ; 
great was the gathering of kings and nobles : Seshnag was troubled 
by the crowd of hosres and elephants, as the army passed on to 
Indragarh. The Chauhan princes met at the river Sindh ; at dawn 
Mallakhan heard the news from the chief of the spies : " The Chauhans 
have arrived at Basavgarh."* On hearing this, Mallakhan acted 
prudently and summoned his counsellors, and priests, saying : " Speak, 
friends, and advise me ; shall I keep my family with me, or send them 
to Mahoba? join counsel and declare what seems to you best." His 
kinsmen and counsellors made answer, revealing their thoughts: 
"Despatch your family to Mahoba." Thus spoke all the counsellors 
and bards : u Set your mind at ease by sending the women to Mahoba ; 
then give your whole soul to the battle."f Mallakhan pondered the 
advice of his kinsmen and counsellors, and went into the seraglio to 
speak with the Queen. 

So ends the fourth canto, entitled Mallakhan' 's Council. 

Postscript. 

While correcting the proof sheets of the above, I received a copy of 
the Journal containing Mr. Beames's complete translation. I have 

* Basavgarh — i. e. Indragarh : Yasava being a name of Indra. 
f The following Persian words occnr in the above passage : viz., sarddr, 
rah, Jeumdk, fauj, Ithabr, asil, pU } and mahall. 



1869.] Reply to 3£r. Growse. 171 

read this with great interest, and congratulate the writer on his spiri- 
ted reproduction of the general substance and style of the original. I 
only demur to its being described as a literal translation, which it 
really is not. However, a little looseness of rendering will make the 
work not a whit the less acceptable to the general reader ; and any 
asperity of verbal criticism, into which I may have been betrayed, 
will, I trust, be attributed solely to the fact that I expected a work of 
rather severe type from a scholar who has achieved a philological re- 
putation. Yet I must express a hope that, if Mr. Beames continues 
in his idea not only of translating but also of editing the poem, he will 
reproduce the MSS. as closely as possible, and not venture upon hasty 
emendations, which in the majority of cases, more mature reflection 
would convince him were quite unnecessary. Thus in the forty lines 
which we have both translated, I see no occasion to alter more than a 
single letter, reading in one place biddh for giddh. Mr. Beames on 
the other hand with a better MS. before him, proposes several sweep- 
ing alterations, which his brief notes enable me to see are based on 
mere misconceptions of the content. F. S. G. 



Reply to Mr. Growse. 

I wish to be brief, because Mr. Growse has already occupied too much 
space to no purpose, and because my remarks are few and simple. 

1. My text differs so widely from Mr. Growse's, that on reading 
his, it looks to me like quite a different poem. 

2. There are only four MSS. of Chand accessible to European 
scholars. Two of these are in my possession, the third is in the libra- 
ry of the Royal Asiatic Society in London, the fourth in the Bodleian 
at Oxford. Mr. Growse possesses no copy of the poem. 

3. Having no copy of Chand, but having picked up some old Hin- 
di works which contain copious but garbled extracts from Chand 
mixed up with extraneous matter, Mr. Growse condemns my translation 
in no measured terms, because it differs from his own incorrect text ! 

I will first defend my own translation in those places where Mr. 
Growse attacks it, and then give the correct version of the original from 
the real MSS. 



172 Reply to Mr. Groivse. [No. 4, 

I do not criticise Mr. Growse's specimens of translation, as the Hin- 
di from which he translates is not traceable in either of my copies of 
Chand, and appears not to be written by Chand at all, but by some 
modern author who has borrowed the poet's name. 

Lines 1-4. These lines stand as follows : 

^TT fw: ^jffT ^ I 
^ ■ J 

This shews how erroneous Mr. Growse's version is. It foists in a 
second 1xfa in the first line, then writes durg for drugg i not knowing 
that Ghand always throws the r back in such words as these, as srab for 
sarb, dhram for dharm, subran for subam and many others, and then 
to eke out the rhyme alters bliug into bhurg a purely imaginary word : 
bhug is a common Chand corruption for bhuj ' arm,' and the compound 
mahdbhug means, as I have translated it 'mighty armed' like ' maha 
bahu' a common epithet of kings. Mr. Growse's notes on these four 
lines are simple nonsense ; and his mistake of supposing suvijaya ' very 
victorious' to be the name of the king is the more ridiculous because 
the real name Padam Sen is given a few lines further on. 

4. Sevahi, says Mr. Growse is a verb ! If so, it would be interesting 
to know what part of the verb it is. Mr. Growse is, it would seem, 
unaware of the Prakrit form of the dative plural (Lassen Inst. B. p. 311, 
where it is wrongly given as an instrumental) from the Sanskrit from 
^W, which in Prakrit becomes %^f^ and finally ^Nf^f. 

As to nisan meaning ' a kettledrum,' it may be so, but I do not find 
it in five of the best dictionaries ; and as the real texts read bahusadh 
or sddd and not ndd, I prefer to retain the ordinary translation of 
'standards.' 

5. Here again Mr. Growse's text is absurdly wrong; a reference to 
my text as given below will shew that my rendering is correct. The 
" puissant chiefs" of Mr. Growse's translation, are evidently a creation 
of his own brain, or of his Pandit's, for I do not see how he gets it out 
of his own text even. 

7. " Mr. B. has entirely omitted the words hay sankhi." Yes, I 
have, because they are not in the text. 

8. " Apparently Mr. B. has wrongly divided the words." Mr. B. 



1869.] Reply to Mr. Growse. 173 

lias done no snchthing, but has translated his own text literally ; not 
having had Mr. Growse's fancy text to confuse him, for which he is 
thankful. The introduction of the words ' Siva's bow' was caused by 
the simple fact that t pmdka i which is the name of that bow, occurs 
in my true text, though not in Mr. Growse's jumble. 

9. " The text speaks of ten sons only, no daughters." The text 
says ' das putr putri? If this does not mean ' ten sons and daughters,' 
I wish to know what it does mean ? As to the suggestion that Padam 
Sen was one of these ten sons, it is an unfounded assertion into which 
Mr. G-. has been betrayed by his faulty text. 

12. Td ur putri pragat says my text. I translate word for word. 
* From her breast a daughter sprung.' Mr. Growse says, " this is 
awkward English and not required by the original." The preceding 
line is ta ghari ndri sujdn, which again I have rendered literally, 
1 In his house was a wellborn dame.' 

14. Here again Mr. Growse is blundering over a bad text. The word 
he reads sisu is really sasi the moon ; and the word be reads vais and 
tell us is for avasthd, (though where he got this idea from is a puzzle), 
is simply bhes, 'dress, appearance, guise' as I have given it ; c samir' is 
an error for ' samip ;' and Mr. Growse's text is quite wrong in the 
fourth line, which he ignorantly (or rather his Pandit again) mixes up 
with the third, for it wants at least a couple of feet to make it scan ! 

15, 16. Your text as it stands is not intelligible, and I should 
like to know by what process you get your English out of it. And 
a propos of your English, what do you mean by pearls, parrots and 
swans shimmering like fish in a stream ? I see nothing about " shim- 
mering" or ' streams' in your text. I am afraid your Pundit, in 
whom you trusted, has deceived you ; or was it the intelligent bunnias 
of that village on the frontier of your district, mentioned in your 
former article ? 

22. My rendering cannot be correct since the Hindus reckon only 
six sciences, says Mr. Growse. To this I reply, that Chand says 
chaturdas ; and Mr. Growse is perhaps thinking of the six schools of 
Vedic science, to the exclusion of the secular sciences. 

23, 24. These lines are remarkable, it appears, as the only two 
which I have translated accurately ! I might have been spared this 
sarcasm ; if Mr. Growse's object had been honest criticism, nothing 



174 Reply to Mr. Growse. [No. 4, 

need have been said of these lines. My offence in the eyes of this 
gentleman, who is a stranger to me and to most scholars in Europe, 
consists in my having dared to meddle with Chand at all, seeing that 
he had constituted himself interpreter in chief, and head referee on all 
questions connected with this author. 

The rest of Mr. G-rowse's criticisms are founded on a text so widely 
differing from mine, that I cannot even find which of my lines he 
refers to. 

In conclusion, I can only say that I will take no further notice of 
anything Mr. Growse may write. I cannot undertake to teach him 
the rudiments of old Hindi in the Society's Journal, nor can I spare 
the time to copy out for him my text. I am preparing an edition of 
the complete text for the Society much of which is ready, and will 
appear shortly. Mr. Growse will then know what is really in Chand 
and what is not. Till then I should recommend him to hold his 
peace, or at any rate not to accuse of want of scholarship, a man whom 
he does not know, on the strength of a text which he has not seen. 
And I would give him a further parting word of advice, namely, not 
to rely on his Pandit too entirely, but to try and reason out for him- 
self the true meaning of every word, and above all, not to listen too 
credulously to village shopkeepers and grainseliers, however interest- 
ing and intelligent they may be ! 

My text, as it stands in two complete MSS. 

**r^ famx ^frr ?w i 

«TT^ W^ 1 *^T *}"* n ^ II 

^w ^ 3R ^r ^f?r i 
^f^r f*fsu"*r to ^re 11 ^ n 

^ *fjT orferr ^rr«f fw*r i 



L869.] Beply to Mr. Groiose. 175 

W^T ^^T cft^ WRS i 
*TT VX TW T^nss 
TW W& ^ffi^" ^^ I 

*%tt ^iwto ^jff*r ?r ^nr* i 

iTTO WT *?f% ^TT^T II » II 

efffrfj ij*r^ <^t ^f% *tt?t 

STO ^ *f% rTT ^?ffa I 

f%?if% *p?^ ^^?r w*: i 

ffc *ftfc ^ fsre I 

w^qfw *re %^ft ^ i fir i 

si 

v^ vrX wh ^ Tnf&ft i 

^TCT SfX fifwei TqTO II £ II 

fcftr *nlrr <rc*rrsr n ^ si 
*re^r torero fjprrcr i 



176 Reply to Mr. Growse. [No. 4, 

^r*r vrc iftm t*k 

^ *TcT *tito TffTfuf ^ I 

%t f?rf% irf% t^ht ^ i 
3tt ^ *ra ^n 

TJ*TWTCrr^ M \° W* 
^R ?*W €t ^ *Ff I 

^TrrT ^ft^ ^rrq § I 

%rr to *n^ ^tXk i 
*t*tt wf% v^f% wre I 

Is not this enough ? If not, Mr. Growse must wait till my com- 
plete edition of the text comes out. 

John Beames. 

* The preferable reading is TUT TUT qBfft ^^f 1 1 she could not have been 
teaching the parrot as she is said in the preceding line to have forgotten all 
about him. 1 have altered my first rendering of this line, as I got the Agra 
MS., after I had written it. 



1869.] Some Observations on the Temples of " Razdan." 177 



Some Ohservations on the Temples of u Razdan" or u Razdoing" in the 
" Lar" Pergumiah, Cashmere. By Lieut.-Col.~D. F. Newall,R. A. 

(With 3 Plates.) 

I now proceed to afford as much information as I possess of the 
group of temples called ' Razdan' or ' Razdoing' by the inhabitants of 
the Lar valley in Cashmere. 

These extensive ruins, certainly the next to those of Martund in im- 
portance — if not even more extensive in the superficial space occupied 
by them, — are the only group not described by Cunningham in his 
learned and masterly essay on the Arian order of Architecture, 
printed in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal for Septem- 
ber, 1848. Before proceeding to put on paper my own speculations 
regarding them, I will transcribe verbatim the memorandum I find in 
my journal on the occasion of my visiting and measuring these ruins 
on the 24th, 25th, 26th September, 1852. I must premise, however, 
by stating that they are overgrown with dense underwood and large 
forest trees, and it was only after much labour and the employment 
of many hands in cutting away the jungle that I was able to collect 
the following data. I transcribe from my journal therefore, " Descrip- 
tion of the Razdan or Razdoing ruins under the Boodshere Hill in 
the Lar pergunnah of Cashmere." 

(1.) They consist of two principal temples connected by the re- 
mains of a paved causeway and several connecting buildings, clois- 
ters, &c. 

(2.) The Northern temple, of which the roof has fallen in, is 
31^ feet square and has been surrounded by cloisters 160' X 120 
in measurement. The interior chamber is 14J' square. In its front 
is a stone reservoir 11' X 6|' feet of a very peculiar construction, 
and the use of which is not quite obvious, unless it has served as one 
of those vats from which charitable brahmins were wont to distribute 
rice, &c, to the poor." ( Vide Plate Yi\.) 

There are several small buildings grouped around it. The one 
sketched was probably at the entrance and is about 20 feet wide. At 
the north-west angle of this temple is the Nara Nag, a small lake or 
24 



178 Some Ohervations on tlie Temples oj '" Razdan^ [No. 4, 

pool, and a place of Sndn or religious ablution in the pilgrimage of 
Hurmooktur-gunga. Into this pool, the pilgrims of the present day 
use to cast their mountain sticks and phoolas (grass shoes) on their 
descent from the mountains whilst on their return from the holy lake 
of Gungadul. 

(3.) About 80 yards in front due south of this temple are the 
remains of a large building formerly supported on pillars, parts of which 
still exist in the corners, and that on the pathway, which I at first 
mistook for a sort of " font," is peculiarly an object of veneration to 
the pilgrims who there make their final salaam. This* building 
whose exact use I find it difficult to conjecture, measures 110' % 60 '. 
The entrance to it has been by a massive flight of steps on the south 
side. 

(4.) Immediately in front of the above upon the causeway are the 
ruins of another small building about 25' square. 

(5.) The Southern temple — by far the most perfect of the group 
from having its roof entire — I made by measurement 31V X 30J'. It 
may perhaps have been 31 J feet square like the other. The interior 
chamber, 14' square, with dome entire about 20' high interiorly, was 
surrounded by an enclosure 120' X 80'. It is situated on higher ground 
above the Northern temple ; and, owing to the precipitous nature of 
the ground, the dimensions of the North and East faces of the cloisters 
have been curtailed. A gateway at the North- West angle of this 
enclosure leads out into the causeway. 

There are no less than six groups of buildings immediately around 
this temple, in the roof of which several large fir trees have taken 
root, presenting a singular appearance, their knarled twisted roots 
grasping the loose stonework, and their height being about equal to 

* On consideration I am inclined to think that this large building may have 
been a " masjid" or perhaps a summer house constructed at the same time 
as the terraced garden called the Guldb Bdgh immediately adjacent to 
it, in comparatively recent times by some Muhammadan magnate, possibly 
(owing to the occurrence of the name Boodsher or Boodshdh as applied to 
the place by the inhabitants) by " Zam-ul-' dbidin," to whom that title 
was emphatically applied. This same king also built the " Lank" or island 
in the Wulu Lake about the year 1443, A. D., with its mosque and 
summer house on the site of an ancient temple, whose summit was at 
that time visible about the waters of the lake. Vide page 8 of my sketch of 
Muhammadan History of Cashmere, published in the Asiatic Society's Journal, 
September, 1854. It was a common practice of the Muhammadans thus to 
turn to account existing Hindu buildings and sites. 



1869.] Some Observations on the Temples of " Razdah." 179 

that of the temple, which may be 50 or 60 feet. The sketch par- 
tially represents this. ( Vide Plates II. and IV. J 

(6.) The entrance of both temples, and that of the large centre 
building are due south. The entrance of the enclosures due west. 
The two temples are about 230 yards apart, have been connected by a 
stone causeway and a connecting chain of buildings. — Opposite to the 
entrance to the gateway of the southern temple is a raised plateau 
of land built up into what has evidently been a garden ' v now called 
the Gulab B'igK). 

Thus far my notes conduct me, and I shall now, before closing this 
paper, venture to put before the Society some remarks and ideas which 
subsequent reading has enabled me to form on this interesting group 
of temples. I would remark, however, that although so extensive, they 
do not approach some of the other temples of Cashmere in interest of 
architectural detail. The two centre temples, however, are Ariostyle 
and those to which they bear most affinity are those of Puttun, 
and I would attribute them to above the same era. I see that Cun- 
ningham assigns about the date 883 — 901 A. D. to the Puttun- 
teinples which were built by Sankara Verma. With regard, how- 
ever, to some of the adjacent buildings and fragments I have spoken 
of as surrounding the two groups at Eazdoing, I am inclined to attri- 
bute to them a very high antiquity of origin ; and I even think it pro- 
bable that there may have been more ancient temples than the present 
ones standing on the same site ; and that these I have described may 
have been repaired or reconstructed (as was usual) in their present 
form. I am led to this conclusion by what I find recorded in the 
Raja Tarangini (Persian translation) that in the reign of Jaloka son 
of Asoka (to whose reign I see the date 250 B. C. assigned), it is re- 
lated that this prince (Jaloka) was wont daily by means of a serpent* 
to visit daily the temples of Warainool, Bej Biharie, and Zar, and 

* This " serpent" is frequently mentioned in the ancient chronicles of Cash- 
mere, and appears to have been a mechanical machine, a propeller, or flyina; 
bridge. It is related that King Meegwahun having conquered Ceylon, Surat 
&c, returned to Cashmere by way of Scinde, and passed his army over the 
river Indus (A. D. 22) by means of serpent; but the fabulous and the quasi- 
Historic are so blended in the earlier chronicles, that it is impossible to dis- 
sever them, and although the word is the same, the chronicle in the case quoted 
in the text, of Jaloka's daily visit to the three shrines seems to imply an aero- 
nautic element as the sloke speaks of a " flying" serpent ; but Jaloka is always 
.mentioned as a magician king possessed of supernatural powers. 



180 Some observations on the temples of li Razdan." [No. 4, 

I conceive that by this last we may fairly infer that the temples under 
consideration are alluded to, as there is no other group one-tenth so 
extensive to be found in the Lar or Scinde valley. 

Should this conjecture be correct, they would undoubtedly possess a 
very high antiquity and in fact must be regarded as the most ancient 
temples in the valley of Cashmere (not excepting that on the Takht- 
i-Sulaiman or Sandhimana parvat) which is stated to have been built 
by this very king Jaloka, but seems to have been repaired and re- 
stored to its present form by Gopaditya about A. D. 250, and is 
generally considered the most ancient temple extant in Cashmere. I 
may remark that a few fragments of temples overwhelmed in the 
dense jungles exist to this day near Baramoola, but they have never 
been to my knowledge deemed of sufficient importance to merit dis- 
entanglement or description. Nevertheless I believe these, together 
with the group I have taken the liberty of introducing in this paper, 
to be the very oldest remnants of the ancient architecture of Cash- 
mere ; for as I have stated in a former paper, the temples of Bejbiha- 
rie mentioned with those of Lar and Baramoola as already existing 
in the time of Jaloka, were overthrown by the Muhammadan fanatic 
Shihabuddin about the end of the 14th century, and are out of 
contest for the honor, such as it is, of having survived the storms . of 
two thousand years, the attacks of Muhammadan fury, and the over- 
whelming vegetation of the dense forest. 

The dates of other and possibly more attractive temples, such as 
Martund, Pyatch, Pangethur, Puttun, &c, are much more recent, as is 
also that on the Takht-i-Sulaiman in its present form as stated above. 

I have, I hope, said enough to attract attention to this remarkable 
group of temples hitherto so strangely overlooked. Situated as they 
are, however, in so remote a spot, and overwhelmed as they are in 
forest, it were no light task to undertake their entire disentanglement. 
I believe I have nearly exhausted this subject, or rather my slender 
information on it, but before finally quitting it, I would respectfully 
suggest to the Society that further investigation into the primitive 
form of worship of the Cashmere valleys and mountains seems desira- 
ble, as I have reason to think that relics* of a religion earlier 

* Bhadiakal, in the Kamraj, is a sort of small Stonehenge ; and elsewhere 
in the deep forests appear isolated monoliths, altars, &c, attesting a certain 
form of sylvan or Druidical worship. 



JOURNAL A3. SOCY. BENGAL, VOL. XXXVIII., PART I 



1B6& 



Plate JX 




Temple in the L&r Parganah, Kashmir. 

Fhotozmsographed a£ th.e Surveyor General's Offi.ce Calcutta., 



JOURNAL AS. SOCY. BENGAL, VOL. XXXVIII., PART I,. 1869. 



Plata III. 




Temple in the Lar Parganah, Kashmir. 



(-i.,i, 



> 



i 



JOURNAL A3. SOCY. BENGAL, VOL. XXXVIII., PART I, 1069. 



Plate IV. 




1869.] Translations from the Tdrikh i Firuz Shdhi. 181 

than the Brahminical faith are to be met with in the deep forests of 
Cashmere, and which I believe to be perhaps anterior to the great 
Aryan invasion, when Cashmere in common with the other provinces 
of Hindastin, was colonized by the Hindu race. 

Professional occupations have long interfered in my case with the 
pursuit of such investigations in which I once felt much interest ; and 
I must crave the indulgence of the Society for any crude or ill-studied 
points I may have noted for their consideration. I have availed my- 
self of the first leisure I have obtained for years for such writing ; and 
even now, having no books of reference with me, I possess nothing 
but my private MSS. journal, and notes to refer to for dates, &c. 
beyond my memory, and this I find, after so long an interval, some- 
times fails me. I find myself therefore abruptly forced to bring this 
paper to a close. 



Translations from the Tarilch i Firuz ShaJii, by the late Major 

A. R. Fuller, Director of Public Instruction, JPanjdb. 

(Communicated by T. W. H. Tolbort, Esq., C. S.) 

The Reign of 'AldudJm i Khilji. 

In the name of God the most merciful ! 

Praise* be to God, the cherisher of mankind, and blessings rest upon 

his prophet, Muhammad, and all his offspring, as well as perfect peace 

and safety. 

Thus says the most devout of Musalmans, Zia of Baran, when, 
during the year 695, Sultan 'Alauddin ascended the imperial throne, 
he conferred on his brother the title of Ulugh Khan, on Malik Nucrat 
Jalesari that of Nucrat Khan, on Malik Hizabruddin that of Zahr 
Khan, and on Sanjar, his [Mir Majlis] that of Alap Khan. He 
| also raised his intimate friends to the rank of Amirs, and such as 
i were already Amirs, he promoted to the grade of Maliks. He further 
granted every one of his old associates permission to take fresh horse- 
men into service, and as a countless hoard of wealth had fallen into 

* Ed. Bill. Indica, by Sayyid Ahmad Khan, p. 243. Vide also Baddoni I 
p. 182. Words in [ ], and the foot notes, are additions or slight alterations 
made by the Editor of this Journal. 



182 Translations from the Tdrilcli i Firia Shdhi. [No. 4, 

his hands, and he had been guilty of an act condemned alike by- 
God and man, either with a view to the expediency of the moment, 
or to deceive the public, or else for the purpose of glossing over the 
murder of Sultan Jalaluddin, he threw open the door of liberality 
and munificence before (high and low, i. e.) all grades. He occupied 
himself too in making preparations for his journey (to the capital of 
Delhi), but owing to the incessant fall of rain, the copious floods, 
and the heaviness of the sands, he continued to delay his departure 
and was purposing to proceed to Delhi after the rising of Canopus. 
He was under considerable apprehension, however, of Arkali Khan, 
the second son of Sultan Jalaluddin, who was one of the Rustams 
of the age, and the most valiant man of his day. As soon therefore, 
as the news arrived from Delhi, that the latter had not come yet, 
Sultan 'Alauddin conceiving his non-arrival to be favourable to his 
own fortunes, and knowing that the throne of Delhi could not be up- 
held by Sultan Ruknuddin Ibrahim, and that there was not suf- 
ficient coin in the Jalali treasury to raise and enrol fresh levies, he took 
advantage of the opportunity, and in the very height of the rainy 
season, set out for Dehli. From the excess of rain that year, the 
Ganges and Jamna had become vast rivers, and every (paltry) stream 
was as a Ganges or a Jamna, and from the depth of mud and mire, 
the roads remained (almost impassable). At a season like this, Sul- 
tan 'Alauddin set forth from Karah with his elephants and his 
wealth and his army ; and he exhorted his Klmns and Maliks to use 
their best endeavours towards raising fresh horsemen, (bidding them) 
not to be particular or scrupulous in fixing the amount of their 
pay, nor to take into account the exact year and month (of enlistment,) 
but to scatter about gold without stint, so that vast hosts might be 
collected by such bountiful largess. About the time Sultan 'Alauddin 
was proceeding towards Dehli, they had constructed some small light 
moveable machines \jnanjaniq]t an d at every halting-place where his 
pavilion was erected, just at the time of his alighting there, they daily 
placed in front of his portico five maunds of gold coin in one of these 
waggons, and scattered them among the spectators ; whereupon the 
soldiery and the neighbouring population used to congregate all 
round, and carry off the coin. The concourse in front of the royal 
portico thus increased day by day, and by the end of two or three 



1869.] Translations from the Tdrilch i Firuz Shahi. 183 

weeks the news spread, throughout the whole of the districts [Ichitat] 
and towns of Hindustan, that Sultan 'Alauddin was on his way to 
take possession of Delhi, and was scattering gold profusely among the 
populace, and was entertaining countless levies of horse and foot. On 
this, the population, whether military or non-military, all hurried to- 
wards the Sultan's camp ; so that hy the time 'Alauddin reached 
Badaon, fifty or sixty thousand horse and foot had congregated in this 
royal camp during a rainy season like this, and had formed a vast mul- 
titude. When Sultan 'Alauddin arrived at Baran, [in the open space of 
the Masjid of the town] Nucrat Khan began taking the inhabitants of 
the place into service whether they were nobles, men of note, or com- 
mon soldiers, and paid no heed to fixing the amount of their wages, 
or taking security from them. In a loud tone he proclaimed : " If 
Delhi fall into my hands, I shall be able to acquire on the first year a 
hundred times as much wealth as what I now disburse ; and should 
the kingdom not come into my possession, it is better that the wealth 
which I have brought away from Deogir with such infinite trouble, 
should fall into the hands of the people rather than into those of my 
foes and adversaries. 

On Sultan 'Alauddin's arrival at Baran, as he had made over a 
force to Zafar Khan, he directed him to proceed by way of Kol, and 
march along that road at a rate corresponding to that at which he 
himself (the Sultan) marched along the Badaon and Baran roads. The 
Maliks and Amirs of Jalaluddin's party who had been nominated 
to oppose the advance of Sultan 'Alauddin and Zafar Khan, such 
as Malik Tajuddin Kuchi, Malik Abaji Akhurbak, Malik Amir 
'All Diwanah, Malik 'Usman Amir A'khur, Malik Amiri Kalan, 
Malik 'TTmar Sarkhah, and Malik Hiran-mar, all came into Baran, 
and joined the Sultan. They each received 20 or 30, and some even 
50 niaunds of gold ; and to every one of the force which accom- 
panied those Maliks and Amirs, a present of 300 tankahs was 
distributed. The Jalali army being thus totally broken up, the 
Amirs that had stayed behind at Delhi began to waver in their alle- 
giance and the maliks who had gone over to Sultan 'Alauddin used 
to say publicly, " The inhabitants of the city certainly find fault with 
us, and declare that we have been guilty of base ingratitude in 
turning our backs on our master's son and going over to the 



184 Translations from tlie TArihh i Firuz Shahi. [No. 4, 

enemy, but these misguided individuals do not perceive that in 
reality the kingdom of Jalaluddin came to an end the day he set 
out from the palace of Kilokhari,* and of his own free will went 
in hot haste to Karah, and there of his own accord and with his 
eyes open, put his neck and those of his intimate associates in jeo- 
pardy. What can we do therefore but join Sultan 'Alauddin ?" 

At this juncture when the Mali kg had all gone over to Sultan 
'Alauddin, and the Jalali army was completely broken up, Malikah 
Jahan, who was one of the most weak-minded of weak minded women, 
sent to call Arkali Khan from Multan, writing to this effect : " I w r as 
wrong in placing your younger brother on the throne, while you are 
still in existence ; for none of the Maliks and Amirs stand in any awe 
of him, and most of them have gone over to Sultan 'Alauddin, so that 
the sovereignty is passing out of our hands. Make post haste therefore, 
if you can, and come to me, and mount the throne of your father, and 
redress my wrong. As for the son who now occupies the throne, you 
are his elder brother, and more worthy and better fitted for the 
sovereignty ; he shall therefore serve you as an obedient vassal. 
As for me, I am a woman, and females are (proverbially) deficient in 
intellect ; (I confess) I have been in error, but pardon the fault of your 
mother, and take possession of your father's kingdom. Should you 
give way to your resentment and fail to come, Sultan 'Alauddin is 
advancing in such strength and grandeur that he will assuredly seize 
upon Delhi, and will spare neither me nor you." 

Arkali Khan would not come at his mother's bidding, however, but 
sent her an excuse (saying) : As the nobles and their retainers have 
all gone over to the enemy, what would be the good of my coming? 
Sultan 'Alauddin no sooner heard that Arkali Khan would not 
comply with his mother's invitation than he ordered the drum of 
rejoicing to be sounded. 

Some delay occurred to Sultan 'Alauddin in the vicinity of the 
fords of the Jamnah, owing to the vast volume of water in that river, 
and his having no boat in his possession ; but while he tarried at 

* Kilok'hari lies about eight miles south of Dihli, on the Jamnah. " Six 
months after his accession, Saltan Mu'izzuddin Kai Quoad left Dihli, and founded 
Fort Kilok'hari, the ruins of which may even now [A. H. 1004] be seen on the 
[right] bank of the Jamnah near Khwajah Khizr's ford." Baddoni I., p. 137, 
where the spelling (sj.^jhf is to be corrected to (cy$£J>xf, 






1869. ] Translations from the Tdrikh i Firhz ShdhL 185 

various places along its bank, [Canopus rose above the horizon,] tbe 
stream decreased, and he was thus enabled to cross with the whole 
of his forces at the ford of Baghpat, after which he encamped in the 
plain of Jiid.* 

Sultan lluknuddin Ibrahim then issued forth from the city with 
the royal insignia, attended by such force as he still had with him, 
and pitched his camp opposite to Sultan 'Alauddin's, with the inten- 
tion of bringing on an early engagement. After night had came on, 
however, the entire left wing of Sultan Ruknuddin's army having 
mounted their horses about midnight, a tremendous uproar arose, and 
they all went bodily over to Sultan 'Alauddin. Sultan Ruknuddin 
was thus rendered utterly powerless, but towards the close of the 
night they managed to open the Badaon gate ; and he having taken 
some gold tankahs out of the treasury, and a few horses out of the 
stable, placed his mother and other females of his household in front, 
and issuing forth under cover of the darkness from the Grhaznin gate, 
took the road to Multan. Malik Qutbuddin 'Alawi together with his 
children and Malik Ahmad Chap also abandoned their homes, and 
accompanied Malikah Jahan and Sultan Ruknuddin towards Multan. 

Next day Sultan 'Alauddin set out with regal pomp and splen- 
dour, and entered the plain of Siri (c5>^°,) where he alighted, and the 
sovereignty was there delivered over to him. He also pitched his camp 
at Siri, and the cliwans, the custodians of the elephants with the animals 
in their charge, the governors (kotwdlsj with the keys of their 
forts, the justices and judges, and all the other persons of note and 
respectability in the city waited upon him ; whereupon the earth 
assumed a totally different aspect, and a state of affairs altogether 
new arose throughout the world. "By the immensity of his wealth, 
and the vast number of his adherents, no matter whether an indivi- 
dual (here and there) took the oath of allegiance to him or not, the 
public prayers were offered in his behalf, and the coinage of the mint 
was struck in his name. 

'* Baghpat (oo^b) lies north of Dihli on the Jamnah, Opposite to it on the 
right side, our maps give a place Joondhpur, which appears to be the Judh 
(&d+z» or with a nasal n, <>jj^) mentioned by Barani. For Baghpat. the 
Society's Edition, p. 246, 1. 2 has A^jI^ Kat'h (?). Regarding Siri, vide Journal 
A. S. Bengal for 1847, p. 974 ; but in the whole article Siri is wrongly spelt 
Secree, for Seeree ; also J. A. S. B. 1866, p. 199. 

25 



18(5 Translations from the Tdrifch i Firuz Shdhi. [No. 4, 

Towards the end* of the year 695, Sultan 'Alauddin entered into 
the city with a most wonderful retinue and a countless multitude, and 
took his seat on the throne of Delhi in the Daulat Khanah, after which 
he repaired to the Koshak i la'l, (t. e., crimson palace) and made that 
the royal residence. As there was a countless hoard of wealth accu- 
mulated in his treasury, and vast sums had been distributed in largess 
among the people, whereby their purses and money bags had been 
replenished with coin [tanlcahs and jetaU t ~] they gave themselves up 
to gaiety and pleasure, and indulged in wine and all kinds of revelry. 
Within the city they erected several wondrous pavilions, where wine, 
sherbet, and betel were distributed gratis ; and in almost every house 
an entertainment was held. The Maliks, Amirs, and all the other 
men of note and respectability invited one another to feasts ; and wine 
and beauty, music and mirth, became the order of the day. 

Sultan 'Alauddin also, under the excitement of youth and pros- 
perity, and the pride of his countless treasures, his servants and 
domestics, and his numerous elephants and horses, was immersed in 
festivity and pleasure, and from the extent of his generosity and muni- 
ficence, he made the populace ardent supporters of his rule and govern- 
ment. From motives of state expediency moreover, he bestowed 
offices and estates [«^i'] upon the Jalali Maliks and Amirs who had 
gone over to his side. To Khwajah Khatir who was one of the most 
celebrated Wazirs, he gave the dignity of prime minister ; to Qazi 
Qadr i jahan padruddin 'Arif, the father of Dawar Malik, the 
Kaza i Mamalik ; and [the offices of] Sayyid Ajall, Shaikh Islam, and 
Khatib he left to the former Sayyid Ajall, Shaikh Islam and 
Khatib, respectively. The Diwan i insha too he conferred on the 
former 'Umdatalmulk, father of Malik Hamfduddinf and A'azzud- 
din, and he sent for Malik Hamiduddin and Malik A'azzuddin, 
the sons of 'Umdatalmulk, who in wisdom, virtue, and a thorough 
knowledge of mankind, as well as in their high and noble birth, and 
all kinds of excellencies, possessed no equals ; one of whom became a 
confidential officer of the royal household, and the other was entrusted 
with the management of the Diwan i insha. 

* The 22nd Zi Hajjah 695, or 20th October 1296. 

f The Bibl. Indica, Edition, p. 248, has Amiruddin(?), and immediately 
after Hamiduddin. For Diwan i Inslid we find under the Mughuls the title of 
Mir Munshi. 



1869. J Translations from the Tdrikh i FLrhz ShdJii. 187 

Although Nucrat Khan was Naib i mulk, during the first year he was 
made Kotwal, while Malik Fakhruddin Kiichi obtained the post of 
Dadbeg i hazrat,* Zafar Khan became the ' Arzimamalik,f Malik 'Abaji 
Jalali [i. e., who had served under Jalaluddin] the Akhurbeg, and Malik 
Hiranmar, the Naib Barbeg. Such an assemblage of Khans and Maliks 
both of the Jalali and 'Alai party was thus congregated at the Sultan's 
Court, as could never have been witnessed in former times. 

Malik 'Alaulmulk, the compiler's uncle, was appointed to Karah 
and Audh during the first year of his reign, and Malik Jiina 
received his old post of Naib Vakildar, while Muayyidulmulk the 
compiler's father, was given the place of Naib and Khwajahship of 
Baran. Thus were all the onerous duties and important situations 
committed to the charge of able, eminent, and experienced persons, 
and Dehli as well as all other parts of the country became a rose 
garden and a pasture. 

Estates were then bestowed on each Malik, J grants made to 
religious communities, and lands, pensions, and gratuities lavished on 
all such as had just claims to them ; while a considerable increase was 
added to those already in existence. 

[To the people he gave new employments.] The people conse- 
quently grew so enamoured of gold, that the mention of Sultan 
'Alauddin's base deed, and his ungrateful treachery never crossed 
any one's lips, and naught was left to mankind but to revel in gaiety. 

In the first year of this reign moreover, the retainers of 'Alauddin, 
both new and old, had reached a vast number, yet all of them received 
donations of [twelve and] six months' salary in hard cash ; and 
during that year folks of all classes both high and low lived in such 
ease and affluence, that I never recollect seeing in any age or period 
such perfect happiness and contentment, nor can those who are of much 
riper years than I recal such to remembrance, 

* I. e., the Dadbeg of the residence of the emperor, as opposed to the office 
of qdzi i laslikar. The office corresponds to that of the Mir 'Adl under the 
Mughnls. For Kuchi the list of grandees (Ed. Bibl. Indica, p. 240) haa the 
more usual Jund. 

f The 'Arz i Mamdlilc corresponds to the Mir 'Arz of the Mughuls, whose 
office is defined in the Ain Akbari, p. 257. 

X Perhaps it would be correcter to say — Milks and Waqfs were bestowed on 
such as were worthy of waqfs. The word amldk is the pi. of milk, not of malik. 
Vide Ain i Akbari, p. 271. Soon after 'Alauddin resumed the milks and waqfs, as 
Akbar did with the Sayurghals of his times. 



188 Translations from the Tdrikli i Firliz Shdhi. [No. 4, 

At the very outset, directly Sultan 'Alauddin had settled himself 
on the throne of Dehli, he first of all set about the Multan business, 
and applied himself to the overthrow of Sultan Jalaluddin's sons. 
He forthwith nominated Ulugh Khan and Zafar Khan with a party of 
Maliks and Amirs and [30 or] 40,000 horse to Multan, whither they 
proceeded, and at once invested the fortress. After the siege had conti- 
nued for a month or two, the Kotwal and inhabitants of Multan 
turned away from their allegiance to Sultan Jalaluddin's sons, and 
some of the nobles came out from the fort to Ulugh Khan and Zafar 
Khan. 

The Sultan's sons then made use of Shaikhul Islam Ruknuddin as 
their envoy, and through him asked quarter of Ulngh Khan, and after 
entering into a compact and treaty, they took the Shaikh along 
with them and accompanied by the Maliks and Amirs who still 
adhered to them, repaired to the presence of Ulugh Khan. He treated 
them with great respect on that occasion, and gave them quarters 
alongside his own pavilion. He then forwarded a despatch announcing 
his success to Delhi ; whereupon they immediately erected festive 
canopies, and sounded the drum of rejoicing, published the news of the 
victory \_Fathndmalt] from the pulpits (of all the mosques), and sent 
the good tidings in all directions. Thus the Kingdom of Hindustan 
had been fully and completely consigned to the care of Sultan 'Alaud- 
din, and no rival or competitor for the Grovernment was now left. 

Ulugh Khan and Zafar Khan taking the captive sons of Sultan 
Jalaluddin, both of whom were scions of royalty \_Cahib i cliatr~], as well 
as their Maliks and Amirs, along with them, set out from Multan 
towards Dehli, crowned with victory and success. Nucrat Khan being 
deputed from the latter place, met- Ulugh Khan in the midst of 
his journey, and put out the eyes of Sultan Jalaluddin's sons, of his 
son-in-law Ulghu, and of Ahmad Chap Naib Amir Ha jib, and then 
separated their families from them. All their goods and chattels too, 
provisions,* and slaves, both male and female, together with all that 
they had, did Nucrat Khan seize upon. He confined Sultan Jalalud- 

* Major Puller's MS. appears to have had rozinah. The Ed. Bibl. Indica 
(p. 249) has zarrinah, gold vessels, which seems preferable. 

The place where Nucrat Khan met Ulugh Khan is called in Badaom (I, 183) 
Abhohar, a mauza' near Hansi/ and the Lucknow Edition of Badaoni (p. 47) 
has Wahr, neither of which names I can trace on our Trig. Survey maps. 



1869.] Translations from the Tarikh i Firuz Shdhi. 189 

din's younger* son in the stronghold of Hansi, while he put to death 
altogether the sons of Arkali Khan. As for Malikah Jahan and the 
other ladies of the household, as well as Ahmad Chap, he brought 
them all into Delhi, and shut them up in his own mansion. 

In the second year of this reign [697, Baddonf], Nuerat Khan was 
made Wazir. As Sultan 'Alauddin had sent for Malik 'Alaulmulk, the 
compiler's uncle, he came to Court attended by the Maliks and Amfrs, 
and brought in elephants and treasure that had been left with him 
at Karah by the Sultan. In consequence of 'Alaulmalik's having 
grown excessively obese, and incapable of active duty, he gave him 
the post of Kotwal instead of his former place of Malikulumara, 
whereby all the able-bodied convicts [ ? lancliydn i tdzafc] were put 
under his charge. They also laid hands on the estates [free-holds, 
amlaJc] and possessions of all the Jalali Maliks and Amirs, Nuerat 
Khan himself making extraordinary exertions to get hold of their 
property, and so collecting thousands upon thousands. In fact he 
brought wealth into the treasury by every means that he could. 

In this year moreover, viz. 696, A. H.,f an inroad of the Mughuls 
took place, some of them having crossed the river Sincl and entered 
the country. Ulugh Khan and Zafar Khan with a host of the 
'Alai and Jalali Amirs, and immense forces were nominated to 
repel their attack ; and on the confines of Jarimanjur the army of 
Islam had a severe engagement with the miscreants ; in which the 
standard of the true faith proved victorious, many of the enemy being 
slain or captured, and their heads despatched to Delhi. 

After the Multan success, and the capture of Sultan Jalaluddin's 

* The Ed. Bibl. Indica and Firishtah have merely son (Arkali ?). If Major 
Fuller's MS. had younger son [Buknuddm] what became of Arkali ? Badaoni 
savs, both were handed over to the Kotwal of Hansi, and ' killed together with 
the two sons of Arkali. The women of the late emperor, and his remaining 
children {farzanddn) were imprisoned in Dilhi. Ahmad Chap [the Lucknow 
Edition of Firishtah reads Mdbib'], and Alghu Mugbul were sent to Gwaliar.' 

f So also the Ed. Bibl. Indica. Badaoni and Firishtah have 698. The 
leader of the Moghuls is called ^<}J£». (Badaoni, Ed. B. I.), ^tiXo (Lucknow 
Badaoni), and Dawa Khan, ruler of Mawaralnahr, by Firishtah (Lucknow Ed.) 
who adds that he came with nearly 100,000 Mughuls. They were heathens. 
The place of the battle is called Jarimanjur (Major Fuller), dar hudild i Jdran 
Ma ,i jink (both editions of Badaoni), dar hudiid i Ldhur (Firishtah, Lucknow 
Ed ), and dar hudud i Jdlindhar (Ed. Bibl. Indica). 

Badaoni seems to have carelessly copied, as a Mughul ^^JXa. is mentioned 
below. He has left out the attack on Siwistan. 



190 Translations from the Tdrikh i Firuz Shdhi. [No. 4, 

sons, the coinage of the 'Alai government had become (to a certain 
degree) established ; but it was now still further confirmed by this 
victory over the Mughuls, and the Sultan's power and authority were 
vastly augmented. Proclamations of the victory were published 
throughout the city, drums beaten, pavilions erected, rejoicings made, 
and festivities celebrated. Now that the 'Alai Government had been thus 
consolidated, the whole of the Jalali Maliks, in each town and through- 
out the army, who had turned their backs upon their master, and gone 
over to Sultan 'Alauddin, for which they had received maunds of gold, 
and obtained various employments and estates, were seized, and while 
some of them were cast into prison, and kept in confinement, others 
were [blinded and] executed forthwith. All the wealth that they had 
received from Sultan 'Alauddin was confiscated together with their 
household goods, and property ; their dwelling-houses being converted 
to the royal use, and their estates annexed to the crown lands, so that 
nought was left for their children. Their servants and domestics too 
were placed under the control of the 'Alai Amirs, and their [military] 
establishments were completely subverted. 

Out of the whole of the Jalali Maliks and Amirs, three persons 
only were spared by Sultan 'Alauddin, and suffered no hurt from 
him until the close of his reign. First, Malik Qutbuddin 'Alawi ; 
second, Malik Nasiruddin Ranah, custodian of the elephants, and 
third, Amir Jamil,* father of Qadr Khan. These three individuals 
did not desert Sultan Jalaluddin and his sons, nor would they 
take any money from Sultan 'Alauddin, and they* alone remained 
safe in consequence, while the rest of the Jalali Amirs were extermi- 
nated root and branch. 

In the course of this year, Nucrat Khan collected by fines and taxes 
a crore (of money), and lodged it in the treasury. 

In the third year of his reign, Ulugh Khan and Nucrat Khan 
were deputed to Gujrat ; whither they accordingly led their army, 
accompanied by several Amirs and Maliks, and a host of retainers, 
and commenced ravaging and plundering Nahrwalah [Patan] and the 
whole territory of Gujrat. Karan Rai of Gujrat thereupon fled 
from Nahrwalah, and repaired to Ham Deo at Deogir, leaving his 
wives and daughters! as well as his treasure and elephants to fall into 

* Badaoni has Amir Jamali i Khilji. 

t ' Among them was Dewal Rani, with whom later Khizr Khan, 'Alauddia's 



1869.] Translations from the TdrilcJi i Firuz Shdhi. 191 

the bands of the orthodox army, who now pillaged the entire country. 
The idol, which subsequently to Sultan Mahinud's victory and the 
destruction of the Manat, had been named Somnat by the Brahmins, 
and had become a popular object of worship among the Hindus, was 
also dragged from thence and forwarded to Delhi, where it was 
trampled under foot by the populace. 

Nucrat Khan next proceeded to Kambait, from the Khwajahs of 
which place, who had grown excessively opulent, he exacted bullion, 
jewels, and other valuables to a vast extent. He also took Kafur 
Hazar Dinari, who became Malik Naib, and with whose beauty 
Sultan 'Alauddin was captivated, forcibly from the Khwajah, his 
master, and sent him to the Sultan. 

After thoroughly ravaging and plundering G-ujrat, Ulugh Khan and 
Nucrat Khan set out on their return loaded with immense spoils, and 
on the way back, in order to collect their fifth share of the body, 
and in searching after and scrutinizing the amount of the spoils, they 
inflicted various penalties and punishments, and carried their investi- 
gation to the extreme ; for they placed no credence whatever on what 
the soldiery put down in writing, but persisted in calling for more. 
By dint of persecution [banamah-dl~\ they endeavoured to exact the 
gold, silver, jewels, and all other valuables and used to put the 
troops to all kinds of torture, till at last the soldiery were unable to 
bear such tyranny and ill-usage any longer. 

The number of newly converted Amirs and horsemen in the army 
was very considerable ; so having entered into a combination, some 
two or three thousand horsemen assembled together, and mutinied.* 
They first slew Malik A'azzuddin, the brother of Nucrat Khan, who 
was Amir Hajib to Ulugh Khan ; and with a great uproar forced their 
way into Ulugh Khan's pavilion ; but the Khan dreading their fury, 
escaped out of his tent, and conveyed himself by stratagem to Nucrat 

son, fell in love. When the poet Khusrau of Dihli was told by the prince of his 
deep attachment, he composed his 'Ashiqah, (often wrongly spelt 'ishqiyah,) 
"which he dedicated to Khizr Khan.' Baddoni. 

The Lucknow Edition of Firishtah calls the princess Kanidd Bi. Cowell 
suggests Kamald Bevi. 

Karan, according to Firishtah, went from Deogir to Baglanah, e which lies on 
the frontier of the Dak'hin, but was then attached to Gujrat.' For Rdm Beo, 
the Ed. B. I. of Badaoni has Bvramdeo (?). 

* Firishtah calls the leader of the rebels Muhammad Shah. He says, the 
mutiny took place at Jdlor ( Jodhpur) ; but the editions of Badaoni have Alivar, 
which lies nearer to Rantanbhur and Jhayin to the chief of which place, 
Hamir Deo [Ed. Bibl. Indica, Hambar Beo~\, the mutineers ultimately retreated. 



192 Translations from the Tdrikh i Firuz Slidhi. [No. 4, 

Khan's quarters. The nephew (sister's son) of Sultan 'Alauddin, 
however, happened to be sleeping below TJlugh Khan's quarters ; and 
the mutineers imagining that he might possibly be the Khan, put him 
to death under this misapprehension. The mutiny extended at length 
throughout the army, and the camp was very nearly becoming the 
scene of incliscrimate riot and pillage ; but as the good fortune of 
'Alauddin was in the ascendant, such a tumult as this even was 
speedily quelled. The cavalry and infantry of the army formed 
up in front of Nucrat Khan's pavilion, and the recently converted 
Amirs and horsemen dispersed, such of them as had been the chief 
actors and confederates in the mutiny fleeing away and gaining 
the disaffected and rebellious Rais. After this, the search after the 
booty in the army was abandoned, and Ulugh Khan and Nucrat 
Khan reached Delhi with all the wealth, elephants, slaves, and other 
spoils they had got possession of from the pillage of Gujrat. 

As soon as the news of the mutiny among the new converts reached 
Delhi, Sultan 'Alauddin, under the influence of the haughty pride 
which had now inflated his brain, directed that the wives and 
children of all the mutineers, both high and low, should be seized and 
imprisoned. This system of seizing upon the wives and children for 
the fault of the men dates its commencement from this period ; for 
previous to this at Delhi, they never laid hands on women and 
children on account of the crimes of their male relatives, nor used 
they to seize and incarcerate the families of any delinquents. 

Besides this tyrannical system of seizing women aud children, a 
still more glaring piece of injustice was committed in those days by 
Nucrat Khan, who was the originator of numerous acts of oppression 
at Delhi ; for it was publicly witnessed that in revenge for his 
brother's death, he brought infamy and dishonour on the wives of 
those who had pierced his brother with arrows, by delivering them 
over to sweepers to be violated like helpless victims, while the infant 
children were ordered to be cut in pieces in presence of their mothers.* 
Such cruelty as this that he was guilty of, has never been allowed 
by any code of religion ; and at every fresh act of this description 

* Historians call this wholesale slaughter of women and children gliarib- 
khushi, or killing of the poor. Badaoni (p. 190) says that many historians 
relate 7 the event before mentioning the return of Ulugh Khan from Gujrat, 
' without paying regard to proper chronological order ; but God knows best.' 



1869.] Translations from the Tdrikh i Firm SUM. 193 

he committed, the people of Delhi were the more struck with profound 
wonder and amazement [and trembling came over the hearts of the 
people]. 

In the same year that Ulugh Khan and Nucrat Khan were sent into 
Gujrat, Zafar Khan was deputed to Siwistan, which (province) had been 
seized upon by Qaldi, and his brother with a party of Mughuls. 

Zafar Khan accordingly marched thither with a large force, and 
having invested the fort of Siwistan, succeeded in capturing the strong- 
hold with the aid only of sword and arrow, and dagger and spear, with- 
out having recourse to war engines and projecting machines of a larger 
kind. The Mughuls, moreover, from the interior of the fort shot 
arrows in every direction, in so much that it was not possible for a bird 
ever to approach it ; yet in spite of all this Zafar Khan came off vic- 
torious by the use of sword and arrow only, and having captured 
paldi and his brother, as well as all the Mughuls with their wives and 
children, he sent the whole party bound, collared, and chained into 
Delhi. 

In consequence of this success, a profound dread of Zafar Khan was 
established at Delhi, and Sultan 'Alauddin began to regard him with 
a malignant eye on account of the hardihood, valour, and gallantry 
which he had displayed in a manner before unknown in Hindustan. 
Ulugh Khan, the Sultan's brother, also conceived a feeling of malice 
and enmity towards him, owing to his consummate generalship, and 
bravery, which had quite eclipsed his own. 

In that year, he (i. e., Zafar Khan) held the territory of Samanah, 
and as he had become so famous, Sultan 'Alauddin, who was deeply 
impregnated with jealousy, was under considerable apprehension 
regarding him, and anxiously desired one or other of these two 
alternatives, either that the Khan should be in constant attendance upon 
him, or else that he should give the Khan some thousand horse, and 
despatch him towards Lakhnauti to subdue the country, after which he 
should stay there, and send off the elephants together with his 
resignation of office* from thence to Court. Otherwise the Sultan 
thought of ridding himself of him by administering poison, or putting 
out his eyes somehow or other. 

* Or rather with his trihutc, which is tho meaning of Tchidmati. Even in 
later times transfers to Bengal or to Bkakkar were looked upon as punishments. 

26 



194 Translations from the T&rihh i Firuz Shdhi. [No. 4, 

Towards the close of the aforesaid year, Qcitlugh Khwajah, son oi 
Dudul'ain,* invaded Hindustan with 20 " Tumam" of Mughuls. 
Starting from Mawaru-n-nahr fully equipped and prepared for a severe 
engagement, he crossed the river Sind, and proceeded by regular 
stages until he reached the vicinity of Delhi. 

As the Mughuls this year had determined to attack Delhi, they 
did not plunder and lay waste the provinces bordering on their line of 
march, nor do any injury to the strong holds they met with. At the 
advance of these Mughuls, therefore, with an army as numerous as a 
multitude of ants or locusts, violent apprehensions were felt through- 
out Dehli, more especially as the enemy had fixed on that as the main 
object of their attack, and had abstained in consequence from laying 
waste the provinces (they passed), and from carrying off plunder. The 
people of the adjoining districts all flocked into the fortress of Delhi, 
and the old fortifications had not yet been built up, so that such con- 
sternation among men has never been witnessed, nor even heard of ; for 
all the inhabitants of the city both great and small were completely 
overpowered with terror. 

At last such a crowd was congregated in the city, that the people 
could not find room in the streets, the market places, or the mosques. 
Everything became excessively dear within the town, and the approach 
of caravans, and merchants being stopped, the people were reduced to 
the most pressing want. 

Sultan 'Alauddin then went from the city with great pomp and 
magnificence, and pitched the imperial Camp at Si'ri. The Maliks, 
Amirs, and other retainers, were next summoned from all quarters to 
Delhi. 

The compiler's uncle, Malik 'Alaulmulk, who was one of the Sul- 
tan's confidential advisers, in those days held the office of Kotwal at 
the Metropolis of Delhi, and the Sultan had entrusted the town, to- 
gether with the ladies of the royal family and the treasure, to his 
custody. The Sultan having gone forth from the city with the in- 
tention of engaging in a general action, Malik 'Alaulmulk came out 
to Siri to bid him farewell, and there, at a private audience, addressed 
him thus — 

* So Major Fuller's MS. The Ed. Bibl. Indica (p. 254) calls him ^^ ^ 
Zaud uV ain (?) ; Badaoni (Ed. B. I.) Ddud; Badaoni (Lucknow Edition), and 
Firishtah p. 103 (Lucknow Ed.) Bawd, in accordance with the note on p. 189. 

A twmem, or tumdn is from 10000 to 12000. 



1869.] Translations from the Tdrikh i Firfas Shdhi. 195 

" Ancient Monarchs and former Prime Ministers, who have hold 
u sway and sovereignty over the world, have invariably abstained and 
" refrained altogether from tremendous conflicts, in which it is iin- 
" possible to decide what may happen at any precise moment, as to 
u what side victory is likely to incline ; and with respect to encounters 
" between equally powerful chiefs, whereby the state and prosperity 
" of the Sovereign as well as the whole population of the Kingdom 
" are placed in jeopardy, they have recommended that they should be 
il avoided to the utmost extent of one's power and ability. It is 
" further recorded among the injunctions of ancient Monarchs, that 
" a battle resembles the scales of a balance ; for by the prevailing force 
"of a scanty number of men, one scale becomes heavy, while the 
" other gets light. Thus in an instant the affair slips out of one's 
"hand, passing away so entirely that there is no hope left in one's 
" heart of its ultimate return or recovery ; for although in contests be 
( ' tween the Commanders of an army merely, there is not so much 
"danger to be apprehended from a defeat, as the hope of a re- 
" trieval is not totally cut off ; yet in the case of conflicts between 
"equally powerful chiefs, when a kingdom is staked on a single 
:' throw of the dice, Monarchs have always exercised the utmost dis- 
" cretion, and have warded off the event as long as they could by sound 
" judgment and clever diplomacy. Why does your Majesty then pur- 
(t posely and wilfully, and without paying any heed or attention, enter 
" into a perilous crisis, that has ever been avoided by other monarchs 
" as far as possible ; when you can push forward Khal Sitari [?]* who has 
" been authorized to raise a lakh of horse on account of this invasion 
u and encamp with your forces (in the rear) ? You may thus delay a 
f 1 few days from engaging these Mughuls, who have poured down 
" upon us like swarms of ants and locusts, and keep procrastinat 

* Hero Major Fuller's MS. seems to be at fault, though otherwise his MS. 
would appear to have been as excellent as his translation. The Bibl. Indica 
edition, p. 256, 1. 3, has — 

Klouddivand i 'dlam mituivdnad kih kohan i shuture (not khal sitari) az horde 
nardmad i mughul, Icih huhni yak laic suwdr ddrad, dar pish cmddzad, 
laslhkarUdfardddijad. ' Your Majesty can place the hump of a camel (kohdn 
i shuture) before yourself on account of the arrival of the Mughuls who muster 
a lakh of horse, and you can place your forces into a fortified camp {ba 
tashkarha fa/rudtimadcm).' 

1 Alauddm's reply will shew that this reading is the correct one. Of coi 
!Ala ulmulk advised the emperor to aet the part of a Ouncbutor. Placing the 

eans to have recourse to a place of sa 



196 Translations from the Tdrihh i Firuz Shdhi. [No. 4, 

<( ing, until we discover what they purpose doing, what is going on, 
" and how matters are likely to turn out ; when if there appear to be 
" no help for it but fighting, you can do so, As they do not lay their 
" hands on plunder you might gather together your subjects, and 
" place them in security within the fortress. Meanwhile how long 
" can so vast an army as they possess, continue to exist without forage, 
" considering that they never detach ten horsemen even away from 
11 their main body, and how will it be possible for them to stand 
" their ground? Or if a few days are passed in sending envoys back- 
" wards and forwards, until we have clearly ascertained their precise 
" aim and object, it will be as well ; so that they may come to want, 
"and set out on their return, and devote themselves to pillage. If at 
" that juncture, your Majesty were to march after them a few stages 
" by way of pursuit, how excellent it would be ! " 

After making this address, 'Alaulmulk went on to say, "I am an 
" old servant, and have always been in the habit of stating to you 
" whatever crosses my mind respecting current events, and I have 
" heretofore ever met with kindness in return. I have therefore, 
" in the present emergency also, stated all that has occurred to my 
" mind ; but that alone is right and proper which may have struck 
" your Majesty's discerning intellect ; for the illustrious sentiments of 
" a King are superior to those of all his subjects. 

u Several ideas have also passed through my mind, relating to the 
" prevention of all invasions of the Mughuls, which I purpose pouring 
" into your auspicious ear at a fitting opportunity. On the present 
" occasion of these miscreants advancing in such formidable array, 
" we have, by Grod's grace, numerous forces equipped and ready to 
" oppose them. Our army, however; is composed principally of the 
" soldiery of Hindustan, who have spent their lives in warfare with 
" Hindus only, and have never yet joined in battle with the Mughuls, 
" and are consequently ignorant of their cunning system of tactics, 
" their sallies, their ambuscades, and other stratagems. If the Mu- 
<c ghuls then through good management on our part retire defeated 
" this time, the soldiery of Delhi will be able to pursue and follow 
" after them, so that (in future) our troops will long with ardour for an 
" engagement with these Mughuls." 

Sultan 'Alauddin on hearing this address from the faithful Malik 



1869.] Translations from tlie Tdrikh i Firuz Shahi. 197 

'Alaulmulk praised him highly ; and having summoned all the great 
Khans and Maliks into his presence, he made the following speech to 
the assembled throng. 

" You are all well aware, that 'Alaulmulk is both a ' wazir' and 
" the son of a ' wazir', as well as a true and loyal servant to me, 
" and that from the first days of my assuming the government up to 
" the present time, he has been in the habit of giving me the benefit 
" of his advices ; and that it was only his obesity which caused me 
(l to appoint him Kotwal ; for otherwise he was entitled to the office 
li of wazir. At this juncture he has expressed some sound opinions, 
" and brought forward arguments to induce me to refrain from 
" engaging the Mughuls, and now I purpose giving him my reply in 
" the presence of all of you, who are the pillars of my State, so that 
" you may all hear it." 

The Sultan then turned towards 'Alaulmulk alone in that assem- 
bly and said : 

" 'Alaulmulk, thou art my confidential servant and ancient sup- 
" porter, and hast claims to the office of wazir, and to a large stock 
<' of wisdom ; hear now from me these clear and distinct truths. 
r Long before both you and I (were born), this proverb was in vogue, 
44 ' It is nonsense crouching down (to hide yourself from detection) when 
r stealing a camel (as the animal's tall body must necessarily be visible);' 
p and in like manner to hold the sovereignty of Delhi and yet hide behind 
f Khal Sitari's [a camel's] back as you suggest ; and to assume a menac- 
" ing attitude towards the Mughuls^ and yet refrain from an engagement 
" with them, is altogether impossible ; nor is it feasible to prevent a 
te contest with the Mughuls by the vain and idle talking of poltroons. 
f Were I to shelter myself in the way you propose, my cotemporaries 
f and those men who shall be born after my time will laugh at my beard, 
r and will tax me with cowardice ; more especially my foes and advers- 
{< aries, who may have travelled some 2000 kos from their own land, and 
c ' have come under the minarets of Delhi to offer battle. What say you ? 
" Shall I under these circumstances be guilty of backwardness and co- 
' wardice,and send Khal Sitari to the front[hide behind the camel'sback], 
11 whilst I remain inert like a goose or a hen seated on her eggs, and en- 
« £ deavour to repel them by diplomacy and negociation. And if I should 
t l do as you say, to whom could I shew this countenance, or how could I 



198 Translations from the Tdrihli i Firiiz Shdhi. [No. 4, 

u enter the apartments of my own female relatives ? Of what account 
" too would my subjects esteem me, and what daring and boldness 
tl would the rebellious and disaffected see in me to make them pre- 
"serve their allegiance to me? Come what may, lam bent upon 
" marching to-morrow from Siri into the plain of Kill, where T pur- 
" pose joining battle with Qutlugh Khwajah and his army ; so that in 
" the course of this mighty conflict, it may be proved between him 
" and me, to which of us Grod intends to grant the victory, and to 
" which success is to present itself. 

" 'Alaulmulk ! to thee have I confided the post of Kotwal, and 
" the charge of my seraglio, and treasures, together with the whole 
" town. Whichever of us two, whether he or I, prove the conqueror, 
" salute the victor with the keys of the gates, and of the treasures, and 
" lay them before him, and become his obedient servant and vassal. 

" Do not you with all your wisdom and ability know this much, 
" that prudence and judgment can only ward off hostilities so long 
" as the enemy be not close at hand. Now that he has come 
" up in hot haste however, no mode of thought or action is left 
li to me, but to make haste in falling upon him, and to dash out 
" the brains of my foes with the stroke of battle-axe, sword, and arrow 
" You propose pacific measures, but pacific measures are incompatible 
" with the turmoil of this busy world. The refined and elegant ex- 
" pressions that you can use (when seated) on the four square yard 
l( carpet of your house, are never taken into the wide world, and would 
Ci ill become the field of carnage, where streams of blood shall flow 
" from either side. 

" As for what you say about the ideas you entertain on the subject 
" of preventing these invasions of the Mughuls, as soon as I am at 
" leisure from this war, and have fulfilled all the duties attending it, 
a I will listen to these ideas of your's. You are a literary character 
" and the son of a literary man, and doubtless your mind sted- 
" fastly contemplates all these matters, of which you speak to me." 

'Alaulmulk humbly submitted that he was indeed an old servant. < 
invariably mentioned any suggestion that happened to cross his mind. 

The Sultan exclaimed : u You are a truly loyal subject, and I have 
" always had a high regard for your opinion. Now, however, a crisis 
" has occurred, in which it is necessary to set wisdom aside, and not 



1869.] Translations from the Tdrikh i Firuz Shdhi. 100 

M a thought or deed is requisite beyond carnage and bloodshed, the 
" sacrifices of one's head and life, unsheathing of swords, and the 
" combating with our foes." 

'Aldulmulk then took leave by kissing the royal hand, and having 
returned into the city, secured all the gates, except the Badaon one, 
which was left open ; and all the town people, both great and small, 
were in great dismay, and lifted up their hands in prayer. 

Account of the battle between Sultan 'Alauddin and Qutlugh Khan, 
with the (ultimate J defeat of the Mughuls and martyrdom of Zafar 
Khun and other Amirs. 

Sultan 'Alauddin marched with the army of Islam from Siri to 
Kili, and pitched his camp there ; while Qutlugh Khwajah encamped 
with the Mughul forces right opposite ; and as two such armies had 
never been seen in any age or era confronting each other with hostile 
intent, the people were struck with wonder and dismay. Both armies 
were then drawn up in line, and stood anxious confronting each 
other in the coming struggle. 

Zafar Khan was in command of the right wing, and he and the 
Amirs belonging to his division having drawn their swords, made a 
furious assault on the Mughul force, and fought hand to hand with 
them. The Mughuls could not withstand the attack, and were im- 
mediately broken and routed, whereupon the army of Islam set off in 
pursuit of them. Zafar Khan, who was the Kustam of his day, and 
the [hero] of his age, never ceased from the pursuit, but kept 
following close upon them, and driving them before him [eighteen 
kos~] with the [sword, cutting off their heads]. The Mughuls con- 
sequently had no opportunity of rallying, and fled in such consternation 
that they scarcely knew their bridles from their cruppers. 

Ulngh Khan, who was in command of the left wing of the army 
and had several great Amirs, and a numerous host of troops in his 
division, did not stir from his position, on account of the animosity 
he entertained towards Zafar Khan, nor would he advance to his sup- 
port. The accursed Turghi** meanwhile had laid an ambuscade with 
his tuman [along the Buruji road ?]f and as soon as he saw that 

* He commanded the left wing of the Mughuls. Firishtah. 

t This is doubtful. The text (p. 260) has bar tariq i buruji, which is opposed 
to bar tariq i halqah, a few lines lower down ; hence buruji must be the Turkish 
name of a stratagem. Firishtah has merely, ' he had laid an ambuscade ou the 



200 Translations from the Tdrihh i fflruz Shahi. [No 4, 

Zafar Khan had pressed well forward in pursuit, and no force was 
coming up behind to his support, he came in rear of him, and the 
Khan was surrounded on all sides as if in a ring by the Mughul army. 
While thus hemmed in by the enemy, who kept firing showers of 
arrows upon him, Zafar Khan fell from his horse, and thus was that 
hero of the age, and the Rust am of his time, obliged to fight on 
foot. Emptying the arrows out of his quiver before him, he over- 
threw one of the Mughul horsemen with every shaft, till at length 
in the (middle of the) conflict Qutlugh Khwajah sent him a message 
saying : u Come over to me, that I may take you to my father, who 
will treat you with higher honor than the Emperor of Dihli has done. 
Zafar Khan paid no attention to his words however, and the Mughuls 
seeing that he could not be captured alive, pressed upon him from all 
sides, and caused him to suffer martyrdom ; after which the Amirs of 
his division also suffered the like. They then wounded the Khan's 
elephants, and slew the drivers of the animals. 

That day, under cover of night, the Mughuls managed to make a 
stand (or recover themselves), but such an astounding dread had been 
imprinted on their breasts from Zafar Khan's fierce assault, that they 
retreated from their position towards the close of the night, and de- 
parted to a distance of 30 Jcos from Dihli, where they encamped. From 
thence they made [daily marches of about] 20 kos, and until they 
reached the confines of their own country, they never once halted at 
any stage. 

The dread of this attack of Zafar Khan's remained in their hearts 
for years ; and if a horse of their's would not drink water at any 
time, they used to say : a What, have you seen Zafar Khan that 
you will not drink water?" and never again after this did so vast 
an army advance to the environs of Dihli with hostile intentions. 

Sultan 'Alauddin now returned from Kili, estimating this defeat 
of the Mughuls by the peerless Zafar Khan, and such a loyal sacrifice 
of life as his, a most glorious triumph. 

In the third year of his reign, Sultan 'Alauddin did nought but 
indulge in pleasure and gaiety, giving full scope to the bent of his 
inclinations, and convoking festive assemblies. His national under- 
load.' The position of Kili is not given on the Maps ; it could not have been 
far away from modern Dihli, i. e., north of Siri. The Society's Edition of 
Badaoni has Gilt (?). 



1869 ] Translations from the Tarikh i Firuz Shdh'i. 201 

takings all turned out well, one after another, and despatches announ- 
cing victories were pouring in from all quarters. Every year two or 
three sons were born to him, and pavilions were erected and festivities 
held to celebrate the events. 

The whole of his state affairs in short were satisfactorily managed 
agreeably to the utmost wish of his heart. In his magazines he beheld 
vast treasures, and daily did he enjoy the spectacle of his jewels and 
pearls, of which he possessed chests and caskets full ; while his eye 
likewise fell on numerous elephants and 70,000 horses in the sheds 
and stables in and around the city. He also found two or three vast 
countries firmly bound under his rule, and the idea of any adversary 
or rival in the kingdom never crossed his mind. 

Intoxicated under all these varied incentives to pride, he began 
to brood over in his head the grandest projects and most ex- 
traordinary schemes, which were neither suited to his capacity, nor 
indeed to the capacity of a hundred thousand like him ; and such ideas 
came into his mind, as had never entered the imagination of any other 
monarch. From his utter intoxication and senselessness, his supreme 
arrogance and self-conceit, his intense ignorance and infatuation, and 
his excessive folly and stupidity, he lost all control over himself, and 
began to conceive impossibilities and absurdities. He was a man who 
had not a smattering even of education, and had never associated with 
men of learning ; for he neither knew how to read nor write. 

In disposition he was ill-natured, and in temper harsh ; and in his 
heart was lodged a mass of cruelty. The more frequently the world 
went well with him, the oftener his enterprizes were crowned with 
success ; and the more fortune favoured him, so much the more sense- 
less and intoxicated he became. 

The object of my (bringing forward) the above peroration is this, 
that Sultan 'Alauddin during these periods of senselessness and 
intoxication used to say in the presence of his assembled guests, 
that he had two projects before him, and he used to consult his 
friends, boon companions, and associates about the furtherance of these 
two projects, and to ask the Maliks he was intimate with, what 
he had better do, so as to carry out his plans most effectually. 
. One of these two projects, which he was always talking about 
carrying out, was this. He used to say : " God Almighty gave to the 
27 



202 Translations from the Tarilch i Firuz Shahi. [No. 4, 

Prophet, on whom be peace, four companions, by means of whose 
power and influence, he originated the orthodox faith, and owing to 
the institution of the orthodox faith, the fame of the Prophet has 
lasted and will continne to last till the day of judgment ; and 
since the time of the Prophet, on whom be peace ! whosoever has 
acknowledged and called himself a Musalman, has considered him- 
self belonging to his faith and sect. JSow, Grod Almighty has also 
granted to me four companions ; first Ulugh Khan, secondly Zafar 
Khan, thirdly Nuprat Khan, and fourthly Alap Khan, who through 
my favour have attained to princely power and influence. If I like, 
therefore, I can with the aid of these companions institute a new 
religious faith, and by the force of my arms and those of my com- 
panions, cause all the people to adopt it as the clear way (to salva- 
tion) ; and thus my fame and that of my companions would continue 
to last among the people, just as that of the Prophet and his com- 
panions has lasted." 

Impelled by youthful arrogance, and folly, want of judgment, 
thoughtlessness and audacity, he used to utter the above sentiments 
at convivial assemblies openly and without reserve, and consult with 
the chief men of the party regarding the institution of a new and 
separate religion. He would likewise enquire of such as were pre- 
sent, how he should manage matters, so that his name might con- 
tinue for ever, and the people adopt the faith that he originated. 

Respecting the second project, he used personally to inform those 
present, that the wealth, elephants, horses, and retainers that he had 
gathered together were innumerable ; and that he would therefore 
make over charge of Dihli to some one, and starting like Alexander 
in quest of territorial aggrandizement, would bring the four quarters 
of the inhabited globe under his dominion. 

Another piece of presumption was this. Some of his enterprizes 
having turned out satisfactorily, he caused himself to be styled 
" Alexander the Second," in the public prayers and on the coinages. 
In the midst of his wine-bibbing too, he would boastfully exclaim, 
" Every country that I conquer, I will give in charge to one of my 
" confidential ministers, and set out myself in pursuit of further ac- 
quisitions ; for who is there to stand up against me?" The by- 
standers although well aware that he was perfectly intoxicated, and 



1869.] Translations from the Tdrilch i Firuz Shdhi. 203 

demented from the possession of vast wealth, elephants, horses, fol- 
lowers and dependents, as well as from his innate folly, and that he 
only discussed both these projects out of arrogance, incapacity, and 
stupidity ; yet they were obliged to have a regard for his hasty tem- 
per and evil disposition. Through fear of his irascibility therefore, 
they commended his sentiments, and bringing forward false dogmas 
and similes as true, they made the application of them conformable to 
his vile disposition ; so that he fell into the idea at last that these 
impossible propositions that had issued from his senseless heart and 
tongue, might perhaps be accomplished. The above absurdities, that 
escaped from his lips at convivial assemblies, were gradually dissemin- 
ated throughout the city ; and while some respectable men laughed, 
and attributed them to his folly and ignorance, other intelligent per- 
sons were sore afraid and said among themselves, " This fellow has 
" the very pride of Pharaoh without possessing a particle of sense ; 
11 and such immense treasures, as would blind the eye of the wise 
" even, not to mention the foolish and unwary, having fallen into 
" the hands of this idiot, if Satan instil into his mind a mode of faith 
" opposed to true religion, and he, in enforcing its false doctrines, should 
" slay sixty or seventy thousand individuals, what would become of 
"us Musalmans and our religion." 

The author's uncle, 'Alaulmulk, the Kotwal of Dihli, on account 
of his extreme obesity used to go and pay his respects to the Sultan 
'Alauddin on the first day of every month only. On the first of 
one month, when he had come according to his usual custom, and had 
joined the Sultan's wine-party, the latter asked his advice regarding 
his two insane projects. 'Alaulmulk had heard from others that the 
Sultan was in the habit of expressing these sentiments in public, and 
that the bystanders always corroborated his. opinions, and were unable 
to speak the real truth for fear of his violent and hasty temper. On 
this occasion however, when 'Alaulmulk heard the Sultan express 
these sentiments, and demand his advice on the matter, he replied : 
" If your Majesty will order the wine to be removed from this assem- 
bly, and will permit no one to stay with him, but four Maliks, I will 
lay clearly and explicitly before the throne my views and the conclu- 
sion that I have arrived at with respect to these two schemes of your 
Majesty." 



204 Translations from the Tdrikh i Firiiz ShahL [No, 4, 

The Sultan accordingly directed the wine to be removed from the 
assembly, and no one was permitted to remain in it, but Ulugh Khan, 
Zafar Khan, Nucrat Khan and Alap Khan, all the other nobles being 
called upon to retire. The Sultan then said to 'Alaulmulk, " What- 
ever plan or designs has occurred to your mind for the execution of 
these two projects, do you now in the presence of these my four 
companions and of myself explain it, in order that I may proceed to 
carry it out." 

'Alaulmulk prefacing his speech with an apology (for his bold- 
ness) spoke as follows : " The subject of religion with its tenets and 
" doctrines should certainly never be discussed and commented on by 
" your Majesty ; for that is the duty of the prophets, not of kings. 
" Religion springs from divine inspiration, and cannot be founded on 
" human intellect and wisdom. From the time of Adam to the pre- 
" sent day, has religion been instituted by the prophets, while kings 
il have exercised worldly sway and sovereignty ; and since the world 
" began, is now and ever shall be, the spirit of prophecy has never 
" been exercised by kings, although prophets have sometimes held 
" kingly sway. Your humble servant's petition at the throne there- 
" fore is this : That henceforth your Majesty will never either under 
" the influence of wine or without it, speak a word about founding 
" any form of faith or religion, or such matters as are within the 
(l especial province of the prophets, and which have been finally 
" determined by our own (last and greatest) Prophet. For, should 
" expressions of this kind reach the ears of the public generally, the 
" whole of them will turn from their allegiance, not a Musalman will 
" approach your royal person, tumult and sedition will arise on every 
" side, and vast dangers assail the ' State, arising solely from such 
" sentiments as these. Your Majesty may have heard too, how, not- 
" withstanding the torrents of blood that Changiz Khan caused to flow 
u from all the cities of the Musalmans, he was unable to implant 
" among them the civil and religious institutions of the Mughuls. 
" Most of the latter in fact turned Musalmans, and professed the 
" Muhammadan creed ; while not a single Musalman turned Mughul, 
" nor adopted their faith. As for myself, I am your loyal servant, 
" and my life and soul is bound up in your Majesty's existence. 
" Should sedition arise in the royal dominions, I should neither be 



1869.] Translations from the Tdrihh i Firuz Shdhi. 205 

" left alive, nor would my wife and children, my followers and 
" dependents be allowed to exist on the face of the earth. If then I 
il see a means of averting danger from the royal dominions, and I fail 
" to report it explicitly, I should be destitute of feeling for my own 
l( life as well as that of my children and family retainers. From these 
" expressions, that have issued from your Majesty's tongue, more* 
" over, such a tumult is sure to arise, as could not be repressed by the 
a sagacity of a hundred Buzurjmihrs ; and those who, professing 
" the utmost loyalty and good will towards your royal person, have 
" heard the above sentiments expressed in various assemblies by your 
" Majesty, and have both confirmed and commended them, have only 
" done so by way of flattery, and have not fulfilled their duty 
" honestly." 

On hearing these words of 'Alaulmulk, Sultan 'Alauddin bent 
down his head, and became absorbed in reflection. The Sultan's four 
companions too were excessively pleased with ' Alaulmulk' s speech, 
and anxiously waited to see what would escape from the Saltan's lips. 
After a minute or two, the Sultan addressed 'Alaulmulk thus : 
11 The reason why I have made you my confidential adviser, and shew 
" such regard for you is, that I know you to be a truly loyal subject 
" of mine, and frequently have I perceived and become fully convinced 
" by experience, that in giving an opinion, you always speak the 
" whole truth before me, and never conceal the real state of the case. 
" I have just this minute reflected, and see that everything is as you 
" say. I ought not to discuss these subjects, and henceforward no 
" one shall hear me utter such expressions in any assembly. A 
" hundred mercies rest on you, and on your father and mother, inas- 
f l much as you have spoken the truth before me, and have duly ful- 
" filled the rights of loyalty. In respect to the second project, what 
" say you ; is that likewise wrong, or is it proper ?" 

'Alaulmulk then addressed the Sultan thus on the subject of his 
second project, which was that of territorial aggrandizement. 

" Your second project is one that high-minded monarchs are often 
bent upon ; and it is the custom and habit of these conquerors to desire 
that they should subjugate the whole world, and bring it under their 
dominion. Your Majesty likewise with all these vast hoards of treasure, 
as well as retainers, elephants, and horses, can set forth from your capital 



206 Translations from the Tarilch i Firuz Shahi. [No. 4 



fully equipped and arrayed, and will (doubtless) achieve the greatest 
feats of conquest. I do not therefore object to the execution of this de- 
sign, and I am well aw r are that your Majesty possesses sufficient wealth 
to enable you to enlist two or three lakhs of horsemen, and conquer the 
whole world. It would be right, however, for your Majesty to reflect as 
to whom you could consign the charge of Dehli and its empire, which 
you have gained at the cost of such vast sums of money, and so much 
bloodshed, and what force you would give him ; while you yourself 
departed in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement, and proceeded like 
Alexander to conquer the habitable globe. For, no matter whom 
your Majesty might appoint in Dehli or in any other country ; by the 
time you thought of returning to your own capital again, how could 
those officers, or those countries have secured peace and safety in 
these times of sedition and rebellion. The age of Alexander was a 
totally different era from the present one ; for it was the established 
usage, and settled habit of the men of that period to adhere strictly 
and conscientiously to the engagements they entered into, even after 
the lapse of many years ; and consequently excuses and frauds, false- 
hood and deceit, and the violation of contracts and agreements were 
much less frequent in those days. If the nobles and plebeians of any 
clime or country therefore entered into any contract or agreement with 
Alexander or any other sovereign, they neither, during his presence 
nor in his absence, ever swerved from their promise or engagement. 
Where too, could you find a prime minister like Aristotle ? for all 
the Greeks, both high and low, notwithstanding their vast amount 
of population, immense extent of cavalry, and great wealth and 
affluence, were so attached, faithful, and obedient to Aristotle, placed 
such confidence in his spoken or writ'ten promise, and his strict virtue 
and probity, and were so well pleased and contented with his 
administration and rule, unaided and unsupported by considerable 
forces, that during Alexander's absence not a soul swerved a needle's 
point from his express order and mandate, nor joined in any revolt or 
rebellion. When Alexander therefore ceased from his conquest after 
an interval of two and thirty years, and returned again to his pristine 
capital, he found the land of Greece tranquil, obedient, and secure ; 
nor in the course of a generation (qaranj moreover, had any dis- 
turbance occurred within his ancient kingdom. Very different are 



1869.] Translations from the Tdrihh i Firttz Bhahi. 207 

the men of the present time and age, more especially the Hindus, in 
whom there is not the slightest respect for treaties, and agreements. 
If they see not a mighty and successful sovereign at their head, nor 
behold crowds of horse and foot with drawn swords and arrows 
threatening their lives and property, they fail in their allegiance, 
refuse payment of revenue, and excite a hundred tumults and revolts. 
Now your Majesty's territories are the territories of Hindustan ; how 
then will your absence, especially an absence that may continue for 
years, suit such men as these, who have neither any respect for 
treaties and engagements, nor any regard for the due fulfilment of 
promises?" 

Sultan 'Alauddin observed : " Since so much wealth as well as 
elephants and horses has come into my hands, if I make no conquests, 
and subdue no new territories, but content myself with the kingdom 
of Dihli merely, of what use will it be to me, and how shall I acquire 
a reputation for victorious achievements ?" 

'Alaulmulk replied : " I am an old servant, and it appears most 
expedient to me, that your Majesty should commence upon the two 
following undertakings before all others ; and subsequently set out 
after the rest." 

The Sultan asked, what these two undertakings were, which he 
ought to commence upon first ; to which 'Alaulmulk replied : " One 
of them is, the bringing under proper subjection of the entire country 
of Hindustan ; so that Rantambhur, Chitor, Chanderi, Malwah, Dhar, 
and Ujain, and from the East to the banks of the Sarw, and the Sawaliks 
to Jalur, Multan, to Damrilah [?], and from Palam to Lahaur and 
Dipalpur* 4 might all become so tranquil and obedient, that the name of 
rebel should never pass from any body's tongue. 

* Sarw (y+*» sarw, or jj.** saro) is the name of the Western and Eastern 

Surjoo in the N. E. of Oudh. The Eastern Surjoo is often distinguished as 
db i Bahrdich or Sarw i Bahrdich, the Sarw on which the town of Bahraich lies. 
The Western Surjoo i3 merely called Sana ; but the name is also given to the 

Ghogra. The Ghogra again is often called db i Narhan (u-A^J v0> as ** ^ a ^ a 
into the Ganges a little below the town and Parganah of Narhan in Saran, 
(North Bihar). In the Kin and older books Ghogra is spelt G'hag'har *$£$> • 
the modern spelling is j^^t G' hag' liar, or \j$l$ G'hdg'lird. " The Ghogra 
joins the Sarw at a distance of one Tcos from Awadh (Faizabad) and passes below 
the Fort of that town." Ain. Abulfazl mentions the Sarw among the rivers 
of the £ubah of Ilahabad, together with the A'rand «iJ;| or jJ,]' Arand (anglice 



208 Translations from the Tdrikh i Firuz SktJ/i. [No. 4, 

" The second undertaking, which is far more important, is the pre- 
vention of the inroads of the Mughuls by strengthening the strong- 
holds in their direction, by the appointment of trustworthy command- 
ants, and the repair of the fortifications, and excavation of the ditches 
as well as the formation of magazines for arms and depots for grain 
and fodder, and the organization of projectile engines of war, with 
skilful and experienced marksmen to serve them. To this end, a 
commander should be stationed at Sauianah with a large force, another 
at Deopalpur, and another at Multan with a body of horse ; for in order 
that the Mughals may be entirely restrained from any hostile attempt 
on Hindustan, military commanders of loyalty and experience, and a 
picked and chosen body of troops well mounted, must be depended on. 

" As soon as these two objects, viz. the extinction of the rebellious 
spirit of the Hindus from the realms of Hindustan, and the appoint- 
ment of famous and illustrious nobles to the quarters, whence the 
incursions of the Mnghuls take place, have been satisfactorily attain- 
ed, your Majesty should stay perfectly at ease in the metropolis of 
Dihli, which is the centre of the kingdom, and employ yourself with 
a tranquil mind in state affairs ; for the stability of the sovereign 
in the centre produces stability in the government of the provinces. 
After the establishment of the paramount power in the centre, and 
the consolidation of the provinces of the Empire, your Majesty can 
proceed to territorial aggrandizement without stirring from your 
throne, by deputing your loyal and confidential servants with well 
equipped and organized forces, and the faithful nobles of the state, to 

Urrunde or Bind), the Ken ^x> (Cane, a tributary of the Jamnah, left bank), 
and the &jj Bdrnah (near Banaras). 

Luhwr, Yf&j), an d jjlgJ Luhdwar are archaistic forms for jj&)} Lahor, 
just as Aj^jJ Niidih for Ljoi Naddid (ISTuddeah in Bengal, even now vulgarly 
called Noodee) ; j*jJ(f Gdlewar, jjdS Galewar, andjf^lf Gdleiodr, for j^\jt 
Gwdlidr. 

Dipalpur lies on the old bed of the Biah, between Lat. 30° and 31°, and must 
not be' confounded with the Dipalpur in Malwah, S. W. of Ujain. Dipalpur 
(Deopalpur), Samanah (in Patiala), and Multan lie almost in a straight line j 
hence 'Alaulmulk's advice. 

Pdlam lies S. W. of Dihli, about eleven miles from it. Under Sultan Mahmud 
Shah (795 to 815, A. H.), people used to say ironically, Hukm i klmddwand 
i 'dlam az Dihli td Pdlam. 

For Damrilah (?) the Society's Edition has Marilah (?). Perhaps, Narilali, 
near Dihli. What we call Rintambore is spelt in all good MSS. Rantaribhwr 
,+qu£ij r not Rantfharibur jj^i^xij. Dhdr is in Malwah. 



1869.] Translations from the Tdri/ch i Firuz Shdhi. 209 

march into distant countries and wage war there ; bidding them plun- 
der and lay waste all the territories of Hind, and spare neither the 
wealth, elephants, nor horses of its kings and princes, but bring them 
all under the royal subjection, after which their lands and principali- 
ties can be restored to them, on condition that they agree to furnish 
an annual tribute to your Majesty in money, horses, and elephants." 

After giving vent to the above opinions, 'Alaulmulk made obei- 
sance and continued thus : " What your humble servant has recom- 
mended can never be brought about, unless your Majesty will refrain 
from drinking wine to excess, from holding constant convivial and 
festive assemblies, and from indulging both day and night in the plea- 
sures of the chase, nor until you take up your permanent residence in 
the centre of the kingdom and allow the affairs of the state, and mea- 
sures of government to be transacted agreeably to the advice of your 
faithful and sagacious councillors. Your Majesty's excessive indulgence 
in wine occasions delay and detriment to all measures, and nothing 
can be effected conformably to the true spirit of good government ; 
while from your constant pursuit of field sports, there is danger of 
treason and sedition from deceitful and treacherous individuals, and the 
royal life is in jeopardy. As soon as it becomes well-known among 
the populace both high and low, that the Sovereign is absorbed 
day and night in the pleasures of wine, and of the chase, the due re- 
verence of royalty will no longer remain implanted in their hearts, 
and the gates of sedition will be thrown open to traitors. If you 
cannot do without indulging in wine and in the chase altogether, you 
should drink only after the hour appointed for the second prayers, 
when you are alone without any party of boon companions, nor should 
you take so much as to get intoxicated ; and for sport, you ought to 
have a villa erected at Siri, on all sides of which spacious and exten- 
sive plain there should be, where you could take your hawks and fly 
them. In this manner you should satisfy your longing for field sports, 
so that the disaffected and ill-disposed characters in the kingdom 
may not have the opportunity for malevolent designs against you. 
Your Majesty's life, and the stability of your government are most 
clear to me ; for my own life and that of my whole family and house- 
hold depends upon the royal existence ; and should this kingdom fall 
into the hand of another, which God forbid, myself, my wife and 
28 



210 Translations from the TdriJch i Firuz Shdhi. [No. 4, 

children, and my followers and dependants would never be permitted 
to live." 

When Sultan 'Alauddin had heard 'Alaulmulk's opinions, he 
was highly pleased with him and said — " The views that you 
have expressed are decidedly correct, and I will do exactly according 
to what God has brought forth from your lips." He then present- 
ed 'Alaulmulk with a garment wrought in gold with pictures of tigers, 
a woven waist belt, 15,000 tankahs, two caparisoned horses, and a 
couple of landed estates. Out of the four Khans too, in whose pre- 
sence 'Alaulmulk had continued from early morn till midday ex- 
plaining his views, as given above before the throne, every one of them 
sent to his house three or four thousand tankahs, and two or three 
caparisoned horses. As soon as the above opinions reached the ears 
of the ministers, officials, and other wise men of the city, they also 
highly lauded and commended 'Alaulmulk's sagacity and good advice. 

This event occurred in the days, when Zafar Khan had returned 
from the Siwistan expedition, and had not yet suffered martyrdom in 
the engagement with the miscreant Qutlugh Khwajah. 

Sultan 'Alauddin resolved in the first place to capture the fort of 
Rantambhur, as it was not only somewhat near the capital of Dihli, 
but was already encompassed with a besieging force under Hamir Deo, 
the son of Pathora Rai. He accordingly despatched thither Ulugh 
Khan, who held the Bianah district ; and directed Nucrat Khan, who 
was then Jagirdar of Karah, to move likewise with the whole forces 
of Karah and the troops of the districts on that side of Hindustan, to 
Rantambhur, and cooperate with Ulugh Khan in taking the fortress. 
Ulugh Khan and Nucrat Khan having captured Jhayin,* invested the 
stronghold of Rantambhur, and exerted themselves to the utmost in the 
construction of entrenchments and batteries, while a constant shower 
of projectiles was kept up from the fort. One of these missiles hap- 
pened to strike Nucrat Khan, whereby he was seriously wounded, and 
after two or three days he expired. 

As soon as intelligence of this event reached Sultan 'Alauddin, he 

* Jhdijin (^.jl^) lies near Kantambhur. " It is known under the name of 
Nausliahr." Bad. I, p. 190. The Society's Editions of Badaoni and Zia i 
Barani have invariably, but wrongly, ^l^a. Jhdbin. Vide Elliot's Index (First 
Edition), p. 193. 



I860.] Translations from the Tdnlh i Firiiz Skahi. 211 

came out of the city with the imperial forces and marched in the di- 
rection of Rantambhur. 

Descrijytion of Suit tin 'Aliuddin's march towards Hantamlhur ', Ms 
arrival at Tilpal, and IJcit Khan's insurrection at that place.* 

When Saltan 'Alaaddin set out from Dihli with the view of cap- 
turing the fort of Rantambhur, and had arrived at Tilpat,f he halted 
there for some time, riding out every day to the chase, and indulging 
in field sports. On one occasion having gone out as usual to the chase, 
he was benighted, and obliged to take up his quarters in the village 
of Badah, where he passed the night. Next day before sunrise he gave 
orders for a [manoeuvre, nargah\ so the officers of the household, and all 
the retinue occupied themselves in making the necessary preparations 
for it, while the Sultan himself took up a position in the open country, 
when he sat dawn upon a cane stool fmorah) with only a few attendants 
standing round him. The Sultan was thus sitting in expectation of 
seeing the arrangements for the battle completed, when meanwhile 
Ifcit Khan, his nephew (brother's son), who held the appointment of 
VaJdlidari, raised an insurrection, under the idea and impression that 
just as Sultan 'Alauddin had slain his uncle, and seated himself on 
his throne, he would likewise be able to slay 'Alauddin and ascend his 

* I have written licit Khan, instead of Ukat, which Major Fuller's translation 
has. licit is Turkish, and means jaivdn, young, and licit Khan would thus be the 
opposite of Ulugh Khan, as Ulugh means kaldn, old, senior. Khan i Kaldn also 
was a title in use before the times of Akbar. The usual scriptio plena also occurs, 

viz., oȣj| for o^|j kjJ\ for AJf ? just as *Uj and a^jS Qutlugh (the same 

as Mubdrik), or (j>J^ and (jjjJlsp Tughlugh (the same as 'alamddr, standard 
bearer), or JU*> and Jfy^o Mughul (a simple hearted man). Having accident- 
ally mentioned the word Mubdrik, which occurs so often in names, I may 
remark that it should be spelt Mubdrik with an i, as it is the Part. Active, 
asking God to bless some one ; but inasmuch as the Persians change the final i of 
such Arabic forms to a, we may write Mubarak. In India the pronunciation 
Mubarik is preferred. 

Firishtah calls Ikit Khan Sulaimdn Shah. In Briggs and Elphinstone's History 
the name of Ulugh Khan is wrongly given Alaf Khan. 

f Tilpat formed the South Eastern frontier of the Parganah of Dilhi ; vide 
Beames's Edition of Elliot's Glossary, II. 123. The Nawab Farid Khan mentioned 
by Elliot is Farid i Bukhari (Murtaza Khan) who defeated Khusrau. Faridabad 
in Balabgarh, south of Dihli, is named after him, and formed part of Tilpat. 

For Tilpat, the Society's Edition of Badaoni has Panhit(?), and in a foot note 
Sunpat, which is a town and Parganah forming the northern boundary of the 
Parganah of Dihli ; but Firishtah has likewise Tilpat. 

The place Badah mentioned a few lines lower down, may bo the Mama' of 
Badah, S. W. of the town of Jharsah. The Parganah of Jharsah forms the 
S. W. boundary of the Parganah of Dihli. 



212 Translations from the Tdrikh i Firuz SJuhi. [No. 4, 

throne. With this design, Ikit Khan, accompanied by several newly 
converted horsemen of great skill, who were old retainers of his, came 
headlong upon Sultan 'Alauddin shouting out, "the tiger," "the 
tiger," and several arrows were fired by those expert marksmen upon 
him. It being winter time, the Sultan had on a thick wadded gar- 
ment [and a daglah*'], and when they began to pour down a shower 
of arrows on him, he got off the stool, and made use of it as a 
shield to defend himself. Two arrows, however, struck the Sultan, 
and wounded him in the arm, but neither of them was fatal. There 
was a servant with him called Nanak [Ed. Bibl. Indica, Mdnik], who 
at the time when the new converts were showering arrows on the 
Sultan, made a shield of his own body for him, and received three 
or four wounds. The Paik soldiery (foot soldiers) who were standing 
behind the Sultan also protected him with their bucklers, and when 
Ikit Khan came up with his horsemen, and they wished to dismount, 
and cut off the Sultan's head, they perceived that the Paiks had 
drawn their swords, and were fully prepared to receive them. Not- 
withstanding the vast tumult and revolt that they had raised, they 
were thus unable to dismount and lay hands on the Sultan. At this 
juncture moreover the Paiks called out that the Sultan was dead, 
and Ikit Khan, being a stupid, foolish, senseless youth, devoid of all 
tact and intelligence, in spite of the great superiority he had gained in 
coming upon the Sultan with so many expert horsemen, was unable 
to give stability to his revolt by severing the Sultan's head from his 
body, previous to engaging in other affairs ; but through his con- 
summate fully, he was too premature and contented himself with the 
word of the Paiks. [Then he returned and hastened to Tilpat, and rode to 
the Imperial pavilion.] He then seated himself on Sultan 'Alauddin's 
throne, and called out in a loud tone to the royal door-keepers, that 
he had slain the Sultan. The people also began to reflect, that if he 
had not put the Sultan to death (as he said), how could he have 
entered the royal pavilion mounted (i. e. in state), or by the aid of 
what force could he have seated himself on the throne of 'Alauddin 
and given audience there. A great tumult and uproar consequently 

* The word daglah is not to be found in native Dictionaries, and is but 
rarely used now-a-days. From the words qabd wa daglah dar bar ddsht, we 
may infer that daglah is the short ornamented jacket which natives put over 
the long qabd. It has often short sleeves. 



1869.] Translations from the Ttirikh i Firuz Sluilil 213 

arose throughout the camp, and everything began to be turned topsy- 
turvy. The elephants were caparisoned with hauddhs and brought 
before the royal pavilion ; the household servants came out, and every 
one stood in waiting at his proper post ; the sentries kept shouting 
and bawling out ; the clergy read the Qoran ; the minstrels breathed 
forth music ; the aristocracy on paying homage offered their congra- 
tulations and tendered their services ; and the door-keepers raised the 
continual cry of "Bismillah" (in the name of Grod). 

The wretched Ikit Khan then out of intense folly and stupidity, 
wished to enter into the interior of the haram among the females, 
but Malik Dinar, the custodian of those apartments would not per- 
mit him ; for arming himself together with his comrades, he took his 
stand before the door, and kept it securely, saying to the ill-fated Ikit 
Khan, " You must shew me the head of Sultan 'Alauddin before I 
can let you enter the haram." 

At the time when the Sultan had been wounded by the arrows, all 
the horsemen engaged in the manoeuvre dispersed, and a great disturb- 
ance arose among them, every one going off in a different direction, 
until there were only some sixty or seventy men left with the Sultan. 
When he recovered his senses after Ikit Khan's departure, they found 
that he had received two wounds in the arm, and had lost a good 
deal of blood ; so they washed and bound up the wounds, and slung 
the arm from his neck in handkerchiefs. 

On coming to himself, the Sultan made certain, that the Maliks 
and Amirs and a vast body of the soldiery in the Camp must be in con- 
federacy with Ikit Khan, or he would never without their support 
have been able to make such an outbreak. 

He accordingly thought of abandoning his Camp and proceeding at 
once from the spot to gain Ulugh Khan at Jhayin, purposing to march 
night and day until he reached his brother, when he could adopt any 
plan that might seem most conducive to the recovery of his kingdom, 
or could flee from thence to some distant quarter, which ever plan 
might prove most expedient hereafter. 

With this idea, he was about to start forthwith for Jhayin, had not 
Malik Hamiduddin, the Vakilidar, son of 'Umdatulmulk, senior, 
who was the Aristotle and the Buzurjmihr of the age, dissuaded 
him from the measure and said, " Your Majesty should proceed 



214 Translations from the Tdrikli i Fir u z Shdhi. [No. 4, 

this instant to tlie imperial pavilion ; for all the people in the city and 
the camp are your loyal slaves and subjects ; and no sooner will the 
insignia of loyalty come into their view, and the safety of your august 
person become known to them, than they will repair to your threshold, 
and bring the elephants before you, and in a moment the head of the 
traitor, Ikit Khan, will be cut off and fixed on the point of a spear. 
Should the night, however, elapse without it being made known to 
the people, that your Majesty is safe and sound, it is probable that 
some one may join the wretch, and the insurrection become much 
more formidable than at present ; and after the people have once made 
themselves his confederates, and pledged their allegiance to him, the 
dread of your Majesty will compel them to stick to him." 

Sultan 'Alauddin approved of Hamid's suggestions, and having 
mounted at once he set out for the camp. On the way, such horse- 
men as saw that the Sultan was in safety, joined him ; so that by the 
time he reached the encampment, about 600 horse had collected in 
his train. As soon as the Sultan arrived near the camp, he ascended 
an eminence, and shewed himself conspicuously, so that the umbrella 
of the Sultan was seen by a considerable number. The concourse 
at the royal pavilion immediately broke up, and the household with 
the whole of the elephants repaired to the imperial presence ; where- 
upon Ikit Khan made his escape through an opening in the tent, 
and mounting a horse, took the road to Afghanpur. The Sultan then 
coming down from the eminence with regal pomp and splendour, 
proceeded to his own pavilion, and took his seat upon the throne, and 
gave a public audience. 

Malik A'azzuddin Yighan Khan and Malik Naciruddin Bur Khan 
[Ed. B. I., JSfiir Khan~] undertook the pursuit of Ikit Khan, and over- 
taking him in the vicinity of Afghanpur,* they cut off his head, and pre- 
sented it before the royal pavilion. By the Sultan's order, the mis- 
creant's head was fastened on a spear, and carried round the whole camp ; 
after which it was carried publicly through the city of Dehli, and from 
thence despatched to Ulugh Khan at Jhayin with an announcement of 

* Badaoni (I, p. 193) says : " licit Khan fled totvards Afghanpur, and a detach- 
ment- which in forced marches (elghdr) pursued him, caught him, and sent him 
to the Sultan." Afghanpur is either the town and Parganah in Sauibhal, or 
the mauza' of that name, ' which lies three kos from Tughluqhabad' (Badaoni 
I, p. 224), where Tughluq Shah died from the fall of the pavilion. Vide also 
Mr. Cowell's paper in J. A. S. B. for 1860, p. 231. 



1869.*] Translations from the Tdrihh i Firuz Shdhi. 215 

his victory. The rebel's younger brother, whose title was Qutlngli Khan, 
was also instantly sacrificed. Sultan 'Alauddm stayed sonic days at this 
encampment, during which he used the utmost rigour and severity in 
tracing out and apprehending all the agents and horsemen, and 
those who had had any knowledge of, or connection with, Ikit 
Khan's revolt. He put them to death under the torture of the iron 
scourge, conliscated their property to the royal use, and sent their 
wives and children as captives into various forts. 

After having concluded his search alter the conspirators engaged 
in Ikit Khan's revolt, Saltan 'Alauddin proceeded by continuous 
marches to Rantambhur, and pitched his camp at Ran,* where he exe- 
cuted the surviving portion of the rebels. The siege of the fort had 
been going on for some time previous to this, on the Sultan's arrival 
it was prosecuted with still greater vigour. From all quarters of the 
country, they collected leather skins and bags, and served them out 
among the soldiery, who used to fill the bags with sand, and throw them 
into the [ravine] of the Ran. They also made trenches and approach- 
es, raised batteries, and kept up a constant fire of projectiles, with 
which they harassed and annoyed the garrison, who used to throw 
down fire from the top of the fort in return, and thus vast numbers 
were slaughtered on both sides. The army moreover had overrun 
the district of Jhayin as far as the frontier of Dhar, and brought it all 
under subjection. 

Description of the revolt of 'TTmar and Mangii Khan, the nephews 
(sister's sons) of Saltan 'Alauddin, in Baddon and Audh^ and receipt 
of the intelligence at Rantambhur. 

Just about the time when the Sultan had finished with the conspi- 

* Or rather, on the Ran. Major Fuller's MS. has correctly &j j± instead of 
the absurd ^\j^ of the Ed. Bibl. Indica. Akbar also attacked Rantambhur 
from the Ran (Bad. II, 107). " On Monday, I inspected the Fort of Rantam- 
bhur. There are two mountains opposite to each other, one is called Ban, aud 
the other Tanbhur. Though the Fort is on the latter, people call it ' Ran- 
tanbhur.' It is very strong, and has plenty of water. The Ran also is a 
strong position, in fact the only one from which the Fort can be taken. Hence my 
father [Akbar] ordered guns to be carried to the top of the Ran [Rajab, 976], 
and had them pointed to the houses in the Fort. The first shot hit the Chau- 
khaudi Maball of Rai Surjun, which made his heart so tremble, that he sur- 
rendered. * * * The houses in the Fort are just as Hindus will build them, narrow 
and without ventilation; hence I was not pleased and did not stay." Tuzult i 
JahdngM, p. 256. During the reign of Akbar, Rustani Khan comman led the 
i Fort for a lom>; time. 



216 Indian Araclinoidea. [No. 4, 

It is difficult to find an appropriate position for the genns, but from 
the general appearance of the body and the distribution of the eyes, it 
seems to me that Hersilia has a great relation to Linyphia. Its habits 
are, however, very similar to those of Philodromus, and the same is 
the case as regards the proportionate length of the feet ; it may, 
therefore, be also correctly placed near, or in, the family Thomlsidje. 

There are several species found all through India, Burma and the 
Malacca straits. I have observed them mostly on palm-trees, the bark 
of which they much resemble in colouring ; they are sometimes also 
called niangoe spiders. 

Hersilia Calcuttensis, Stoi. Pi. XX., Fig. 9. 

9. Cephalothorax scarcely broader than long, the ocular region 
narrow and strongly elevated, the posterior region with the lateral 
margins strongly curved, with one longitudinal central and two 
transverse fine grooves ; the anterior part is the smaller. The grooves 
and the margins are partially dark brownish, the rest is yellowish, 
thickly covered with short white hairs. 

The eyes are in exactly the same position as in the type species ; the 
two anterior on each side form with the posterior laterals an ascending 
triangle, and the anterior laterals are very small, situated in front and 
below the posterior laterals ; of all the eyes the anterior centrals are 
the largest. The immediate region round each eye is dark brown. 

The falces are shorter than the sternum, sub-cylindrical, at the base 
rather contracted, pale brown with moderate dark brown claws. 

The lip is broadly semicircular, short ; the maxillae semewhat 
higher, thick at the base, attenuated towards their ends and strongly 
converging. The palpi are thin, more than double the length of the 
falces ; they are yellowish with black tips ; the lip and maxilke are a 
little darker than the other organs. 

The sternum is almost broader than long, flat, greyish brown, 
thickly set with hairs, anteriorly emarginated, posteriorly obtuse. 
The feet are slender and very long, the first being the longest, then 
the second, which is only a little shelter than the fourth, and then comes 
the third which is about equal to one-half of one of the second pair. 
The colour is pale yellowish with dark terminations to the joint. 
No bands are traceable. 



1869.] Indian Arachnoidea. 217 

The abdomen is oval, posteriorly broader and more inflated, 
obtusely pointed at the extreme end ; the anterior edge slightly covers 
the thorax. The general colour is a fawn or pale brown, with 
very numerous equally distributed white dots ; a dark brown band 
extends from the anterior edge to about the middle of the abdomen 
or more than half of its length, and at the end it is provided with 
short processes. Laterally, from the anterior edge, a thin zigzag 
brownish stripe with one blackish dot at each angle runs to the 
anus. The lower side is of a uniform greyish fawn colour, and 
thickly covered with whitish hairs. The epiginium is slightly promi- 
nent, brownish, with a thickened white posterior margin. The 
outer appendages of the spinners equal in length to the body ; they 
consist of three joints, the first being very small, the second about 
three times as long as the former and the third somewhat more than 
three times as long as the second, gradually attenuating into a point. 
The middle pairs of spinners extend only to half the length of the 
second joint. 
Length of thorax .... 3 m.m. ; its width in the middle 3 m.m. 

— abdomen 6 „ ,, ; 4.5 „ „ 

of one foot of the first pair, ... 22 m.m. 

2nd ... 20.5 „ „ 

3rd ... 8.5-9,, „ 

4th ... 19 „ „ 



From Blackwall's H. versicolor this species differs by having the 
second pair of feet almost quite as long as the first, by the want 
of whitish bands on the feet and the different markings of the 
thorax and abdomen, the latter possessing a number of dark spots 
extending from the posterior end of the dark longitudinal band to the 
spinners. 

Loc. Neighbourhood of Calcutta ; apparently very rare, only one 
full grown specimen having been met with during a period of two 
years collecting of Arachnoidea in this vicinity ; it was caught 
on the wall of a house. I subsequently observed another young 
specimen in my own house ; it moved about either forward or 
sideward, flatly pressed to the wall, exactly like a Philodromus, and 
appeared to be very shy. Like the young of Philodromus, this young 
Hersilia was more hairy than the full grown animals are. 

28 



218 Translations from the Tarikh i Firuz Shdhi. [No. 4, 

brought a warrant from the Sultan ; come over and hear its con- 
tents." A confidential friend of this KotwaTs, however, among the 
conspirators, gave him warning and informed him of the intended 
reachery, so he refused to come, and keeping vigilantly on his guard, 
had the gates of the new fort strongly secured. 

Haji Maula. with the other conspirators then repaired to the palace, 
and having seated himself in the raised balcony of state, he released 
the whole of the 'Alai prisoners, some of whom joined his cause. He 
also took out bags of money from the treasury, and begun to squander 
it among the populace. He likewise presented the rebels with arms 
from the magazine, and horses from the stud ; and whoever became 
his ally, had his lap rilled with gold. 

There was a Sayyid, who used to be called the son of Shah 
Najaf, and on his mother's side was descended from Sultan Shams- 
uddin. To this poor wretch's house, Haji Maula proceeded on horseback 
with a large retinue, and bringing him by force to the palace, placed 
him on the throne. He also compelled all the grandees and nobles 
to come from their homes, and do homage to their Sayyid, and offer 
him their allegiance. 

Thus from time to time he kept kindling the flame of turbulence, 
and some ill-fated wretches, whose hour of death had arrived near at 
hand, used from avaricious motives to come willingly and cheerfully 
to him, and he conferred on these rebels all the royal appointments, and 
paid homage himself. From fear of Sultan 'Alauddin, and their dread 
of this miscreant, the people abandoned both sleep and food, and 
passed their days and nights in the deepest anxiety. 

During the week that Haji Maula excited this revolt, news of it 
was several times received by Sultan 'Alauddin ; but the intelligence 
was never explicitly divulged throughout the camp, and no tumult 
arose from it. 

On the third or fourth day of the Haji's insurrection, Malik 
Hamiduddin Amir Koh, attended by his sons and relatives, every one 
of whom was a roaring lion, forced open the Grhaznin gate, and entering 
the city, made for the Bhandarkal gate, whereupon a distant conflict 
with arrows was commenced between them and the rebels. On such 
an occasion, the covetous and avaricious naturally set their lives on 
the palms of their hands (i. e*, recklessly exposed themselves to 



1869.] Translations from the Tdrihh i Firuz Shdhi. 219 

danger), and received large donations of money from the Haji ; but 
after two or three days Malik Hamiduddin Amir Koh, and his sons, 
who were a most loyal, true, and faithful crew, got the better of the 
rebels. Some of Zafar Khan's comrades too, who had come into the 
city from Amrohah for the purpose of presenting a petition, joined 
the Malik Amir Koh and his sons. The latter then entered from 
the Bhandarkal gate, and a close combat ensued between him and 
Haji Maula in the shoemaker's quarter.* The Amir koh having 
dismounted from his horse, and thrown Haji Maula down, sat himself 
on his chest, and notwithstanding all the cuts that the Haji's retainers 
showered upon this valiant and loyal hero, and the number of places 
in which they sorely wounded him, he would not stir from his place 
on the Haji's chest until he had slain him. 

After his death, the supporters of 'Alauddin repaired to the Lai 
palace, and having severed the head of that senseless Sayyid from his 
body, and carried it round the city on the point of a spear, they for- 
warded it to the Sultan at Rantambhur with a despatch announcing 
the victory and Haji Maula's demise. 

Notwithstanding the many tumults and revolts that were reported 
to Sultan 'Alauddin as having taken place at Delhi, and completely 
subverted that city ; inasmuch as he had fixed his imperial mind 
upon the capture of the fort of Rantambhur, he would not stir from 
this place, nor turn his face towards Delhi. Notwithstanding the 
large army too, that was engaged in the siege, and reduced to such 
distress in every way, not a single horseman or footman through fear 
and dread of Sultan 'Alauddin, dared turn his face towards Delhi, or 
go elsewhere. 

In short, in the course of five or six days, whosoever in the city had 
been a confederate of Haji Maula, and had taken money of him, was 
seized and imprisoned ; and all the money that he had taken out of 
the treasury and distributed among the populace was fully recovered and 
replaced in the treasury. At the end of a week, Ulugh Khan arrived by 
express from Rantambhur, and entering Delhi took up his quarter at 
the palace of Mu'izzi. They then brought all the rebels before him 
and he executed the whole of them, making a torrent of blood to flow. 

* The Society's text has dcor miydn i mozahdozdn o miyan i 4 o miydn i 
Edji Maula. Major Fuller's MS. has no and before the second miydn* 



220 Translations from the Tdrikh i Firuz Shdhi. [No. 4, 1869.] 

On account of these rebels too, he put mercilessly to the sword, as 
a warning to others, the sons and grandsons of Malikulumara, the 
former Kotwal, who had no knowledge at all of the insurrection, 
together with every surviving member of his family and his atten- 
dants, and would not permit their name even to exist in the world. 
(Ed. Bibl. Ind., p. 242 to p. 282.)* 

* The Persian text of this portion of the translation of 'Alauddin's reign has 
four doubtful words, viz., \\ J^\ Ed. Bibl. Ind. p. 243, 1. 8 from below ; \S)\j 
p. 250, 1. 3 j -y>\ p. 252, 1. 12 ; ^jjji^J P- 260 > *• 9 from below - 

Addenda. P. 200, note. Kegarding KM, vide also Bad. I., p. 233, 1. 7. 

P. 187, first note. There is some confusion regarding the word Kuchi. 
Badaoni (I., p. 180, 1. 3) says that Fakhruddin i Kuchi, who was Dadbeg under 
Jalal, was killed with Jalal at Karah -, and Juna cannot well be the son of 
Ghazi Malik (Tughluq Shah). 

The misprints in the Society's edition of the Tarikh i Firuz Shahi are rather 
numerous in the lists of office-bearers prefixed to each reign, though the 
edition is on the whole good. Ghazi Malik is especially ill-treated. Thus on 
p. 240, 1. 3 from below, the asterisk is to be put after ^jLc, and for 
Shaikhik (?) we have to read Shilmah beg i£b&isc**' ; and on p. 379, 1. 6, the 
same correction is to be applied to Shihnah (?). Shihnah Beg i Bdrgdh is the 
same as Bdrbeg cJ^jb, i. e. the Beg of the Court. That Beg was formerly 
pronounced bak or bik is clear from the names of towns, as BdrbikptW, Bdrbikdbdd 
{cf. Wazirabad, Khanpur.) 



(To he continued. J 



INDEX TO PART I. FOR 1869. 





Page 


'Abdul Qadir of Badaon, works of, 


.. 105 


'Abdul Qadir Jilani, ... 


101 


'AbulFazl, 


... 126 


Afghanpur, name of two places, 


... 214 


Ahmad Shah, ... 


93 


Ain i Akbari, 


90, 116, 207 


Akbar employs Hindus, 


128 


, his religious views, 


130, 133 


, lowers the dignity of the ^adr, 


131 


'Alauddin Khilji, history of, 


... 181 


, character of, 


... 201, 207, 216 




... 201 
202 


', IcllglOllo VlcVVti Ui, ... 

, his wine drinking, 


Alexander the Great, character of his subjects, 


... 206 


Alba Khand, 


8 


Anand & pur J sacred cities of the Sikhs ' 


95 


Anangpal, 


1 


Arand river, 


... 207 


'Ashiqah, a poem by Khusrau, 


191 


'Atapiir, near Badaon, 


... 144 


Awa, city of, founded, 


35 


A'zad, a Persian poet, 


... 143 


Babar, Emperor, his daughters, 


136 


Badaon, town of, 


143, 215 


Badaoni, 


105, 134 


Baghpat, town of, 


... 185 


Bahrul Asniar, 


141, 142 


Bairam Khan, 


... ' 89 


Balandshahr Inscription, 


21 


Bangarmau, town of, 


... 123 


Banduk, a gun, etymology of, 


5, 40 


Bara Moola, 


... 180 


Baran, town of, ... 


183,187 


Bar Brahma, 


2 


Bainah river, 


208 



222 Index. 

Paqe 

Basawar, town of, ... ... 117 118 

Bassian, rebuilt, ... ... ... 91 

Battle of Ali wal, ,.. ... \ m \ 95 

Battle of Machiwarah, ... ... ... 89 

Beames, J., Nineteenth Book of Chanel Bardai, translated, ... 145 

, Keply to Mr. Growse, ... ... 178 

Bhadiakul, in Kashmir, ... ... ... 180 

Bhatnir, Rajahs of, ... ... ... 90 

Bhilolpur, ' ... ... 88, 89 

Bhutan, also called Madra, ... ... 87 

Bibliotheca Indica, History of, ... ... ... 107 

Biyanah, district of, ... ... ... 210 

Blochmann, H., Badaoni and his works, ... ... 105 

Bourquin, Louis,... ... ... ... 93 

Burmah Race, History of, ... ... 29 

fairafi, a Persian poet, ... ... ... 142 

pan' an, a saint, ... ... .. 100 

Chad 1 era and Chachazad, ... ... ... 3 

Chand Bardai, ... ... 1, 145, 161 

Chandel Kings, ... ... ... ... 2 

Chandra Brahma, ... ... ... 2 

Chapiir, in Ludiana, ... ... ... 102 

Chauhans, ... ... ... 2 

Chronicle of Badaon, ... ... ... 143 

Chiiras, or Panjab Sweepers, .. ... 103 

Daglah, meaning of, ... ... ... 212 

Deogir, ... ... ... ..190 

Dialect spoken in the Garo Hills, ... ... 14 

Ludiana, ... ... ... 98 

Dihli, ... ... 2, 185, 186 

Dipalpiir, towns in Malwah and Multan, ... ... 208 

Dream books, ... ... ... 124 

Druidical worship, traces of, ... ... ... 180 

Elliot, SirH., ... .. ; ' 107, 108, 138, 139 

Europeans (Feringhees) mentioned in Chand, ... 158 

Fairs held in Ludiana, ... ... ... 100 

Faizi, the poet, ... ... 137, 138, 142 

Faridkot, ... ... 90 

Fariduddin Shakkarganj, ... ,^, ... 90 

Fathpur Sikri, ... ... .. ... 135 

Feringhees (Europeans) mentioned in Chand's poem, ... 158 

Flora of the Ludiana District, ... ... ... 84 

Fuller, A. B., Translations from the Tarikhi Finiz Shahi, ... 181 

Gaharwars, ... ... ... 2, 3 

Galewar, old spelling for Gwaliar, ... ... 208 

Garcin de Tassy, ... ... ... 8, 13 

Garo Dialect, Vocabulary of, ... ... 12 

Gaur line of Kings, ... .. ... 2 



Index. 223 



Geography of the Ludiana District, 

Ghakkar tribe, 

Ghogra river, 

Ghulam 'Ali of Balgram, ... 

Greeks, their character at the times of Alexander, 

Grote, A., recommends to print Indian Historians, 

Growse, F. S.. Notes on Chand, 

, Reply to, by Mr. Beanies, ... 

Gnga, Shrine of, ... 

Gujrat, conquest of, 

Guns, early use of, 

Guru Govind Singh, 

Hattur, a place, 

Hemawati, 

Hemu, ... 

Hicn i Hacin, a prayer book, 

Hindi versus Urdu, 

Hindus employed by Akbar, 

, a faithless set, 

Historical MSS., lost during the Mutiny, ... 
History of the Burmah Race, 

Kashmir, a Persian work, 

Ludiana, 

Husain Khan Tukriyah, .. 

Ikit Khan, meaning of, .. 

Inscription found at Balandshahr,... 

Isleni Shah, for Islam Shah, 

Jagraon, town of, 

Jain sect, 

Jaisalmir, Rajahs of, 

Jaloka, son of Asoka, 

Jami 'i Rashid, .. 

Jasrat, a Ghakkar Chief, ... 

Jats, 

Jaunpur Rebellion, 

Jhayin, town of, 

Jhind, Rajahs of, ... 

Judh, plain of, 

Kafur, 

Kalinga, ... 

Kalin j ar founded, ... 

Kambait, town of, 

Kant o Gola, 

Karah, town of, 

Karan Rai of Gujrat, 

Karnata, 

Kashmir Temples, 





Page 


... 


88 




89 




207 


... 


143 




206 


... 


112 


...1 


161 




171 


. . . 


102 




190 




40 


"9% 


104 




90 


mm 


2, 3 


... 


118 


... 


137 


.. 


12 


... 


128 


... 


207 


t t 


112 


. . . 


29 




135 


9 # 


90 




121 


... 


211 


, , 


21 


. . • 


118 


91, 93 


..■ 


97 


.. . 


90 


•• . 


179 


.. . 


138 


... 


89 


.. > 


97 


... 


131 


210, 


213 


93, 


94 


■ . . 


185 


. . . 


191 


• . * 


21 


... 


2 


... 


191 




122 


189, 


210 




190 


... 


21 


... 


177 



224 Index. 

Page 

Kasi, conquered, .. ... ... ..-. 2 

, Rajahs of, ... ... ... 3 

Ken river, ... ... ... ... 208 

Khidmati, meaning of, ... ... ... 193 

Khilok'hari, near Dihli, . . . . . . 184 

Khizanah i 'Amirah, a Penan Tazkirab, ... ... 142 

Khusrau, the poet, ... ... ... ... 191 

Kili, plain of, ... ... 200 

Kings of Burmahj . . ... ... 79 

Konch Dialect, Vocabulary of, ... ... 12 

Kukas, Sect of, ... ... 95 

Lakhnauti, ... ... ... .. ... 173 

Lai Beg, a saint, ... ... ... 103 

Lar Parganah, Kashmir, ... ... ... 177 

Lodi Dynasty, ... ... ... 89 

Loi Sahib (Louis Bourquin), ... ... ... 93 

Ludiana, District of, ... ... ... 83 

Liihur and Luhawar, old spellings for Labor, ... ... 208 

Lyall, J. C, ... ... ... 106, 144 

Machiwarah, battle of, ... .. ... 89 

, founded, ... ... ... 87 

Machodri, ... ... ... 87 

Madra, the same as Bhutan, ... ... 87 

Mahabharat, ... ... ... .. 140 

Maha Badza Weng, ... .. ... 29 

Mahoba, founded, ... ... 2,169,170 

Malaud, town of, ... .. . . ' 94 

Malik Toghan, ... , 88 

Mamriz Khan of Khurasan, ... m ... 4 

Manat, idol of, ... ... ... "... ... 191 

Marhota, subsequently called Ludiana, ... ... 89 

Meegwahan, a king, ... ... ... 179 

Millennium of the Islam, . . ... ... 133 

Mriga-dava, ~\ i 

Mriga-dhara, j 

Mubarik of Nagor, ... .. ... 119 

Mughuls, invasions of, ... 189, 193, 199 

MughuL troopers wore red caps, ... . . 158 

Muhammad an conquest of Dihli, ... .,.' ... 4 

Saints, ... 90, 96, 101, 103, 118, 141 

Mu'jamul Buldan, Persian translation of, ... . . 135 

Mu'inuddin i Chishti, .. 141 

Mukatsar, sacred city of the Sikhs, ... ,,, 95 

Mukhtacir i Sair i Hindustan, a Persian Historical work, ... 143 

Mulla Shah Muhammad of Shahabad, ... ... 135 

Multan, siege of, ... ... ... ... ... 188 

Muntakhab-uttawarikh, by Badaoni, ... ... 136 

Nahrwalah, plundered, ... ... ... ... 190 



Index. 225 



Najaturrushid, a Persian work by Badaoni, ... 

Nal Daman, by Faizi, 

Narhan, a parganali in Sarun, ... 

Newall, D. F., on the temples of Razdan, Kashmir, 

Nizamuddin Ahmad, the Historian, 

Notes on Chand Bardai, ... 

Nudih, old spelling for Nnddea, 

Ochterlony, Sir David, ... .... 

Orissa, 

Pad ma Sen, 

Padmawati, 

Pail, ruins of, 

Pak Patan, town of, 

Palam, town of, 

Pan brahma, 

Panjab Sweepers called Churas, 

Parmal, 

Persian Tazkirahs, 

translations from Sanskrit, ... 

words in Chand, 

Phayre, Col. Sir Arthur, History of the Burmah Race, 

Philological Committee of the As. Soc. of Bengal, labours of 

Pratapchandra Grhosha, on a Balandshahr Inscription, 

Prithiraj, the last Chauhan, 

Puttun Temples, ... 

Qadiri, ... 

Qanauj, spelling of, .... 

Qutlugh Khwajah, 

Raikot, Ludiana, 

Rajahs of Bhatnir and Jaisalmir, ... 

of Jhind, 

of Patiala, 

of Kumaon, 



Raja Tarangini, quoted, ... 

Ramayana, Persian translation of, . . 

Ram Deo, of Deogir, 

Ram Singh, founder of the Kuka Sect, 

Rana Kika, 

Rantanbhur, or Rintambore, 

Raushani Festival, 

Razdan, or Razdoing, Temples of, .. 

Razmnamah, 

Ruins of Pail, 

of Sarhind, 

of Sunet, ... 

Sacred cities of the Sikhs, 

Sahnah, town of, ... 

Sakki Sarwar, a saint, 





Page 




136 


... 


138 


• • . 


207 


... 


177 


106, 134, 


139 


1, 145, 


161 




208 


. . . 


94 


... 


21 


... 


4 


...*4, 


145 




104 




90 


... 


208 


... 


2 


... 


103 


... 


2 


... 


142 


134, 


142 


1^ 


160 




29 


•s of, ... 


108 




21 


.*.*; 2, 


145 




179 


... 


143 




122 


194, 200 


..91 


, 94 


... 


90 


... 9i 


;, 94 


... 


94 


... 


149 


. . . 


179 


# m 


134 


... 


190. 




95 




128 


208, 211, 


215 




100 


... 


177 




140 


. . 


104 


91, 


104 




86 


... 


95 


... 


94 


96, 


103 



226 Index. 

Page 

Salimah Sultan Begum, ... ... ... 136 

Samanah, District of, ... .... ... ... ... 193 

Samud Sikhari, a fort, ... ... 4, 145, 149 

Sanscrit works translated into Persian, . . 130, 141, 142 

Sarang Khan, ... ... ... ... 89 

Saraswati, ... ... 86 

Sarhind, ... ... ...86, 91, 94, 104 

Sarw, or Saro, river, ... .. ... ... ... 207 

Sarw i Azad, a Persian Tazkirah, ... ... 142 

Satlaj, river, ... ... ... ...83, 89 

Sawanih i Akbari, ... ... ... 141 

Sect of the Kukas, ... ., . ... 95 

Serpent in Kashmir Chronicles, ... ... 179 

Shaikh 'Abdunnabi padr, ... ... ... 127 

Shaikh fan'an, a Saint, ... ... ... 101 

Shaikh Chachu, Do., ... 90 

Shaikh Mahmud Makki, Do., ... ... 102 

Shamsabad, town of, ... .. 120,136 

Shan race, ... .. ... 79 

Sheftah, a Persian poet, ... ... ... 143 

Sher Shah, ... ... ... 117 

Sheshnak, 

Shi'ahs, ... ... ... ... 133 

Shihabuddin Ghori, ... 4, 88, 148, 151, 156 

Shrine of Guga, ... ... ... 102 

Sikandar Lodi, 

Shah Sur, ... ... ... 89 

Sikhs, ... ... 93 

Siri, near Dihli, 185,194,209 

Siwistan, ... ... ... .. ... ... 193 

Sombansi, ... ... .. 3 

Somnat, idol of, ... ... ... 191 

Sriswagarh, a fort, ... . .. ... 157 

Statistics of the Ludiana District, 

Stonehenges in Kashmir, .. ... .. ... 180 

Sultanpur, founded,... 

Sunet, Ruins of, ... ... ... 86 

Surjoo river, ... ... ... ... ... 207 

Tabaqat i Akbari, ... ... 106, 122, 140 

Takshak,... ... ... ... 2 

Talwandi Rai (Ludiana), .., 91 

Tamarix, use of, 

TarikhiAlfi, ... ... 133 

i Badaon, ... ... ... 143 

i Badaoni, .. ... ... 105 

i Fimz Shahi, ... ... . . 106 

_ i Nizami, ... ... 106, 122, 140 

142 



Index. 227 

Page 

Temples in Kashmir, ... ... ... 177 

Thomas, George, the adventurer, ... ... 93 

TiMra, town of, ... ... ... .. 88,91 

Tilpat, town of, ... ... 211,212 

Tinmr, ... ... ... 88 

Todah, town of, ... ... 117,144 

Bhim, town of, ... ... ... 144 

Tolbort, T. W. H., on the District of Ludiana, ... 83 

proposes to translate the Tarikh i Firuz Shahi, . . 106 

Tomar Dynasty, ... ... ... 2 

Translations from Chand, ... ... 1, 145, 161 

from Tarikh i Firuz Shahi, 181 

from Sanskrit into Persian, ... ... 135 

Ulugh Khan, meaning of, ... .. ... 211 

Urdii versus Hindi, ... ... ... 12 

Vocabulary of the Garo and Konch Dialects, ... 14 

of the Ludiana Dialect, ... ... 98 

Vyasa, ... ... .. ... 1 

Waramool, in Kashmir, ... ... ... .,. 179 

Williamson, Lt., Vocabulary of the Garo and Konch Dialects, 14 

Yad i Baiza, a Persian Tazkirah, ... ... 142 

ZafarKhan, .. ... .. — 181,189,193,199 

Zain ul'abidin, King of Kashmir, ... ... 142, 178 

ZiaofBaran, ... ... ... 181 



J URN AL 



ASIATIC SOCIETY OP BENGAL, 



VOL. XXXVIII, 

PAET II, 
(Nos. I to IV,— 1869), 

EDITED BY 

THE HONORARY SECRETARIES. 



" It will flourish, if naturalists, chemists, antiquaries, philologers, and men 
of science in different parts of Asia, will commit their observations to writing, 
and send them to the Asiatic Society at Calcutta. It will languish, if such 
communications shall be long intermitted j and it will die away, if they shall 
entirely cease." 

Sir Wm. Jones. 



CALCUTTA : 

PRINTED BY C. B. LEWIS, BAPTIST MISSION PEESS 
1869. 



Date of issue of the different numbers of Part II, Vol. XXXVIII. 

No. 1, containing pp. 1 — 63, pi. I — XII, and 

Metereol. Observ. for 1868, pp. lxix to lxxxv. 20th Jan., 1869. 

No. 2, containing pp. 65—143, pi. XIII— XVI, 
and Metereol. Observ., pp. lxxxvi to ci for 
1868, and pp. i to xxiv for 1869, 3rd June, „ 

No. 3, containing pp. 145 — 200, two tabular state- 
ments, pi. XVII, and Metereol. Observ., pp. 
xxv to xlix for 1869, 29th July, „ 

No. 4, containing pp. 201 — 278, (including index) 
pi. XVIItf, XVIII— XXII, Meteor. Observ., 
pp. xlix to lxxxii for 1869, — title, list of con- 
tributors, &c, &c, , 31st Dec, „ 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS. 

Page 

Ball, V., Notes on the Flora of Manblium, 112 

Blanford, W. T.,— Contributions to Indian Malacology, 
No. X ; — Descriptions of new species of Cyclophoridce, of 
Fnnea and Streptaxis from the Hills of South and South- 
western India (with pi. XVI,) 125 

Ornithological notes chiefly on some birds of Central, 

Western and Southern India (with pi. XYII a), B . 164 

Carlleyle, A. C. L., —Descriptions of two new species 
belonging to the genera Varanus (Psammosaurus) and Fe- 
ranioides, respectively, * 192 

Fryer, G-. E., — A contribution to our knowledge of Pelagic 

Mollusca (with chart, p. 269, and pi. XXI-XXII, 259 

Godwin-Austen, H. H., — Notes to accompany a Geological 
map of a portion of the Khasi Hills, near longitude 91° E. 
(with sections and map, pi. I — IX), 1 

, Notes on the Geology and physical features 

of the Jaintia Hills, ... 151 

Gopeenauth Sen, — Tabular statement shewing the monthly 
rainfall from Jan. 1837 to Nov. 1868, &c. &c, and 
monthly mean of the principal meteorological elements 
and actual rainfall recorded at the Calcutta Observatory 
for 10 years, from 1856-67 (two tables after p. 200). 

Kurz, S. — On Pandanophyllum and allied genera, especially 

those occurring in the Indian Archipelago,, 70 

Remarks on the species of Pandanus, 145 

Nevill, G. and H., — On some new marine Gastropoda from 

the Southern Province of Ceylon (with pi. XIII), 65 

„ Descriptions of marine Gastropoda from Ceylon 

(with pi. XVII), 157 

Stoliczka, F. — On the Anatomy of Sagartia Schilleriana and 
Memhranipora Bengalensis, a new Coral and a Bryozon, 
living in brackish water at Port Canning (with pi. X — XII). 28 



IV 

Page 

Stoliczka, F. — The Malacology of lower Bengal and the adjoin- 
ing provinces, No. I ; — On the genus Onchidium, (with pi. 
XIV-XV), 86 

, Contribution towards the knowledge of Indian 

Arachnoidea (with pi. XVIII— XX), '201 

Surveyor- General — Abstract of hourly meteorological observa- 
tionsfrom September 1861 to October 1869, (added in 
form of an appendix to the different numbers, pp. lxix 
to ci for 1868, and pp. i to lxxxii for 1869, 

Waldie, D. — Analysis of the Khettree Meteorite, 252 



LIST OF ILLUSTKATIONS. 

Plates I — IX, — Sections and map, to accompany Capt. H. 
H. Grodwin-Austen's paper on the Khasi hills, vide ... 

Plates X — XII, Figures of Sagartia Schilleriana and Ifem- 
branipora Bengalensis, to accompany Dr. F, Stoliczka's 
paper, vide 62 & 63 

Plate XIII, — Ceylon Marine G-astropoda, to accompany 

Messrs. Gr. and H. Nevill's paper, vide 65 &c. 

Plates XIV-XV, — Figures of species of Oncludium, to accom- 
pany Dr. F. Stoliczka's paper, vide Ill 

Plate XVI, — Figures of Indian landshells, to accompany 

Mr. W. T. Blanford's paper, vide 143 

Plate XVII, — Figures of Ceylon Marine Gastropoda, to ac- 
company Messrs. Gr. and H. Nevill's paper vide 157 &c. 

Plate XVII a, — Trochalopteron Fairbanhii, W. T. Blanford, 

vide 175 

Plates XVIII — XX, — Indian Arachnoidea, to illustrate Dr. 

F. Stoliczka's paper, vide 250-251 

Plates XXI — XXII,— Figures of three species of Hyalcea, 
and a chart shewing the distribution of Pteropods, to 
accompany Capt. Gr. E. Fryer's paper, vide 266 &269 



journal as: soc. bengal vol:xuvii.pt. II. 



PLATE L 



SECTION a. NEAR BOCAPANI TOWARDS LAOKLA 




Level cf Sea S.E NW « 



I 



1 



-■*p 



«h 



S.S.E.N.N.W. 



Granule. 



2, 




,J^i_ 



BHNC.U, VOL.XXXVm.l 



" SECTIOH.(b) in, sai-r/j undo- N0/IGHERAS1 




th<- hflhal pcml , , th. hUi II * .. , 



~~'~7/7?7/7'/77~/777/7/7/7n/77/77777 -*"•«"- <S~/ cf a a/., .,/,./)■„,„*, ,,„„ „,„„, ,/.,., , 
^/Ml//Z^///Z / MW//Z/ »"'■<*■"■> "/> >'■< <■•«" - 'J. / ,**, .,-».< / 

StetU. Truces OI'jjU,*-* v/'ocuJ ner r «,e„ but //,<• fungi* 



j£ Dip 12" Southerly 



• Thest s7ud*& Haiti, 

siricobtrc under aslowpa 



■ frrtfir,, tJ,, „ 



( *>Urrd vr,-y lh„, i>„ht f .l , 

wiiff dark spat* . t 



r.v,- ai !,<.., <1*har[?] 

AS thut of Cher,** 4 
>_tffi,fj, 1 . v// pa.riit.vn 



vJvJSarOp ShoUjrt\ Cbal Bed ffi-i 



Ta*lr/#tr>ri.*.$ fine wiui' gf rf>tt*\<te aritlu 



£baZ VecfrJVZSupperdmehc* ■ 
' 7"v/ ^/wt/ heavy < 



'. ,-/',.■/,.,.. 'Sy <?,„/,/,,./ 



■tcA patheic? of vtqeffM* mv/lr, 
.-oal „- n .. -J- ,„./,*, rf *■/«/, «n*/ ptrUueh jAa/l 

■ ' very regular u^der am 

vtmjwiUt a /'•• .„„,// dim. 



\Cvtd,3eet N'Si 



,"/ fr/-> 



WEST KHASI H ILLS 

SECTION A. FROM LANDEKAR HS TO THE PLAINS AT BACHOLI. 

Scale one i/u-h - enf \I:Jr. 



Scab ofXcujhbsim IW1 

I I I I I ! I I 




■Sor/un ntarftf North 4" South lookino 



SECTION B-FRQM WYYOVV RIVER TO PLAINS AT CHANDADINGA. MYMENSINC DISTRICT. 








SW 5 ,i - Yf m ,U JVV 



Journal As. Soc. Bengal, Vol. XXXVI1IPI. II. 



WEST KHASS Mia*. 

SECTION , N the UM-DURLIANQ RIVER. (C). 



+ & 



a* 



Souths 



j^m^ . 



>^ ss 



-, /ss*-* "< ■*:— 



v^ 



3.AO f/<tf 






s. Soc. Bengal, Vol. XXXVET-P'.. II 



bVJ 



AND 5ECT(0NSCd) 




rr^Jfcrii 




7l>C 



JYionmulilic 



C * W#//^// ^^ J> 



Pbotozinco. at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcut*:-, 
March 1868. 



.1 As. Soc. Bengal, Vol. XXXVHT.Pt. II. 



Plate VII 




^ ^r^^** 



Photozinco. at the Surveyor General s Oiftce, Calcutta, 
March 1863. 



Journal As. Soc. Bengal, Vol. XXXVET-Pt. II. 



Plate VIII. 



3fir& 




Photozinco. at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 
March 1868. 



JOURNAL 

OF THE 

ASIATIC SOCIETY. 



Part II— PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

NTo. I.— 1869. 

Notes to accompany a Geological Map of a portion of the Khasi 
Hills near longitude 91° E. ;— by Captain H. H. Godwin- Austen, 
F.B.Q.S. 

[Received 28th. January, 1868.] 
In contributing this paper to the Journal of the Asiatic So- 
ciety, it will be first necessary, as an introduction to those un- 
acquainted with these hills, to commence with a brief account of 
the geology already published; this must form the base of all 
further inquiry extended into portions hitherto unvisited. I can- 
not, therefore, do better than briefly quote from the works of Thomas 
Oldham, Esq., Superintendent of the Geological Survey, and H. B. 
Medlicott, Esq., Deputy Superintendent in the same Department. 
These able surveyors, by their researches in the neighbourhood of 
Cherra Poonjee, have determined the superposition of the principal 
formations as displayed there, and though many minor sub-divisions 
have, no doubt, yet to be discovered and worked out, the main divisions 
on this longitude will most probably remain as the above geologists 
have laid them down. Mr. Medlicott in his report on the Coal of Assam, 
&c* commencing at page 34, after mentioning the trap and metamor- 
phic rocks north of Cherra, gives in detail an ascending series .of 
the stratified rocks. These he divides into three great Sections, as 

follows : — 

■ ■ — _ . 

* Mem. Geol. Surv. of India, vol. IV. p. 387 etc. 



2 Geological Notes on tlie Khasi Hills. [No. 1, 

First and lowest ; the coarse sands and conglomerates, resting on 
the trap and met amorphic rocks. 

Second ; the rough tabular sandstone of the Cherra plateau, with 
all the beds between it and No. 1 ; — Cretaceous. 

Third; the limestone, sand and shale with coal, that rise on the 
west of Cherra, forming what is locally known as the coal-mine hills ; — 
Wummulitic . 

Of the oldest rocks the trap, as one proceeds northwards, is the most 
conspicuous, and as shown in Mr. Oldham's geology of the Khasi 
Hills is in great force in the bed of the Kalapani, and Bog Pani rivers. 
It is seen for the last time beyond Mofflang on the road to Mairang, 
and in the bed of the stream from Mofflang near Langiong, on the road 
to Nongspoong. A rough section as observed on a march from the Boga 
Pani, in this latter direction, appears as given in section a, pi. I. The 
unaltered position of the sedimentary sandstones, and grits resting on 
the trap, and the great difference of level and exposed surface of the 
last, with the high dip of associated metamorphic shales and older 
sandstones, show a very decided unconformity and lapse of time 
between the two formations, as well as the prior contortion of the 
metamorphic shales on the first upheaval or depression with the trap. 

The sudden and final termination of the nearly horizontal strati- 
fied rocks, is nowhere better seen, than on the road between Lookla 
and Langiong ; this would strike the most unobservant traveller, more 
particularly if he were coming from the northward. From the great 
northern scarp to the Lookla valley all is metamorphic rock, gneiss or 
granitic formation ; giving the usual peculiar features to the country of 
humrocky rounded hills, steep falls encumbered with enormous 
weather-worn masses of granitoid rocks, and many a grassy hill 
capped with a dark grey, single or double boss of the same. To the 
geologist the only sections exposed shew an interminable succession 
of coloured soft-bedded gneiss, always dipping at a very high angle, and 
of a regular strike which has given a like parallelism to the natural 
features of the country, its ridges and drainage lines. 

On marching from north to south, and arriving at the village of 
Pumsungut situated on the ridge, that bounds the valley of the Urn 
Lookla, the change is most sudden ; one walks off the dark grey 
granite on to a perfect shingle beach, and topping the ridge at the 



1869.] Geological Notes on the Khasi Hills. 3 

same time, the eye looks over a new land of high flat plateaus, show- 
ing at once their regular superposition, and notwithstanding the great 
elevation, their undisturbed state ; even if the lines of bedding that 
show in the steep cliffs of the ravines were absent, to strengthen the 
impression. To the south-west rises the steep scarped hill of Maosinghi, 
an outlier of another long high plateau to the south ; this is to a certain 
extent evidence of still newer deposits, mostly swept off by the all-power- 
ful forces of denudation. The boundary of the beds first seen at Pi'rni- 
sungiit follows this ridge eastward towards MofHang, these beds being at 
first very thin, from lying and abutting on the denuded southerly slope 
of the older rocks. The road towards the Bogapani, descends into the 
valley running towards Langiong, and the whole series is here well 
displayed, the most striking feature being its exceeding coarseness. 
Thick, irregularly bedded conglomerates of metamorphic rocks, are 
very equally associated with the very coarsest grits of quartzitic ma- 
terial. These are seen (Section A, pi. III. resting, first, on the granitoid 
rocks, and then on thin-bedded soft micaceous and pink-tinted schists, 
and in the bed of the stream below, on the dark green, or blue colour- 
ed trap, the extreme northern limit of a rock of which Mr. Medlicott 
in his report says : — " I have never seen, not even in Central India, 
such extensive phenomena of trappean intrusion." 

From the great preponderance of shingle and water -worn stones 
in the beds around the valley of the Karamjoimai, the cliffs that 
were formerly cut away and bounded its sides, are now covered up for 
many yards in extent by a shingly gravelly talus ; the old scarp only 
showing here and there at intervals. The quartzitic nature of 
the materials, as before mentioned, gives these slopes a very light 
colour, and to the country a very peculiar and uncommon appearance, 
the ground being so stony that hardly any grass grows on it. 

The level of the opposite plateau, bounding the right bank of the 
Bogapani, is very nearly the same as that on the south of the deep 
gorge of that river. It is very noticeable, as one proceeds south, that 
the sandstones become finer, the bedding more regular, and thicker, 
until at last, the conglomerates are replaced by coarse grits, and the 
mass of the beds by hard and rather fine sands, some very white ; even 
beds of a clayey nature are occasionally seen. North of the Boga 
Pani, I noticed no trace of any carbonaceous shales, which I had 



4 Geological Notes on the Khasi Hills. [No. 1, 

at first expected to see, the series appearing so continuous with the 
sandstones of Maobelurkur, where coal is found, and even worked, but 
I think now there is enough evidence to show that a line can be 
drawn between the lower and coarser beds, and the upper finer ones with 
coal. The manner in which the general denudation has acted, in- 
directly proves this ; the lower, older and therefore harder beds remain, 
withstanding this force, while the higher and softer have disappeared 
fast and over a larger area. Extending through the whole mass of 
the beds, there is a very perceptible tendency to thin away at a very 
low angle towards the base of the main ranges, i. e. southward, and 
at the same time to thicken, I believe, quite as much in the lower 
series as in the upper. This, with irregular bedding, renders it very 
difficult, without the closest scrutiny, to be certain of the exact portions, 
as the conglomerates resting on the granite incline to the beds with coal 
at Maobelurkur. The coal itself is very local in its distribution. We 
see at Cherra how soon it fines out and almost dies away on the road 
towards Surarim. 

The conglomerates in the valley near Langiong, bear in their com- 
position a close resemblance to the great thickness of like rocks seen 
below the cretaceous beds above Nongphriam, in the deep valley, east 
of Cherra Poonjee ; and I think they are, in both these positions, the 
lowest in the series. Should this view be correct, the greatly denuded 
patch of sandstones that form a higher plateau west of Pumsungut, 
together with Mao Shinghi Hill, &c. are the representatives of the 
higher beds, forming a part of the nummultic series, the coarse grit 
and conglomerate being the very lowest of the cretaceous rocks ; the 
well developed later beds containing fossils only come in with their 
increased thickness further south, but on this latitude they are absent. 

I have not had the leisure or opportunity of examining any of the 
country adjacent to Cherra Poonjee itself. It has been examined by far 
abler and professional geologists ; I will therefore, make no further re- 
marks in connection with this area into which I had begun to wander. In 
the section through the Bogapani, a series of schistose, yet sandy rocks is 
seen in close contiguity to the trap, and it occurs successively in two 
valleys. No like formation is to be found among the series of the sedi- 
mentary rocks, that have retained their almost normal position ; they 
are quite distinct, and seem to form the oldest trace of a much earlier 



1869.] Geological Notes on the Khasi Hills. 5 

stratified formation, indurated, altered, and much disturbed by the trap. 
I think their extension east, and their counterpart is to be found in the 
quartzite sandstones of Mofflang and Shillong, associated with gneiss, 
and to all appearance merging into this rock, which is in all respects 
similar to that seen towards Nunklow, Kollong, &c. 

Having endeavoured to give the reader an insight into the class of 
rocks and general characters of the country to the edge of the great 
granitoid centre of the Khasi Hills, I will, in proceeding to the 
portion in which my map (see pi. IX.) and sections were made, sketch 
the general topographical features adjacent to the route. 

On this side of the Khasi Hills, the highest and most conspicuous 
feature is the Maotherichan ridge, the highest point of which, the 
trigonometrical station, is 6,297 feet above the sea. It is in fact the 
backbone of the range, throwing off its streams into the Brahmaputra 
on the north, and the vast jheels of Mymensing on the south. From the 
extreme northern point in section A (pi. III.), proceeding towards this 
central mass, the country is open and bleak, covered with grass, only 
some of the northern faces of the hill being sided and sheltered ravines, 
with a shrubby jungle. The Khasi Pine must have been once abund- 
ant, but has been so indiscriminately felled, that its southern limit is 
much contracted ; it is fast disappearing along this line, and 
; calls for Government interference and protection. The jungles are 
; of sufficient extent near Nowgspoong, to supply the large quantity 
j of charcoal, used by the iron smelters there. The whole process of 
i extraction of the ore, found in the state of small grains of titanifer- 
i ous iron, is fully described in Oldham's geology of the Khasi Hills ; 
I it gives employment to a large number of the inhabitants. The rivers 
Urn Laokla and Urn Nongspoong. are large broad streams, and shew 
that they are heavily swollen during the rainy months. Before reach- 
ing the southern foot of the Maotherichan ridge, a much larger 
river, the Urn Kainchi is crossed, flowing through a broad flat valley, 
generally well cultivated with rice. These broad flat valleys are a 
very characteristic feature of the drainage lines in this portion of 
• the hills, and some especially that of Mokasa, give the idea of a 
; former lake system, before the sluggish rivers that How through 
them, cut the present deeper channels. Under the ridge of Mao- 
therichan, in the last named valley, the very regular strike and high 



6 



Geological Notes on the Khasi Hills. 



[No. 1, 



c5 
CO 



dip of the gneiss is very marked, in a white coloured soft band that 
crops out at the very base of the hill, and is continued E. S. E. past 
the village of Laoburtun. 

From all I could see of this formation here, the Mokasa valley, 
lies on a very sharp anticlinal bend of those gneisose rocks, the 
granite appearing to curve over the Maotherichan ridge. 

Z The rock near the summit of Maotheric- 

han is very porphyritic, containing large 
oblong crystals of felspar. In the valley it 
disappears, and coloured gneiss, soft and 
friable, comes in, to which is very probably 
due the present configuration of the valley. 
To the south near Mahaton, the porphyritic 
granite is again seen, with a corresponding 
rise in the hills. The above kind of granite 
is very common about here, forming as a 
rule the lines of the higher ground and ele- 
vated masses ; it is of a very hard nature, 
often pink, and is generally used by the 
people for the monoliths set up beside the 
ashes of their dead. 

On and about the summits of the low 
hills, south of Maotherichan, that rise some 
150 feet above the present level of the rice 
cultivation, or what was originally the bed 
of a lake, I was surprised to find, scattered 
over the surface, a few well water-worn 
pebbles, mostly of a hard quartzitic rock. 
No beds exist anywhere near from which 
such well-rounded pebbles could have been 
washed, and I was quite unable to account 
for their appearance. They were not nume- 
rous, but sufficiently so to preclude the pos- 
sibility of having been carried there by hu- 
man agency, the nearest spot whence they 
could have been brought was the bed of the 
valley below. No well marked traces of any 



IS 



o 
o 
CO 



1869.] Geological Notes on the Khasl Hills. 7 

thing like glacial action are apparent. Equally puzzling in such 
valleys are two or three low mounds, all of transported material, that 
are to he seen at the eastern and upper limits of the Mokasa valley. I 
may ask, can even these hills have been affected by the glacial period 
in the Himalayas ? On this supposition, long and deep snow beds 
extending down the flanks of this ridge, would be quite sufficient 
to account for the above appearance, without the intervention of 
true ice streams, but cold sufficient, to cover them deeply in snow, 
during the winter is by no means an improbable state for them to 
have passed through ; and we have no reason to suppose, that their 
mean attitude has altered since the time when Himalayan glaciers 
extended down to 5,000 feet below their present limits. Such a 
physical change in a mountain range so close on the north, must have 
wrought a perceptible one on the highest parts of an outlier like the 
Khasi Hills. 

Fifteen miles to the west of Maotherichan the higher general level 
of the hills, some 4,000 feet, comes to a rather sudden termination; 
and the central main water shed takes a bend to the N. W. Rising 
again, there in another higher portion called Laobersat 5,400, and 
Nongkana 3,726 ; overlooking the northern slopes that thence fall 
very rapidly towards the Assam valley. The watershed is thus 
brought very close to the northern face of the hills, almost the whole 
drainage being thrown to the south. The great depression west of 
Nongkana in the main axis of the range extends quite across them, 
the highest part the ridge near Nongkulang rises only 2,000 feet on 
the south, forming there a kind of natural wall, between the main 
drainage and the plains of India, the Um-Blay cutting through it 
near Puna Tith. The cause of this sudden fall in the levels of the 
country, I would suggest, is neither due to subsidence of the meta- 
morphic rocks, or to their denudation, but that this portion has 
remained in a more tranquil state, and been less affected by the 
changes of level, on the west and east, particularly in the latter side, 
where the intrusion of the trap rocks alone has played so important 
a part in the present elevation of the whole series. As we shall see, 
this trap rock entirely disappears on this more western longitude, and 
in the sections (see pi. III.), I propose to explain, the stratified rocks are 
seen but little disturbed ; whereas with the proportionate rise in the 



8 Geological Notes on the Khasi Hills. [No. 1, 

hills, on either side is to be seen an equal bending and displacement of 
the strata at their base. 

Nongstoin, the residence of the Seem, or native chief of that name, 
is situated near the edge of the general fall, towards the west and 
south. A road leads out into the western part of the Nongstoin state, 
via Nongsingriang. Crossing the Kerkonshiongba river, 400 feet 
immediately below, its bed is seen cut through the metamorphic 
rocks ; thence ascending to the plateau on the other side, the village of 
Nongrompoi is reached. This part loses fast the open bare features of 
the Khasi Hills, large timber trees come in, with densely wooded 
ravines, principally bamboo, until with the descent to the Umiam river 
and the village of the same name, this jungle growth becomes so dense, 
that nothing can be seen of the country on either side of the path. 
The scenery in the above valley is very lovely near the river, fine 
trees on every side overhang the still winding reaches of the 
Umiam. To the traveller it is both striking and novel scenery. It 
was only in the beds of streams that the rock in situ could be 
seen ; this still continued to be of azoic age. Turning S . W. up, 
over and down low ridges covered with the same monotonous jungle 
of bamboo, grasses, and shrubs, Maomarin was reached, and a short 
distance to the west is Nongkuba built on a clearing at the south side 
of a hill, called Lamdekar in the map (properly Lurndellor, Khasi) 
conspicuous even at Nongshingring from its sharply cut, though low 
scarp. On this hill is the site of one of the principal trigonometrical 
stations of the Khasi Hills Survey, and this led to my obtaining an 
insight into the formation. Nongkuba stands on a hard hornblendio 
gneiss, slightly pink in places, with a certain amount of bedding, the 
dip being very high to the north ; it was of very compact grain and 
different to the same class of rocks hitherto seen in the East. 

On leaving the base of Lamdekar Hill, at the very commencement 
of the ascent, is met a dark blue grey, and coarsish grit, having 
scattered water-worn pebbles of quartzitic rock in it. At the next 
portion of the ascent and the main one to the summit, these 
pebbles are not seen, but the same coloured grit, very con- 
spicuous from its extreme neutral grey colour, occurs as a thick bed 
of quite 14 feet. This is succeeded by beds of a lighter colour, 
but still coarse texture. Higher again it changes to a bed of 



1869.] Geological Notes on the Khasi Hills. 9 

extremely coarse subangular quartzitic grit, set in a white sandy 
matrix. The whole thickness would be up to this point about 150 
feet of horizontal bedding. Here a very fine grained series of beds 
comes in conformably. In this occurs a dark carbonaceous shale from 
two to three feet thick, shewing on fracture indistinct traces of 
carbonized wood and vegetable matter ; it was very fine and soft, with 
few mica grains here and there. The colour is of a dark indigo, ap- 
proaching to black in places ; the little carbonized bits of wood still 
showed the fibre. The beds above this I could not see in section, but 
quite 30 feet or more, cap the hill. A great deal of loose stone lies 
about, and also shaly white fine clays and fine sands, more or less 
micaceous. The sands are thin-bedded, white and pink, some beds 
being composed of a finer material of a light blue colour, and 
full of minute bits of blackened vegetable matter. On splitting 
several of the slabs, I disclosed some very perfect impressions of large 
well developed leaves. The greater number of these were evidently 
of grasses, as large as bamboo, and interlaced over and under each 
other. 

The Lumdekorh hill has no great area on the top, it is perfectly 
isolated, and another small hill of the same formation stands to 
the N. W., about 400 yards off. For 40 feet it falls in a cliff, 

! and thence in steep latus the rest of the height ; but owing to 
the dense jungle, it is almost impossible to examine the cliff. The 
G arrow hills rise rather abruptly on the S.W. into long flat-topped hills, 
having no conspicuous eminences, and are covered with forest ; they so 

; vary in height that no particular tree can be selected anywhere on 
their crests, that might serve, when observed from some other station, 
as a point for the detail Surveyor. Deep ravines proceed towards 
the plains, cut through horizontally stratified rocks. On the south 
rise two eminences of the same type as Lumdekorh, and in one and 
the same true line, due N. W. — S. E. It is curious to find these 
isolated masses, the last remnants of a higher level of the formation, 
still remaining, when all else has been removed. To the cast of 
Nongkuba village, a hard hornblendic gneiss was seen, and the same 
rock extends towards Maomarin. A short distance before reaching 

'this place, the path towards the south diverges, passing the site of 
the deserted village of Umlangyem. 

2 



10 Geological Notes on the KJiasi Sills. [No. 1, 

Eight minutes walk along the ridge S. W. of this brings one upon 
a sheet of the coarse sandstones, resting on and capping the gneiss ; 
not more than three feet of the sandstone remains visible ; it is no 
doubt the same as the lowest beds seen at the base of Lumdekorh. 
Passing over this little outlier the ridge falls, and the metamorphic 
rocks are again traversed all the way to Nonglalay ; the path crosses 
one large stream, and on the descent into this valley, much milky 
quartz is seen, evidently in thick veins. Close to Nonglalay, rises one of 
the eminences noticed at Lumdekorh. The lowest beds were precisely 
similar to those previously noticed. In the scarp, near the top, a few 
very dark beds gave indication of the presence of the carbonaceous and 
upper beds, which I have already described. Unfortunately dense jungle 
and want of time, prevented my paying a visit to the summit of the 
hill. From Nonglalay the country is seen to fall gradually towards a 
deep valley on the south. To the south-east again, the second isolated 
mass Katelao was seen, its scarped features are the same as the one we 
were under. This last also threw off spurs towards the deep valley 
of the Urn Blay. Down towards this our path wended, following a long 
broad spur. About two miles down, I came on a thin capping of coarse 
sandstone, with sub-angular quartz pebbles, the position being due 
west of Katelao hill. The sandstone was evidently dipping away 
south together with the level surface of the metamorphic rocks. We 
thence rather more rapidly descended into a deep valley on the right, 
the Teniang, backed by a high wooded scarp, the stream flowing through 
beds of coarse sandstones and conglomerates, being nearly horizontally 
bedded. The forest is here very fine, the bamboos of enormous length, 
the tallest certainly I have ever seen. Crossing the Teniang, the path as- 
cends steeply to the top of the plateau, and descends again a considerable 
distance, suddenly opening out of the forest upon the high bank of the 
broad fine river, the Um Blay. Sandstone is seen all the way to this. 
On both of the intervening ridges, or rather plateaus, one sandstone bed j 
of a very blue colour was conspicuous, the tint generally was precisely \ 
the same as that of the beds noticed at Lumdekorh, but here the series] 
had become of very considerable thickness, from 800 to about 1000 
feet. 

The way looking up and down the Um Blay, was very pretty, as re-| 
gards its wooded character. The river was nowhere under 100 yards in] 



I860.] Geological Notes on the Khasi Hills. 11 

breadth, flowing very sluggishly ; in its bed the sandstones had a south- 
easterly dip of about 5 degrees. A ford was formed about a quarter of a 
mile clown, it was water knee-deep, but a very small fall of rain would 
have rendered it quite impassable. At the junction of a tributary from 
the south-west a short distance further down the right bank, the path 
leaves the Urn Blay, and follows the new stream. In the bed I at once 
noticed rolled pieces of coal. Sandstone of the coarse purple kind was 
exposed in thick beds on the ravine side, dipping south with 7 degrees ; 
and further up, the coal occurred in water-worn lumps quite 2 lbs. in 
weightjits fracture was bright. At half a mile the path leaves this ravine 
on its left bank, continuing steeply through a magnificent forest with 
very little undergrowth. As one ascends, the sandstones become finer 
and lighter, and at about 400 feet in a side ravine with water coal 
again was noticed in its bed, showing that it lay high in the series. 
Leaving the path, I struck up the steep ravine, which gave every 
promise of a good section being obtained, and it has well repaid the 
trouble of the climb, for at 50 feet of vertical height, coal was found. 
It rested on ferruginous coarse sands, and was overlain by a 
coarsish white quartz-grit, with a few little dark cliscolorations here 
and there. I am not over-estimating the thickness of this lowest bed 
of coal at six feet, and in places it was more ; the bedding was ir- 
regular. On a like surface of the strata below it I commenced here to 
take in the whole of the measurements with a 10 feet pole, well 
knowing how very wild some estimates have been, especially with 
regard to coal beds ; that at Cherra Poonjee, for instance, having been 
put down at as much as 17 feet by one officer. The results are given 
in section b, Plate II, shewing thus more clearly the succession of 
the beds and coal seams, which, good and bad, gave a total of 20 feet. 
The similarity of the upper fine beds was remarkable, as being very 
like those which were seen capping the Liimdekorh Hill. 

Leaving this section and continuing the march, we ascended along 
the face of the hill, the coal showing again on the path itself. On 
reaching the compact hard beds of sandstone (vide Section on Plate 
III.) the ascent ended, and the general level of the country dips away 
with the even slope of its dark brown weathered surface towards the 
south, and in many parts over several acres in extent is entirely bare, 
all earthy matter having been washed off it. A quarter of a mile further 



12 Geological Notes on the Khasi Hills. [No. 1, 

the village of Maokerasi, inhabited by a people of the Langam tribe, 
is built on a low knoll, rising above the plateau on the edge of the 
steep scarp that marks the sudden commencement of the gorge we 
had just come up. No streams find their way over this northern cliff, 
and the slope of the strata being south, the water issues from below 
and must have gradually caused the cliff and gorge to eat back far from 
the valley of the Urn Blay. 

From Maokerasi towards Nongkulang, is at first seen the tabular 
sandstone, which dips at a low angle from the edge of the northern 
scarp (see Sec. A, Plate III,) up to the stream that flows along the 
base of the Nongkulang ridge. This sheet of rock is so hard, that 
denudation appears to have made little or no impress on it, and the 
streams which cross its surface have scarcely cut into it at all, in fact, 
in many instances they flow irregularly and widely over its surface. 
At half a mile further on we crossed the main stream flowing westward, 
full of Melanics and Paludomi ; the forest commenced immediately on 
the left bank and, I found, with it we had suddenly entered upon lime- 
stone rocks full of Nummulites. This was rather a surprise, as I had 
not expected to find them on the northern face of this ridge.* 

We now began to ascend the Nongkulang hill through a very great 
thickness of the nummulitic limestone series, certainly 300 feet, if not 
more of it ; this rock ended rather abruptly, and was succeeded by 
sandy ferruginous strata, some of the beds being very nodular, continu- 
ing to the crest of the ridge. Near the highest level of the limestone 
rocks occurred one very marked bed containing Nummulites (about five 
feet thick) of very large diameter and perfect form ; the stratum was 
horizontal and curiously weathered by the action of damp and water. 
The upper sandstone series was found to be rich in fossils well pre- 
served ; there must be several beds of these parted by non-fossiliferous, 
light friable shales, and by less fossiliferous sandy beds. Turritella, 
Neritina, Gyprea and a Trochus, were common forms, besides a few 
Echini and numerous Bivalves. I made a good collection of these, a | 
hazy day intervening when survey work was stopped ; yet owing to 

* I may here add, for the information of shell collectors, that this spot is a 
most productive one. Landshells were most plentiful, and in great variety. 
I added a large number to my collection in a few minutes, many of which have 
since turned out to be new species. It was just their favorite spot, a dense 
damp forest, black vegetable mould and limestone rock. 



1869.] Geological Notes on the Khasi Hills. 13 

the sandstone being so friable and soft, it was very difficult to obtain 
perfect specimens. 

From the top of the ridge, looking north and west, the view was a 
curious one, and showed the geological features very strikingly. 
This was principally due to the hard sandstone of the Maokerasi 
plateau which, I believe, to be exactly the same as that on which the 
station of Cherra Poonjee is built, and it occurs precisely on the same 
horizon as regards the nummulitic limestone. I give a panoramic 
sketch, taken from Nongkulang, which will give, I trust, an idea of 
this portion of the Khasi Hills, with those of the Grarow hills in the 
extreme distance. (See Plate IV.)* 

In such interminable forests, as here cover the country, it is not an 
easy task on first coming upon a new series of beds to make them out, 
and be quite certain of their relative position. I was inclined to think 
the fossils I had found, bore a cretaceous type, and again the perfect 
horizontally of the limestone did not appear conformable with the 
southerly inclination of the sandstone, which is about 5 — 7 degrees. We 
may account for this by the difference in their mode of deposit. The 
Molluscs in the upper beds point to a shallow sea with, in all probability, 
a sloping bottom. The limestone partakes in many places of a southerly 
incline, even very perceptible further west. To clear up this point, I 
made several excursions around this ridge, and was successful in 
finding several good sections. One of the best of these sections is to 
be seen on the path that leads from the old and deserted village of 
Nongkulang, to the new site of the same ; it was at first a somewhat 
puzzling one. Leaving the trigonometrical station for some distance 
west, the main ridge on which it stands, is followed ; it soon falls, 
the ferruginous sandy clays and shales continuing all the way to the 
first considerable ravine, and on the left bank of this, limestone 
comes suddenly in, but does not extend to the right bank. By 
following down this narrow ravine bed, the section d, represented on 
plate VI, with plan, in the nummulitic series was displayed. In this 
section r represents the hard white coloured limestone ; s, where the 
path crossed the bed of the ravine, is a blue clay, four feet thick, resting 

* There is one error I must point out, i. c. the peak of W anrhy is too far to 
the north, its true position is immediately over Pudengru scarp. This mistake 
originated by my putting in Wanrhy from another sketch, the peak at the 
time having been obscured by haze. 



14 Geological Notes on the Khasi Hills. [No. 1, 

on light blue limestone and containing small Nummulites ; its thickness 
is about 5 feet. This bed was succeeded in descending series, by 10 feet 
of sandy beds, «, the lowest being calcareous ; then followed a massive 
bed of dark blue clay, w, quite 35 feet thick, in parts very nodular ; 
these nodules were large and very hard, inside of a darker colour than 
the clay, and were not in the least calcareous. I found no fossil 
remains of any kind in this stratum. The lowest rock, x, seen 
at the junction with the last, and in the bed of a larger ravine with 
running water, shewed about 12 feet in the section. This limestone 
was full of large-sized Nummulites, and the base of the series was still 
many feet below. The hard blue clays were a new feature, as also the 
sandy beds ; both were only locally developed. On the ascent to Nong- 
kulang, I did not see them nor again do they appear further west ; for 
proceeding towards new Nongkulang, the white hard nummulitic lime- 
stone is followed all the way from near section d,and is at last seen to rest 
on coarse and strong bedded sandstones, of the coal series (cretaceous ?). 
Approaching the village, the path ascends a low spur, and with it the 
limestone, contrary to expectation, is left, and sandstone is seen. In 
a cliff section, bordering a clearing here, a good view of these lower 
thick-bedded sandstones is to be got, the limestone forming another 
low scarp ; on the south of the clearing scattered blocks of the same being 
still left on the intervening level ground. This marks the commence- 
ment of a great roll in the lower sandstones (coal series), its line of 
elevation running from east, and ascending to west, dipping low 
to north and south, taking the whole series some 1,000 feet in 
height up to the culminating cliff of Pundengroo. The amount of num- 
mulitic limestone greatly decreases' towards west ; the thickest section 
being that under Nongkulang hill series up to and as far as section 
d ; and I am even inclined to think that the beds were originally 
deposited on a very irregular surface of these underlying rocks. We 
cannot expect so sudden a change fti their mineral composition to 
form a very conformable series. 

To return to section A, the lower portion of which I have 
only alluded to. Following up the same ravine from the path, the 
highly fossiliferous sandstone of the Nongkulang hill series is 
seen on the left hand, or the east bank, and nummulitic limestone 
on the right or west. In the sandstone I found an Ovula with 



1869.] Geological Notes on the Khasi Hills. 15 

Echini. Keeping to the well defined boundary of the limestone, I 
met with a well marked unconformity of the two series running in 
a line, from south-east to north-west, and at a short distance further 
on, from north to south. The limestone terminated in a perfect cliff, 
and not a single particle was to be found on the sandstone side 
of the depression between the two. In these depressions blocks 
of the sandstone were found resting on the limestone irregular surface, 
and the former also rose in a rounded hill considerably above the 
general level of the latter. I give a sketch, (Plate VII) and a section 
(Plate VIII) of this upper junction. The local unconformity of the 
rocks clearly shews, that the sandstones have been here deposited 
around and against an old cliff of the limestone rocks. The section 
exposed in the same ravine, showed it was no result of local 
displacement. 

In some new clearings, close under the trigonometrical station of 
Nongkulang, and on the north side some good sections are to be seen 
of the relative positions of the limestone and superincumbent sand. 
The first and highest bed of the nummulitic limestone series, is a 
peculiar dark burnt, umber-coloured calcareous rock, containing scat- 
tered very small Nummulites. In a ravine close by the light-coloured 
pure limestone was seen to pass horizontally into the hill. Great 
hollows occurred in the surface, where the limestone had evidently 
fallen in, and the ravine first mentioned entered into one that was 
of great depth. 

Proceeding from Nongkulang south along the path to Shibak, one 
passes over a steep scarp of some 50 feet in the upper sandstones (fossils 
numerous), which extend some distance to the bed of the first consider- 
able ravine. Nummulitic limestone occurs here again, and following it 
up in the section represented on plate VIII, it is seen close to the path, 
being a hard blue clay {w) ; it contains hard nodules of the same material, 
its thickness varryingfrom eight to ten feet. This accords, in its charac- 
ter, with Section d, see plate VI ; above r is a great thickness of white 
pure nummulitic limestone, continuing up the face of the hill. Below 
the blue clay, following down the ravine, is a darkish purple earthy 
rock (three feet), it effervesces slightly with acid ; then follows a bed 
of a dark brown rock, having minute white Nummul it es scattered through 
the mass, and being interstratified with some light-coloured beds, the 



16 Geological Notes on the Khasi Hills. [No. 1, 

whole thickness amounting to about ten feet. The darker coloured beds 
are seldom more than one foot thick, and the whole rests on a hard 
thick bedded and light-coloured limestone (a?), the thickness of which 
is unknown, although it must be considerable. 

In this section again, the unconformity of the upper sandstone 
is apparent, masses of it are seen resting on all the above beds, in the 
position of outliers, and are the remains of the upper series, deposited 
against a high and irregularly scarped surface of the limestone 
series. The dark umber coloured bed, with small Nummulites, 
corresponds to the one mentioned, as seen on the north side 
of the ridge, being the highest of the limestone resting on the sand, 
but I am much inclined to think, that on that side (the north) 
much of the limestone was denuded, prior to the deposition of the fos- 
siliferous sandstones and shales. 

After leaving this section, one passes (on ascending to the crest 
of the ridge to the west) on to coarse sandstone of the lower 
group, infra- Nummulitic. There is no doubt of this, as on the 
south-west face, after crossing the crest, these same rocks dip into the 
valley at an angle of 10 degrees S. W. One again encounters the 
nummulitic limestone near Purjonkha, clearing the strata, seen in a 
ravine close to the field and belonging to the lower sandstones, on which 
the limestone rests horizontally. From the sudden appearance of these 
lower beds on the above ridge, close to the strata showing no sign of 
bending or contortion, I am inclined to think that even between these 
two last, a considerable unconformity exists, and that separation can be 
established. The surface of the lower beds must have been locally 
altered in level, before the nummulitic limestone commenced to be 
formed. Throughout the great thickness of the lower sandstone with 
coal, I have never found a single Mollusc or any remains, save those of 
indistinct vegetable matter. According to the sections, noticed by 
Messrs. Oldham and Medlicott, we should find, as at Cherra, the 
cretaceous rocks here ; whether these sands with coal are their equiva- 
lents, or whether they will be eventually found below, or above 
them, and adjacent to the nummulitic formation, is an interesting 
point, yet to be discovered ; — the probability is, that they are upper 
cretaceous. 

From Nongkulang, direct to Maokerasi, a good section, displaying 



1869.] Geological Notes on the Khad Hills. 17 

the conformity of the last named rocks, with the limestone, is met 
with. In the bed of the small stream with water, near where the 
paths to Maokerasi and old Nongkulang diverge, the sandstones are 
seen exposed ; the limestone rests horizontally on it, and from this the 
path leads down the easy hill side, through a descending series of 
the limestone to the level of the main stream, in the valley, in which 
it terminates. The way in which the sandstone passed under the 
limestone was very striking, the former being the same kind of rock 
one had seen higher up on the Nongkulang main ridge, where there 
was apparent unconformity. At one spot where the main stream here 
entered the limestone rocks, for a short distance, the scenery was ex- 
traordinary, from the strange and grotesque way these had been erod- 
ed. No water was to be seen, as it soon disappeared among the blocks 
and masses of rocks that rilled the bed. All the limestone was 
perfectly horizontal, the effects of denudation were most extraordi- 
nary and marvellous ; huge masses formed columns and natural arches, 
or standing on three or four thin pedestals reared themselves amidst 
the forest trees, 15 to 20 feet in height. Sometimes such a mass was 
surmounted by a tall stately tree, whose roots ramified among the 
holes and crevices in the rock ; huge cable-like creepers hung sus- 
pended from, or wound round them, while canes and ferns formed the 
under-wood, and flourished in the dark vegetable mould of this damp 
virgin forest. 

After leaving New Nongkulang less limestone is encountered, 
though it occasionally is seen on the left hand side of the road, but 
is nowhere thick, and partakes more of the character of outliers that 
have stood out the forces of denudation. In all the numerous ravines 
that are crossed, up to the steep descent into the Riangwylam, the 
lower sandstone in thick beds is seen with a dip of from 10 to 12 degrees 
west, bending to south-west, in the direction of the main ridge. The 
descent into the Riangwylam valley was quite 300 feet ; on reaching 
the river and looking up the gorge, a fine cascade is seen falling over a 
steer cliff of horizontal strata, the limestone at the top ; the whole scene 
being most lovely and grand. In the bed of this stream, lay masses 
of limestone fallen from the cliff above, and a few pieces of coal soon 
led to my finding a thin seam of bad quality, and evidently the high- 
est in the series. It was about one foot thick associated with coarso 

3 



18 Geological Notes on the Kliasi Hills. [No. 1, 

sandstone of light colour. A bed of carbonaceous shale above this 
contained a good deal of shining iron pyrites, and was very heavy. 
A steep ascent here commences, up a spur, bounded on the north by 
a lateral valley of the Riangwylam, we had just crossed. Beds now 
were seen, with the rise to have an easterly incline, or the commence- 
ment of another great roll in the sandstones. Near the top a trace 
of coal was found, but nowhere in the forest could I find a satisfactory 
section. The thick debris covered the ground too deeply, the associated 
beds being very fine sparkling, lilac coloured sandstones. At the top 
of the final ascent, where an open glade in the forest was entered, 
the surface sandstones were of a very gritty coarse description, with thin 
beds of water-worn quartz pebbles, and had more the look of the 
coarse beds seen near Maobelurkur, &c. After crossing a ravine 
where the dip is south, these beds are seen capped by the lowest 
strata of the nummulitic rocks, but it is a mere outlier and only some 
20 feet thick. Several other isolated masses are contiguous. The sand- 
stone, beyond this a short distance towards the village of Nongum- 
lai, dip with the surface level of the ground, and is evidently of the 
same hard durable kind, that occurs near Nongkerasi, but here it- is 
thrown up several hundred feet higher, falling towards the south- west 
to rise again in a higher roll, in the culminating scarp of Pundengroo. 
The village of Nongumlai is a very good central point, whence 
the geology of this neighbourhood can be studied. It stands on an 
open bare slope of the hard sandstone that terminate a few hundred 
yards below, in the main stream, a source of the Um Durliang flow- 
ing to the south. Immediately beyond this stream a densely forest- 
clad hill rises rather abruptly, all of nummulitic limestone, the surface 
of the slope being as usual, most fantastically eaten away. Thence to 
the south a very large area covered with forest is also of this rock, in 
which all trace of drainage lines ceases, water finding its way down 
the innumerable crevices and holes, or rather wells in the rocks, for the 
word hole hardly expresses the deeply honey-combed state, it presents. 
Land shells literally strewed the ground, principally large Cyclophorida. 
The limestone here presents a thickness of some 250 to 300 feet, and 
is very similar in stucture, colour and hardness throughout, none of 
the blue and clayey bands being seen. Both in the stream and near i 
the top of the ridges, transported small lumps of the fossiliferous j 






1869.] Geological Notes on the Khasi Hills. 19 

upper beds were found, but nowhere did I see it in situ. The large 
quantity in the ravine points to its existence higher up the valley, but 
I had no time to penetrate in that direction. 

To give some slight idea of the majesty of these forests, I may 
here give the dimensions of a tree on the top of this hill on which a 
onaichan was erected by one of my assistants, ascended by a rough 
ladder lashed on with cane. After sketching the surrounding country 
on the plane table from it, on descending, I measured it down 92 feet. 
The upper branches before they were cut away to open out the view 
were probably 20 feet higher. The tree was without a branch for 50 
feet from the ground, a clean straight trunk, but at that height forked 
into two contiguous stems, and continued thus for 30 feet higher. Its 
girth was small for size, being only some 14 feet near the ground. 
This tree was a very good average, few were shorter, and many 
exceeded it. With such associates, those who have never seen such 
tropical scenery, can hardly realize its features, and the feeling 
instilled by the antiquity of such vast growths of vegetable life, when 
passing through them for hours of the day. In such a country all its 
topographical features are lost, and to see them and sketch them in, the 
only plan for the surveyor is to erect platforms on trees, selected for 
the purpose, that they overtop and command the sea of waving foliage 
that stretches for miles around. Reaching the level of such a platform 
and emerging from the gloom and shade of the 80 feet below one 
into bright sun, with the far horizon of blue hill and mountain, and 
nearer valleys, is like entering another world. The highest level of 
these forests form a densely populated zone of insect life, among which 
the Lepidoptera seem to rule, and many a coveted form have I seen 
from these sites, flitting safe beyond the reach of net, much less of 
foot. 

One of the most conspicuous hills in the neighbourhood of Nongumlai 
is Yindku, and as on its flanks some of the best sections are to be 
obtained forming a passage into still newer strata, I will describe them 
as they come in in turn along the ridge. This has a direction almost 
clue south, to which the road keeps. The sandstone on which the 
numinulitic rocks in their outliers are seen, extend for some distance, 
the dip about 15° east ; 1J miles from where this path leaves that from 
- Nongkulang to Nongumlai, at the foot of a rather steep ascent the 



20 Geological Notes on the Khasi Hills. [No. 1, 

limestone occurs in great thickness, the total being perhaps 250 feet. On 
this ascent I came on detached pieces of the fossiliferous iron-coloured 
clays. Next in order came the nodular ferruginous sandstones, noticed 
also below Nongkulang on the northern side, and then again some 40 feet 
of limestone. The topmost bed of this rock was of a brown umber colour, 
the Nummulites were small and much reduced in number, with here 
and there a faint trace of a shell ; shales, and sandstones with precisely 
the same fossils as I had found on Nongkulang ridge, then succeeded. 
The base of Yindku was quite 1J miles further along the ridge ; where 
an ascending series of the beds is first noticed, they at once become 
much lighter in colour, and coarser in texture. With this change the 
fossils become scarce, at last only an occasional bivalve is to be found, 
and these soon disappear altogether, thin shalely beds intervene, and 
at the top of Yindku itself, the rock was soft, sandy, and friable. The 
thickness of these newer deposits is quite 200 feet, the clip now being 
very low to N.W. Yindku from its isolated position, and greater 
height than any of the hills around, formed an excellent point for 
observation, but being covered to the very top with large timber trees, 
would be of little use without a maichan. From the one built there, 
the view was most commanding, extending to the very foot of the 
hills in the Mymensing district. 

On the spur thrown off from it, to the east, a like section to that first 
described, occurs again, and the best spot whence to visit it is Shibak, 
situated on the direct road from Nongumlai to Bagoli in the plains. 
After leaving the main ridge of Tigasin near Nongumlai, a quarter of 
a mile of descent brings one to the Laokla stream flowing north 
Leaving this a ridge of the fossilferous beds is another stream, th< 
Umpernon, is crossed where they dip S. W. at a low angle ; on the 
descent, the unconformity was again noticeable, although the beds still 
retained their normal horizontality. After descending over a considerabl 
thickness of the nummulitic limestone, it suddenly is replaced by tl 
ochre-coloured sandstones, at the foot of an ascent extending to a heig 
considerably above the lowest limestone just left. At half a mile,l 
limestones again dip north 5°, and at the bottom of the valley all wasi 
of this formation ; near a huge overhanging mass of it, used as a\ 
temporary shelter, it was seen to rest on a light coloured fine sandstond 
(the cretaceous ?), the same sequence in every respect as is seen nea>! 



1869.] Geological Notes on the Khasi Hills. 21 

New-Nongkulang. The Sliibak stream was now quite close, flowing 
over the slightly sloping surface of the lower sands, and striking the 
edges and the termination of the limestone, which also marked that of 
the forest. This valley of the Shibak was for a long time a very great 
puzzle. In no direction could I see any likely depression in the 
forest-clad heights about, where the united streams of Shibak (the 
Wakit from under and north of Yindku, and the Umpernon and others) 
might find their way to the plains. 

The conspicuous cliff of Kuta Bram. was the only open point in 
the neighbourhood, and it was by visiting this, I determined the 
existence of a very anomalous physical feature, on a really grand scale 
and one which, though familiar with the like topographical feature on 
a small scale, as seen near Cherra Poonjee, fairly surprised me. The 
cause is simple enough, the united streams all meet in the nummulitio 
limestone, that here extends quite across the main valley ; the streams 
drain away under it, over the surface of the harder sandstone on which 
it rests. This water must percolate under the Kuta Bram ridge into the 
Eugsir, but the greater quantity evidently finds its way into the Gabir, 
at Bagholi, there a large stream without an equivalent drainage area. 
The ascent to Kuta Bram cliff is through a forest of enormous trees in 
the bottom of the valley, passing into bamboo near the crest of the 
ridge, that rises quite 350 feet on the south. The fossiliferous sands 
succeeded limestone as usual, and continued to a short distance within a 
few feet of the cliff ; this consisted of fine thin-bedded sands, micaceous, 
of light ochre and gray colours ; they dip about 10° south, but no 
fossils could I find in any of the debris at its foot, although about 100 
feet of the beds were here exposed. This newer series covers all the 
spurs south of Yindku, and is exposed again on a direct path leading 
from that peak into the Rugsir and on to Gillagora, a village of Ilabi- 
ang Garos. Some of the beds at this point were of a blue, crumbly 
I clay, and all thin-bedded ; the presence of springs causing land-slips, 
have formed this bare open spot, whence a fine view is obtained. 

Passing on down this ridge, nummulitic limestone again makes its 
appearance on the right hand or the west, rising in a very steep cliff, the 
path is over the red sandy clay (fossils being numerous of Nongkulang 
forms) at its base. Descended at last rapidly into the bed of Rungsir, 
piere hard massive fine sandstones passed under the limestone, which 



22 Geological Notes on the Khasi Hills. [No. 1, 

clipped far higher than yet seen in this area, being evidently on the 
south side of an anticlinal fold. The beds where first observed, 
dipped 12° south by west, then 15° to the south, increasing to 20° and 
25° south. Although a deep gorge existed through the mass of the 
limestone (here very thickly bedded) no water is seen ; at about 400 
yards through the gorge, it terminated suddenly with its highest dip, 
succeeded immediately by highly fossiliferous beds, well developed 
under Rongsitilah, (the summit of which is of the higher series, of 
coarser sand and thin shales). In the first open clearing on the 
right bank I found my best specimens of fossils in a bed in situ, 
most of the Nongkulang forms turning up. These rich deposits of 
shells are immediately succeeded, as one travels down the bed of the 
Rugsir, by thin-bedded bluish clays, the sandstone shales becoming 
more sandy and compact, the dip increasing with every few 100 
yards, until below the village at the debouchement of the stream 
into the plains, at the very last spur and section exposed, they are 
complete sandstones of very lower tertiary Siwalik type ; their colour 
is brown, and their dip about 50 degrees to the south. 

Emerging into the rice fields of the plains, and looking both to the 
east and west, it is very evident that the last and far newer beds, extend 
on both sides along the base of the hills. The dip of the beds is 
seen on the ridges of the spurs most markedly, — more marked is 
this on the west, at the base of the true Garo hills, and these, 
bending more to the south of the latitude, we are now standing on, 
bring in beds of again a later period. Save for the marshy plains, 
flat as an ocean and the greater exuberance of the forest on the hill 
slopes, one might be looking at an expanse of the Siwaliks of the 
Deyrah Dhoon, the same characteristic long slopes towards the plain 
terminating in a short steep fall on the north, whence rises another 
long slope of rather a less incline to the horizon. 

I followed the foot of the hills, in both directions ; 1st, on the east 
side to Bogali, where two streams the Gabir and Ronga unite, and 
form a large and navigable stream. Nothing new is observable thus 
far, the different " soras " or streams take their rise in the tertiary 
sandstones; in their beds, the same succession is seen, as in the 
Rugsir at Gilla Gora, and the usual fossils are also found as one gets 
deeper into the series. Crossing the Gabir into the village of Bagoli, 



1869.] Geological Notes on the Ehasi Hills. 23 

the whole eastern side with the hill slopes, are of nummulitic lime- 
stone, which here abuts on the plains ; the Ronga flows out through 
the mass of it, which dips 25° south, in hard thick beds, and is the 
first point on this side, where it is worked for the Calcutta lime trade. 
A limestone quarry, with a shallow canal approach for canoes, occurs 
about 1J miles to the east of Bagoli, worked I believe by the Manager, 
C. K. Hudson, Esq. of the Inglis estates. The Ronga river takes its 
rise immediately under, and to the south of the Nongkulang hill series, 
and has one point of interest, but I was unable, from want of leisure, 
to follow up and examine it. Much coal is to be seen in the bed of 
the stream brought down from above, and can be no other than an 
outcrop of that in the infra nummulitic beds seen and described at 
Nongkerasi ; what its extent may be here in the Ronga, it is impossi- 
ble to say, but it deserves examination. A subsequent attack of fever 
prevented my penetrating further to the east of this line, in the most in- 
teresting and promising part of this geological district, where the useful 
mineral beds approach so near the plains with the magnificent water 
carriage which the Um Blay must offer at this very point. I do not 
think it likely that the coal will be found again near the base of the 
hills, west of the Moishkulla or Rungsiang river, for a very consider- 
able distance. The general strike has assumed too strong W. N. W. 
direction, towards the culminating point Wanrai, and the tertiary 
sandstones appear very persistent, and with greater breadth, west of 
Chanda Dinga, owing to the slight extension of the hills southward. 
Returning to Gilla Gora, I carried my survey along the base of the 
hills westward, crossing the Rongsiang, near longitude 91°, and on to 
Chanda Dinga, in order to ascend and observe angles at the fine 
elevated hill of Marang Thang. 

All belongs to the older tertiary series here ; the principal and most 
noticeable feature of the rock being, the great increase of dip in this 
direction, coming in with the newer beds of the series (this is shown in 
Section B, Plate III), until at Chanda Dinga, the beds are almost 
perpendicular into the plain, forming here a bare flat rock on the hill 
. side, marked in the old revenue map, as Chanda Dinga stone. The 
beds here had assumed that coarse texture, with light brown, or gray 
tint, lithologically so exactly similar to rocks of the Siwaliks, — even 
to the scattered strings of water-worn small pebbles, met with in the 



24 



Geological Notes on the Khasi Bills. 



[No. 1, 



great mass of the lower series, known better as the Nahun group or 
Lower Siwalik formation, — that I think they can be well placed on 
that horizon. Whether this will be proved still further west, by 
the presence of the later Mammaliferous sands and gravels of the 
higher, and again unconformable series of the Siwalik group, is to 
be seen, and it is a most interesting point ; or may not these last beds 
still exist under the present plain of Sylhet and Mymensing, undis- 
turbed, abutting like the present land surface against the lower series ? 
The change is so sudden here, from dry sandy steep slopes to swamps, 
that within a few paces of the hill side, the ground is covered with the 
dead shells of Paludina and Ampullaria ; the sections seen in the beds 
of the streams show an alternation of sands with dark clay, containing 
the same shells. I could point out a bed, under and to the south of 
Nahun, so precisely similar, with the above shells (particularly the more 
lasting opercula of the latter species) that no one who had wandered 
over both areas, examining them attentively, could fail to be struck with 
the great similarity of their deposition. The only difference rests in 
the present unconformity of the one, due to elevation ; and in the still 
normal position of the other, slowly accumulating bed over bed, and 
perhaps in some future geological age, to pass through the same mighty 
changes. Medlicott's explanatory ideal section in the Markunda under 
Nahun, (where also lies the beds I have just referred to) is nowhere 
brought so forcibly to the imagination, as at the foot of these Hahiang 
Garo Hills. 

The beds are actually at Chanda Dinga so near the perpendicular, 
that a transition from No. 1 to No. 2 (vide Ideal Sections below) is 
easily wrought, and this is what is actually seen at the junction near 
Nahun, if anything greatly exaggerated in nature, from the lateral 
force that has been introduced. 




1869.] Geological Notes on the Khasi Hills, 25 

After visiting Marang Thang, whence the deep gorges with precipitous 
sides of a large river, draining from south-west of Pundengroo scarp, 
was seen, and presenting a complete section of the whole series I have 
been detailing, I retraced my steps into the interior of the hills 
once more, via Jugni, situated about four miles up the Rongsiang 
river. I give the reader some idea of this mountain stream, its fea- 
tures being so unlike what is generally seen, and nothing like it is met 
with at the base of the Himalayas. I proceeded the whole way, without 
much obstruction, in a canoe to Jugni, the water being so little deep 
in parts that save to a native who easily disencumbers himself of 
superfluous clothing, it would have been a most disagreeable route. 
It became still more difficult to navigate beyond the above village, 
shallows and rapids commencing ; yet very deep long reaches still 
continued right up to the junction with the Sen river, where is a pool 
famous for the immense number of fish killed periodically by poison- 
ing the water. With a stream navigable so far into the hills, one 
would expect the valley on either side to be broad and somewhat 
open, the contrary is however the case. For the whole distance the 
spurs approach, and end in high sheer cliffs, washed by the excessively 
deep water of the pools at their base ; opposite Jugni itself these cliffs 
are at least 200 feet high.* 

The whole valley is extremely malarious, close, and shut in from 
air, and we all suffered a few days after from passing up it ; not 
a man with me or self escaped fever, the season was advancing, 
rain had begun to fall (March 1867), which may account in a measure 
for the suddenness of the attack. A short distance above the last 
deep pool, the river is seen gushing out, with a considerable body of 
water, from a small cavern in the limestone rocks. The valley 
still continues over these dipping at about 20° to 25° S. S. W., 
their strike being in the general direction of the valley. At about two 
miles further up the limestone comes to an end, and the lower sandstones 
become visible ; they dip at 30 degrees. Pieces of coal had been common 
for some distance below, and here it was seen in situ, with an increasing 

* They present excellent sections of the sandstone rocks : these gradually 
lower in dip, becoming very low and rise again towards the junction with the 
Sen river. There is nothing remarkable in their appearance, being thick-beddc>d, 
sometimes very soft light coloured and micaceous ; their dip is always a 
southerly one. 



26 Geological Notes on the Khasi Hills. [No. I, 

dip in the coarse sandstones. About 400 yards on was another bed, of 
greater thickness and better quality, the remnants of which we had seen 
scattered all the way down the stream bed ; it passed quite across it, from 
bank to bank. For a better idea of this most interesting section see that 
marked C ; it will be there seen, that the coal is brought to the surface 
by the anticlinal in the whole set of these beds, which extend to the 
nummulitic limestone, being evidently much disturbed here, and seen to 
change suddenly from a dip of 60 degrees N. E. to perfect horizontally, 
and continuing thus with the slightest dip, about equal to the fall of the 
valley, all the way up to Nongumlai. This line of dislocation, it will 
be seen from a glance at the map, is curiously situated, in a direct line, 
with another evident great bending of the same strata in the Rugsir, 
where the limestone crosses that stream, and would extend to Bagoli, 
where the limestone is again seen bending over with an increased dip of 
25 degrees to the south. Continued to the N. W. as a due straight line, 
it passes through a culminating point of the G-aro hills, Wanrai Prak, 
which seen from a distance is doubtless of the newer stratified rocks, 
having there attained considerable elevation. 

Not far above the last mentioned section the Su Hileng tributary 
comes down to the N. West ; and from under the eastern scarp of 
Pundengroo, much coal is washed down ; but I had no opportunity 
of visiting the site.* To the north of Tigasin hill-station the 
coal is seen, with a dip north of about 8 degrees and a thickness 
of some 8 to 10 feet, in the infra nummulitic beds ; this northerly 
dip brings in the limestone at the bottom of the valley, whence the 
beds rise again with a S. S. West incline, and a very low angle. At a 
distance of some six miles, the path descends into the Asbik river, 
close to which, the same coal is met with again, here almost in a 
horizontal position. It is again seen on the ascent of the left bank, 
but a good deal of it is covered up with debris. On descending to 
the Wy-yow river on the other side of the ridge, gneiss comes in, and 
I did not again observe any stratified rocks all the way to Nongtien 
Shiling, and thence via Nongkushba, until Landekar is again reached. 
The Um Blay at this part of its course, flowed through the mass of 
met amorphic rocks. 



i * Native information indicates that the coal here is in large quantity ; even 
should this be found the case, it is too far into hills to be worked profitably. 






1869.] Geological JSTotes onHlie Khasi Sills. 27 

From the preceding notes and sections, it will be observed, that on 
this longitude we have no infra-nummulitic coal as at Cherra, that the 
seams here occur always below the last named formation, at a very 
regular depth below it, and that unlike the coal of Cherra, it is very 
persistent over a large area, and often to be found in a series of 
deposits one above the other. It is to be traced along the high long 
line of bluff that bounds the Tim Blay on the south, in its south-east 
course to its debouchement near Puna Tith bazar. If this coal ever 
be utilized, it must be somewhere in this neighbourhood, or between 
longitude 91° 10' and 91° 20', and south of latitude 25° 26'. This 
small area would well deserve a close inspection, and the results 
would be extremely interesting, if continued to the east, the rocks be 
followed out into the Cherra sections. Until this be done, it would 
be premature to theorise, or draw comparisons, between different beds, 
one of which, the limestone, is identical, while the beds both immediate- 
ly below and above differ very much. I have already stated my 
opinion that for a long distance, west of Chaudadinga, and the 
Rongsiang rivers, but little coal can be expected to be found, from 
the presence of tertiary sandstones on that side. 

This paper has now reached a size I little contemplated, yet with 
its errors, with which no doubt it may abound, in bringing it to 
a close, I trust it may prove useful to those, who may at some future 
date visit, and plot out the same sections. 

Camp, Cherra Fooujee, October, 1867. 



!28 Anatomy of Sagartia Schilleriana [No. 1, 



On the anatomy of Sagartia Schilleriana and Membranipora 
Bengalensis, a new Coral and a Bryozoon living in brackish water 
at Fort Canning ; — by Ferd. Stoliczka, Esq. Ph. D. t F. G. S. 

Paleontologist of the Geol. Survey of India. 

[Received 3rd June, 1868.] 

Special interest is always attached to the study of any organic forms, 
found living under unusual and sometimes anomalous conditions, 
inasmuch as these forms very often represent peculiar types of organi- 
sation, adapted to the peculiar circumstances under which they live. 

In a theoretical point of view, there exist, we may say, in each speci- 
fic organism a number of forces which, by their harmonious action, 
produce a certain stable equilibrium between the organisation of the 
animal, and the influences of the medium in which it lives. Should it 
now happen that the animal is, either voluntarily or accidentally, 
placed, under conditions different from those under which it formerly 
existed, and further, should the influence of these external agencies be 
so great as to overthrow, or be not sufficient to maintain this equili- 
brium, it devolves upon the organism to restore this balance, or to be 
dissolved into various other forces. The latter case need not occupy 
liere our attention any further ; but as to the former, we may observe 
in general that the amount of the changes in the organism, necessita* 
ted for the purpose of restoring the disturbed or unstable equilibrium, 
may in various cases be very different. 

In some cases an alteration in the colour or in the viscosity of the 
animal may suffice ; in others it requires a change in the digestive or 
the nervous system, and again in others it becomes necessary to change 
the existing, or to produce new and additional organs of locomotion, 
&g. Thus are clearly by natural selection produced new forms or 
types of organisms, designated by naturalist varieties , species, genera, 
&Q. 

Looking at the same time upon the numerously varied organisation 
of beings in general, it will readily be understood that the less dif- 
ferent the organs of a species may be, — that is in other words, the lower 
its place is in the natural system, — in the same degree would probably 
decrease the necessit for a change in the organs. In any case, 



1869.] and Membranipora Bengalensis. 29 

this change would not be so easily perceptible, as when the organs are 
numerous, various and more highly developed. Expressing, there- 
fore, this idea in a more general way, we imply that, within certain 
limits,* forms of lower organisation possess a greater faculty of ac- 
commodating themselves to different conditions of life, than more 
highly organized beings. 

In the present communication I shall record a very interesting case 
of the persistency of a form under different conditions, relating to a 
coralline species, a so-called sea-anemone, and to another species 
belonging to the Bryozoa, or the lowest organized Molluscs. With 
respect to the anatomy and physiology of these two species, I shall state 
all the data which I have obtained, for though some of them are not 
directly new discoveries, still detailed records of these animals are so 
rare, that I must treat the subject somewhat at length, in order to 
be intelligible ; and this, I think, is very necessary as naturalists have 
become in late years rather sceptical regarding new species, only 
characterised by few high sounding, — occasionally unintelligible, — 
terms. Besides this, it would be impossible for me to give additional 
observations, without bringing them into a systematic connection with 
those which are already known on this subject. 

Phylum, CcELENTERATA.f 

(Cnidozoa or Actinozoa.) 
The name Cnidozoa is derived from the word at kvlSoli, used by 
Aristotles for the designation of this group of animals ; the same 
word is now retained for the name of special, defensive cells which 
characterize these animals, as will be shown subsequently. For the 
extent of the various divisions of the Cgelenterata, Leukart and 
Kolliker's works have to be consulted. 



* It is very often stated that the more highly organized forms possess a greater 
faculty of accommodation ; this is, however, I think, a mistaken idea, Originat- 
ing partly in the comparison of the same external influences upon organisms 
of different kind and decree, partly in the difficulty of noticing any changes in 
the lower organisms. The comparison must always be a truly relative one ; for 
in differently organized forms, there is a different amount of forces present to 
counteract the influence of external agencies. 

t The first few principal divisions are noticed according to Haeckel's Generate 
Morjphologie, 1866, vol- II, p. L. 



30 Anatomy of Sag 'artia Schiller iana [No. 1> 

Sub^hylum, Petracaleph^:.* 

(Polypi). 

Class, Anthozoa. 

(Zoophyta.f ) 

Body fleshy, attached with one end ; on the other provided with a 
mouth usually surrounded by hollow and perforated tentacles ; internal 
cavity divided by septa. 

Sub-class, Hexacorallia. 
The original number of septa and tentacles are six. 

Order, Halirhoda.J 
(Zoantheria malacodermata, sea-roses, sea-flowers, or sea-anemones.) 
Body soft, septa not forming an external hard skeleton, into which 
the animal can retract. 

Sub-order, Actiniacea. 
Body very rarely containing loose, scleroid particles ; base adherent 
at pleasure, not adapted to form a swimming sac ; internal cavity 
instructed with very long, not emissible thread-like organs (craspeda),§ 
containing the so called nettle-cells, or cnidce. 
Family, Sagartiid^e.|| 
Body pierced with loop-holes (cinclides) for the purpose of emitting 
long, retractile threads (acontia) containing cnidce, being the defensive 
organs of the animal. 

This family may be separated into two divisions, the Sagartiince and 
the Bunodince, the latter of which have the column instructed with 
tubercles. 

* From being usually adherent to rocks, the other sub -phylum is called 
Nectacaleplws, including the swimming or oceanic forms. 

f This name is inconsistent with the usual nomenclature, and could only be 
used by reversing it into Phytozoa, but to this the name Anthozoa is preferable. 

J This name only can imply that the animals live in water, which contains 
a proportion of salt, &c. it must not be understood as pure sea-water, for there 
are numerous brackish species belonging to this order. 

§ To avoid numerous repetitious, I must direct any one, not acquainted 
with the terminology of the anotomy of corals, and especially of that of the 
Halirhoda, to the subsequent detailed description of the various organs. Most 
of the terms will be found fully explained in Gosse's admirable History of British 
Sea-anemones. London, 1866. 

|| The true Actiniidce, and several other allied families, do not possess emissible 
threads, or acontia, and are therefore destitute of loop-holes, or cinclides. 



1869.] and Membranipora Bengalensis. 31 

Sub-family, Sagartiin^. 
(Sagartiadce, Gosse.) 
The body is, according to Gosse, generally remarkably soft, more or 
less pulpy, lubricated on the surface with copious mucus, exteriorly 
mostly studded with sucking cavities, which, by forming a vacuum 
have the power of adhering to foreign bodies, but the margins of these 
cavities do not rise into conspicuous warts ; the base is usually broad, 
the column moderately high, furrowed longitudinally ; the tentacles 
are smooth, simple, generally arranged in uninterrupted circles at the 
margin of the disk ; the cnidce of the tissue are usually of the stilet 
kind, being long cells, with a short in itself retractile nagellum, called 
by Gosse the ecthorceum. 

Gosse distinguishes the following divisions, from the relation of 
which the generic classification of our species will become apparent. 
A; Tentacles moderately long, slender, 
a ; disk perfectly retractile, 

a ; column soft, destitute of suckers ... Actinoloba, 

/?; „ ,, with suckers Sagartia, 

y ; ,, partly provided with a rough 

epidermis Phellia 

b ; disk imperfectly retractile, . Adamsia et Grcgoria 
B ; Tentacles represented by mere warts . . Discosoma. 

Genus, Sagartia, Gosse, 1855. 

All the species of Sagartia are characterized by a thick, fleshy, con- 
tractile body, adherent by a base which is under ordinary circumstances 
wider than the height of the column ; the surface is studded with 
numerous small suckers, not forming permanent warts, and with many 
comparatively large cinclides ; the peripherical margin of the disk is dis- 
tinct, but not separately thickened ; the tentacles are simple, placed 
near the outer periphery of the disk; they are generally very numerous, 
but variable in length and arrangement ; the mouth is somewhat ele- 
vated, provided with two gonidial grooves, each having a pair of 
tubercles on either side ; the acontia are numerous, and are emitted 
freely. 



32 Anatomy of Sagartia Scliilleriana [No. 1, 

The presence of solid scleroid particles of two kinds, as they will 
be described in the present species, may likely be added to the generic 
characters of this genus, but this has to be proved by the examination 
of other species. 

Species. Sagartia Schilleriana, Stoliczlca, 1868. 
Plates X and XI. 

Char. Sagartia corpore pulposo, transpa rente, virescente p >a ^^°i 
basi lata, scepissime rotundata adlierente ; columna cylindracea, in 
altitudine diamatro basis fere cequante, longitudinaliter angustatim sul- 
cata, transversaliter minutissime corrugata ; septis ad peripheriam 
plerumque 48, distinctis, ceqidistantibus, alternatim virescentibus ; ten- 
taculis numeros is, pr ope peripheriam disci sitis, exterioribus brevissimis, 
inter ioribus gradatim longioribus, omninis ad basin infatis, versus 
apicem attenuatis, terminationibus subtruncatis et perforatis instructis ; 
tentaculis seriem primam formantibus senis ceteris conspicue crassiori- 
bus, ad basin sospissime rubescentibus, ad terminationes albidis ; apertura 
transversaliter ovata, angusta ; labio plus minusve prominente, ad 
marginem undulato, sub-reflexo, tuberculis duodenis instructo ; lenti- 
ginibus bipartitis, ad utrumque angulum gonidialem sitis, tuberculis 
ceteris minor ibus ; canalibus gonidialibus parvis, orificiis rotundatis, 
vice prominulis, albide marginatis notatis ; radiis gonidialibus vix 
dignoscendis ; gula sulcis virescentibus f areata. 

Ovariis duodenis, bipartitis, folliculis in utroque latere septorum 
sitis, ctfruleo-purpurescentibus ; craspedis numerosis, sordide luteolis, in- 
terne supra ovaria suspensis ; acontjis albis,perlongis ; cinclidibus sub- 
rotundatis, numerosis, paululum impressis, in tegumine irregulariter 
dispersis, nonnullis prope marginem superiorem columnce positis latis- 
simis, semper apertis, ceteris minoribus aliquantisper obscuris ; en id is 
ovato-elongatis, stiliformibus,* ectliorceis brevibas prope rectis instruc- 
tis ; septis mesenterialibns intus ad basin solidulis, albis ; tegumine 
corporibus minutis tabulatis siliceis, ac alteris subcylindraceis et varie 
dentatis calcareis instructis. 

# Gossein his above quoted Treatise on the British. Sea- Anemones distinguishes 
four kinds of cnidce, all of which have rather long, spirally coiled ecthorcea, except 
one globular kind, in which no ecthorseum was observable. The cnidce of the 
present species of Sagartia are mostly, short, straight, or very rarely slightly 
bent. I shall term this kind of cnidaz which were also observed formerly by 
Blainville, Leukart, and others, stiliform. Gosse says that the chambered form 
is the usual one in the Actiniidce, though the present variation seems quite as 
common. 



1869.] and Membranipora Bengalensis. 33 

The principal and characteristic distinctions of this species are, 
the very great softness and transparency of the body, having a very 
slight greenish tinge, mingled with somewhat of a pale fleshy colour, 
a distinct layer of a dark green pigment being deposited near the 
external surface, below the outer muscular layer of each alternate 
septum, and thus producing greenish, longitudinal bands of about 
equal width ; further, the prominent lips of the aperture, the great 
thickness of the primary tentacles, the blueish purple colouring of 
the ovaria, the yellowish craspeda, the purely white acontia, and their 
great length. 

I shall at first speak of the various normal forms of this species, 
than of the anatomy of the different organs and of their signification, 
and last of the physiology , the habits and modes of life. 

a. Form. 

The general form of the body of Sag. Schilleriana is common to that 
of other truly marine species of the same genus, the column being, 
however, when the animal is expanded in a normal condition, a little 
shorter than the diameter of the basis (see pi. X. fig. 1). In conse- 
quence of the softness of the fleshy substance, the base, (which is 
comparatively more solid than any other part), always adapts itself 
entirely to the object on which the animal is sessile. On a smooth 
surface, the circumference of the base is almost circular, only on 
account of the projecting septa slightly undulating at the margin; 
on a rough surface all cavities* are filled up with the fleshy mass, 
securing at the same time the attachment of the body, but also alter- 
ing the original roundish form into an oval or irregularly polygonal one. 
The septa are distinctly traceable by the alternate greenish bands. 

There are three principal forms to be observed, which may be called 
the normal ones, being successively adopted by every animal in a 
healthy condition. The first is the expanded form (pi. X. fig. 1) from 
which these animals derived their name of sea-flowers. The frequent 
bright colouring of the disc, as a rule, increases their resemblance to 



* I have seen portions of the body filling such cavities of about half an 
inch in depth, and one-fifth of an inch broad. When the animal was carefully- 
detached, it lasted for several days, till all the protuberances disappeared, 
but they were at last assimilated to the regular form of the body. 



34 Anatomy of Sagartia Schilleriana [No. 1, 

an open flower of one of the Composite. The tentacles reach far 
beyond the diameter of the column, of which only the lower portion 
is visible ; the body is perfectly transparent, allowing all the internal 
organs to be traced without difficulty, the lips of the mouth are 
slightly prominent ; the water is seen moving up and down in the 
hollow tentacles, which play about actively in all directions, being 
strongly inflated at their roots, and gradually becoming thinner to- 
wards their tips. 

None of the Actinozoa possess special organs of sensation, though 
they are highly sensitive to the touch of any solid body, and even to the 
influence of radiating heat, or to the light. The fact is that their entire 
body, when soft, and not covered by a thickened epidermis, is almost 
throughout equally sensitive and, therefore, makes special organs of 
sensation superfluous. Still, I should think, there must be an in- 
timate connection of some kind of nervous system through the entire 
organism, inasmuch as the slightest touch of the tip of a tentacle is 
sometimes momentarily communicated to the whole body, its effect being 
exhibited by a change of the whole form of the body. 

Thus a slight unusual movement of the surrounding water, or the 
coming into contact with a solid object, causes the Sagartia, when 
expanded partially, to contract, by which a quantity of the water con- 
tained, is always ejected through the existing openings, (cinclides). In 
this position, (pi. X. fig. 3) the animal forms a short column, with the 
upper margin [of which I shall speak as the collar] somewhat thick- 
ened, the aperture hidden, and the tentacles protruding about one- 
forth of their length ; the transparency of the body slightly dimin- 
ishes ; a few acontia are usually seen to rise from the central portion 
of the base, being then forcibly ejected through the cinclides, at or near 
the collar. Sometimes the tentacles are laid down, very slightly protrud- 
ing, forming a sort of a broad cone ; and then viewed from above, they are 
seen arranged most regularly : those, belonging to the different circles, 
being easily traceable from their thickness, (see pi. X. fig. 2). Any fur- 
ther disturbance generally induces the Sagartia entirely to contract, its 
form resembling in this position a short, depressed conical heap, (see pi. 
X. fig 4), leaving only a small opening in the upper centre, from which 
usually the white tips of the primary tentacles slightly project. In con- 
sequence of the contraction of the outer muscular layer,- chiefly consisting 



1869.] and Ifembranipora Bengalemis. 35 

of concentric fibres, - the transverse plication becomes somewhat more 
distinct than it was before, and the immediate neighbourhood of the 
suckers slightly rises to short, transverse prominences. The greater con- 
traction of the pigment layer also makes the greenish bands of the septa 
more distinct, though the entire body possesses a slight tinge of the 
same colour. The cinclides, especially those placed near or on the collar, 
become rather widely open, and others are distinctly traceable ; the 
acontia are numerously ejected on different places of the body, and the 
general transparency has again diminished as compared with the former 
position. 

Besides these three, so called normal, positions* of a Bagartia, there 
are others which the animal assumes under certain abnormal conditions, 
generally resulting from ill health, and being produced, either by 
excessive heat or light, or by a change in the saline constituents of the 
water, &c. Some of the principal forms, as observed on one and the 
same specimen, are represented in figures 6 to 9, on plate X ; but I will 
defer the remarks upon these, until I come to speak of the physiology 
and the habits of the animal. 

b. Anatomical Structure. 

In order more easily to understand the general anatomical structure 
of the animal, I must direct the reader to the vertical section, as re- 
presented in figure 3 on plate XI. This section is taken only in half 
of the diametral length, being sufficient for our purposes, and the dif- 
ferent letters, noted in this figure, have the following significations : — 
a, base ; b, column ; c, collar ; d, disc ; e, tentacles ; g, throat ; 
h, larynx ; i, stomach, or internal cavity ; k, craspeda ; 1, acontia ; 
m, ovaria, or the reproductive organs ; n, cinclides, or pores in the 
integument for the purpose of emitting the acontia. I shall now 
briefly describe these parts as much as possible in the same order, in 
which I have just mentioned them. 

The entire body of the Sagartia is surrounded by an external, 
mucous layer, which chiefly consists of numerous, oval cnid<s, and 
sparingly dispersed green pigment cells. 

a. The base is, as already stated, a more or less round disk ; on 
which the septa are distinctly traceable (pi. X. fig. 5), being of con- 
* Being observable iu most other Halikhoda. 



36 Anatomy of Sagartia Schilleriana [No. 1, 

siderable thickness, according to the different series to which they 
belong. The twelve ovarian strings, or reproductive organs, can be 
seen through the transparent skin ; and equally easily traceable are the 
six bundles of the craspeda, in position nearer to the centre of the 
axial cavity than are the former. 

b. The column represents the peripherical portions of the mesen- 
terial folds, grown together, and it will, therefore, be sufficient to give 
a detailed statement of the structure of one of the septa. The origin- 
al number of these, as represented in the view of the basis (pi. X. fig. 
5), is six, radiating from the centre. The second cicle is again six, 
the third, fourth, and fifth are each twelve, one septum first appearing 
next adjoining the primary septa, then one next to the secondary ones, 
than again one between the two last ones. This is a common law in all 
Hexacorallia, and I only notice it here, because I will subsequently 
draw the attention to the difference, apparently existing between the 
increase of the septa and that of the tentacles. The septa of 
the first, and usually also of the second, cicle are distinctly traceable 
almost up to the centre, those of the 3rd and 4th nearly so, both 
being about equal in strength, but those of the 5th are consider- 
ably shorter. I have not observed in any of the numerous specimens 
which I have examined, a larger number of cicles than five, or 48 
septa altogether ; small specimens often had only three or four cicles 
developed. The various cicles are shematically represented in figure 
2 of plate XI. 

Each septum is composed of five distinct layers, as represented in 
the enlarged section, plate XI, figure 3-a /?, y, 8, e. The outermost 
a is, as formerly noticed, almost only a mucous fluid, composed 
of a loose cellular substance, and a very large number of elongated 
nettle cells, or cnidce, and a few dispersed cells of greenish pigment 
The cnidce of this mucous layer are, compared with others, the 
shortest, being ovately elongated, slightly curved or kidney-shaped, 
having, as a rule, an ecthorasum, shorter than their own length ; 
they also appear to be nearly smooth. — Figure 4 of plate XI 
represents the appearance of the mucous layer under the micros- 
cope, and 4# three-isolated cnidce still more enlarged. — The next 
layer (/?) is strongly muscular, chiefly consisting of concentric or 
cross fibres, forming at intervals slightly elevated ridges which 



1869.] and Memlranipora Bengalensis. 87 

contain the so-called suckers ; these becoming more distinctly ap- 
parent in the contracted position of the animal, (see fig. 4, pi. X). 
These suckers, however, are not essentially characteristic, and ap- 
pear to vary greatly with the age. Along the dorsal edges of the 
septa, there seem to be also some longitudinal fibres present. This 
second layer is the same which, in several Actiniacea, becomes coriace- 
ous, taking a principal part in the formation of the exotlieca of other 
corals. The third layer (y) only consists of thick, transverse fibres, 
containing large, dark green pigment cells. Below this follows 
a tough muscular tissue (8) consisting of thin longitudinal and much 
stronger concentric fibres, gradually passing into a regular carti- 
lagenous skeleton (e), composed of an intercellular substance, and a 
large number of various scleroid particles ; the figures 5, 5a, bb and 5e, 
on plate XI will illustrate this. Figure 5 represents a small portion 
of the fourth layer, the three upper ones having previously been 
removed by maceration. The muscular fibres are especially strong on 
a portion of the septum ; the cinciides are spacious. Fig. 5a repre- 
sents the reverse or internal side of the same portion of the integu- 
ment, and shews on the surface an irregular distribution of the scleroids. 

The two last layers (8 and e) chiefly compose the mesenterial septa, 
extending above to the mouth and at the base up to the centre, but 
being on the internal edge along the central axial cavity deeply insinu- 
ated. The hardest portions of the septa are those round the larynx and 
at the base, evidently on the two places where the strongest muscular 
actions are required. In figure 3, pi. XI the most cartilaginous 
portions are indicated by cross lines. 

It is usually stated that the Halirhoda, and especially the 
Actiniacea have neither an internal, nor an external solid skeleton, 
and this notion gave rise to the name Hexacorallia tnalacoder- 
mata. There can be, however, no doubt that in the present case 
the two internal layers, as represented on plate XI, figures 3 and 
5, correspond to those which - in the Astr;eacea for instance - 
secrete the enthotheca. The scleroid particles are of two kinds ; 
some of them are long, with slight lateral appendages, and others 
simple, sharply angular flat bodies, as shewn in figures 5b and 5c on 
plate XI. These scleroid particles are only visible when enlarged 
to about 500 diameters ; and some of them arc still extremely 



38 Anatomy of Sagartia Schilleriana [No. 1, 

minute. In the fourth muscular layer, which chiefly consists of cross 
fibres, there are at distances small round holes to be observed, which 
evidently lead to the cinclides of the outer integument ; these holes are 
often rather indistinctly traceable in the scleroid parenchym. 

My observation as to the presence of solid scleroid particles in the in- 
ternal tissue of the Sagartia has, in the first instance, been made in con- 
sequence of a simple process of maceration in water, and weak acid. It be- 
came, however, important to test further the true nature of these different 
scleroids. I consequently exposed a specimen, placed in a platina 
crucible, to a heat sufficient to remove every trace of organic matter, and 
was satisfied to find in it the residue of a perfect, solid skeleton of 
the Sagartia, on which were seen externally the holes for the cinclides, 
and, in being broken up, internally the septa. The external portions 
appeared more fibrous, the internal more broadly cellular or reticular. 
The character of the substance perfectly resembled the spongy and 
irregularly cellular structure of the corallum of other reef-forming 
Antliozoa (see fig. 6, plate XI). A portion of this skeleton was then 
placed in hydrochloric acid ; this operation shewing that the solid 
skeleton mostly consisted of carbonate of lime, which is present in the 
form of the long scleroids (pi. XI. fig. 5b) ; the flat angular parti- 
cles, being of silica, remained unaltered (fig. 5c). The latter formed 
a dark, very thin, irregular network, though most of them were loose, 
and apparently irregularly distributed among the calcareous scleroids. 
Besides the two kinds of scleroids, I observed a large number of 
extremely fine, often branching threads ; but whether these belong to 
the tissue of the coral, or to some species of sponges, I was unable 
to ascertain. The proportion of siliceous scleroids to those consist- 
ing of lime is^not probably more than one to twenty. 

This direct proof of the secretion of solid scleroid particles in the 
internal tissue of the Sagartia is very important, inasmuch as it will 
in time, when more observations of this kind have been made, neces- 
sitate a change in the characteristics of the so-called Antliozoa mala- 
codermata. It would be premature and unjustifiable to state that all the 
Sagartiidw, or other Actiniacea, possess an internal skeleton, as no other 
observations have been yet made on this point. It is, however, to be 
hoped that the present statement will induce stricter and more ac- 
curate inquiry, especially as Mil. Edward, Blainville, and others, many 



1869.] and Membraniyora Bengalensis. 39 

years ago directed attention to the existence of those solid bodies in 
the internal tissue of some of the species of Zoanthus, Actineria, and 
others. In spite of the solid skeleton which I have described, I 
must, however, remark that the softness of the body is unusually 
great in the present species, and nobody in observing the pulpy 
appearance of the same would suspect solid scleroids in it. 

c. The collar, or the upper margin of the column, is generally 
slightly marked, though always indicated by a slight contraction below 
the upper edge. In the abnormal positions of the species, it becomes 
occasionally much more prominent, (see figs. 6, 7, 8, and 9 in pi. X) ; 
the muscular tissue is also much stronger on it, than on the other 
parts of the column, and sometimes nearly hardend. The cinclides on 
the collar are generally the largest, often forming a continuous series at 
its outer edge, while other loop-holes are irregularly dispersed over the 
entire column. 

d. The disc, forming the upper part of the body, is very soft and 
transparent ; it is only marked by radiating furrows which, strictly 
speaking, are in the present case an essential part of the tentacles. 
It probably consists like these only of four layers, the innermost, 
containing the scleroids, being wanting, or at least so much reduced, 
as to be hardly traceable. 

e. The tentacles partially originate, according to the above state- 
ment, at the mouth, becoming isolated some distance from it ; 
towards the periphery they are separated from the collar by a broad 
groove. 

In the expanded animal, they are roundish, or slightly compress- 
ed from front to back, strongly inflated in the middle and at their 
roots, becoming after the first half length rapidly thinner. Their 
tips are slightly swollen or obtuse, and perforated. Externally the 
surface of the tentacles is smooth ; but under the glass fine whitish 
spots, indicating the presence of cnidce, may be observed (pi. X. 
fig. la). In the primary tentacles of older specimens the whitish 
specks are visible to the naked eye (see pi. X, fig. lb). The anatomical 
structure (see pi. X, fig. Id) of each of the tentacles is similar to that 
of the septa, except that they appear to want the scleroid layer. 
They are enveloped in a soft and usually very thick,- mucous outer 
layer, being a little more consistent only at their bases. The cni<he 



40 Anatomy of Sagartia Schilleriana [No. 1, 

of the outer layer are of the same shape as those of the column, but 
slightly longer ; the ecthoramm being about the same length as the 
cell, or a little shorter and distinctly turned inside ; the largest cnidce 
are not more than ^-g-^th of an inch in length (pi. XI, fig. 7). 

Below the mucous layer, there is a thin muscular, then a pigment, 
and below this again a muscular layer (pi. X, fig Id). When the tenta- 
cles shrink in a sickly or a dead specimen, they have the appearance of 
thin, undulating threads, with a dark green centre, surrounded by a trans- 
parent viscous layer ; the former representing the three inner, the latter 
the mucous layer, with a large number of cnidce, (pi. XI, fig. la). 

In a full grown specimen there can usually be counted about 160 ten- 
tacles, sometimes more ; but I have not been able to trace in a perpendi- 
cular section more than five series of them. To illustrate the difference 
in the increase of the septa, and in that of the tentacles, as I presume it 
to be the case, I must direct attention to pi. XI, fig. 2, in which, on the 
right half, the disposition of the former, on the left that of the latter 
is shewn. The six primary septa meet, as I have formerly stated, in the 
centre of the base, but are not traceable on the disc. The six primary 
tentacles are seen to originate from each two tubercles of the lip, they 
are distinguished from others by their great thickness, though in length 
usually exceeded by the secondary ones. In the healthy animal they 
often are of a light fleshy colour, especially.at their bases, and snow-white 
towards the tips ; they are carried in a simple outward curve, generally 
with their tips, leisurely moving about between the other tentacles, 
which are more actively employed, .as already stated. Observed with 
a moderately magnifying glass, the greenish and reddish pigment cells 
can easily be traced out. The white tint of the tips is, I believe, only 
due to a very large accumulation of cnidce, which appear to be arranged 
in spiral rows, and become very distinct, when their inter-cellular sub- 
stance is removed by its more rapid decomposition. On pi. X, fig. lc } 
a representation is given of the tip of a primary tentacle, largely mag- 
nified. The cnidce of this portion of the tentacles differ little in form 
from others of the integument, except in their larger size, having at the 
same time a proportionately thicker ecthoramm. Their fluid contents 
is homogeneous, perfectly transparent, and the cell-membrane is rather 
more tough, than in other cnidce. 

In very young specimens, the white tips at first appear on the 



1869.] and Membranipora Bengalensis. 41 

three alternate primaries, subsequently and gradually on all six. 
In very old specimens, the tips of the next, and even partially of the 
third series, become white. Wherever there is a large accumulation of 
cniclce on the column, or where the cnidce are of a larger size, the 
white specks in the integument are readily recognised, even with the 
naked eye. 

To return to our former statement regarding the position of 
the tentacles ; the next, or second series of them, consists of twelve,* 
being distinctly traceable by a bipartition of the primary tentacles, 
with which they are connected on one side, while on the other, they 
extend to the lip. Thus, in position, the secondary tentacles origin- 
ate more peripherically, and in pairs alternate with the primary ones ; 
they often are the longest of all, being in large specimens about If — 2 
inches in length, and most of them indicate by their whitish tips the 
presence of numerous cnidce. This statement, relative to the position 
of the two first series of tentacles, is in the present species, based upon 
direct observation, but it was impossible to do the same with the 
other series ; though in the next at least, or the third cicle, a more or 
less regular bi-division partially appeared observable. Sometimes I 
could notice three tentacles of a next series springing up from one of 
the former series ; but this certainly is not the rule. Moreover, judg- 
ing from the total number of the tentacles, which appears to be rather 
constant in specimens of equal size, and allowing for accidental ir- 
regularities, we cannot be far from the truth, when we also accept a 
regular bipartition for the third and fourth series, as partially 
represented in fig. 2 of pi. XI. By this bi-division we obtain very 
closely the total number observed in live specimens, being about 160. 
In the specimen figured on pi. X, the tentacles of the first series had 
a length of 1\ inches, those of the second 1 j, of the third 1J, of the 
fourth f , and of the fifth % of an inch. 

f. The mouth is a transversally oval, or more or less linear opening, 
surrounded by prominent lips, which consist of twelve, elongated, 
inflated tubercles, between each pair of which originates one primary 
tentacle. On the two opposite ends of the longitudinal axis, ter- 
minate the gonidial canals with small roundish openings, (see c 

* The second series of the septa is only six, like the first ; thus tentacles and 
septa do not, as already stated, taKe equal steps in their development. 

6 



42 Anatomy of Sagartia Schilleridna [No. 1, 

in fig. 2, pi. XI). The functions of these internal canals have 
not as yet been traced out; I even failed to observe their ex- 
tensions into the internal space. Gosse, and others, suppose that the 
eggs and spermatozoa are ejected through them, though I usually 
observed these conveyed through the mouth. The tubercles placed 
on either side of the gonidial canals, have been called lentigines, they 
are smaller than the others, and bipartite, (see / in fig. 2 of pi. XI). 
There also often extends a groove from the gonidial canal towards the 
periphery, which has been termed gonidial radius, but this is hardly 
traceable in our species. The greenish or pale fleshy colours are 
occasionally very distinct on the lips, and the internal muscular tissue 
of the latter is stronger, than that of the disk and of the tentacles. 

g. The throat is the immediate continuation of the lips into the 
interior ; it is longitudinally sulcated, the furrows being marked by 
greenish lines, produced by the contraction of the pigment layer. 
The length of the throat from the lip to the larynx, is about half an 
inch ; towards the base it is slightly enlarged, and then forms a 
strong projection (the larynx) into the inner space. 

h. All along the throat the inner muscular layer, with the scleroids, 
is rather consistent, and especially so at the larynx, where it is very 
tough and nearly cartilaginous, often more so than at the bases of the 
septa themselves. This muscular strength of the lips, of the throat, 
and especially of the larynx, is of course indispensable for the existence 
of the animal, being not only required for the seizure of the prey, in- 
tended for food in the stomach, but also for its retention. 

i. The stomach, the internal axial cavity, is produced by an 
insinuation of the inner margins of the septa, these projecting 
to a greater or lesser extent into its space. The stomach extends 
from the larynx, which guards its entrance, to the base of the 
column. When the animal is expanded, the height of the stomach 
measures about § of the total height of the column. Gosse states that 
in some species, he observed internally on the septa thin, coloured 
layers, and is inclined to explain them as a sort of a substitute for I 
the liver. Nothing of these layers was observable in any of the 
specimens of the present species examined. The stomachial cavity 
is the receptaculum of the food, and contains besides several other 
organs which are placed peripherically. 



1869.] and Memhranipora Bengalensis. 43 

k. On the internal side of the larynx, and next to the entrance of 
the stomach, are suspended the mesenterial-threads, or craspeda. 
These are, in the present species, flat bands of one, or one and a half 
inch in length, being of a pale greyish yellow colour, and with the 
lateral margins partially rolled in, so as to have the appear- 
ance of nearly cylindrical tubes. They hang down loosely, and the 
greater portion of them lies in small heaps round the centre of the 
base. Their more central position as regards the reproductive organs, 
is clearly visible in the view of the base, (pi. X, fig. 5). There are 
always numerous threads together, but they cannot be easily distin- 
guished through the integument of the base. 

In figure 1. pi. XI, is given a representation of a specimen, which had 
itself turned inside out. In the centre the thickness of the primary me- 
senterial septa is clearly traceable, then the pairs of the ovaria, partly at- 
tached to the septa, and beyond those towards the periphery, the very 
numerous craspeda, and then follow the tentacles, with their shrunken 
tips ; — two of the threads extending beyond the periphery representing 
the acontia. The craspeda are seen constantly winding up and down, like 
worms, contracting and expanding, and thus shewing great vitality, but 
I have not observed in them any rapid motions ; they are never ejected 
through the cinclides. Examined under the microscope (see figs. 8 and 
8a, pi. XI) their cnidae are seen to be arranged in two marginal rows, 
lying with their longer diameter perpendicularly to the length of the 
craspedum, and leaving in the middle a sort of a canal or a string, 
which is filled with a cellular substance and a veiy large number of 
pigment cells ; no larger cnidce being visible in the centre. The cellular 
substance probably assists in effecting the muscular motions. The cnidce 
are distinguished by a considerable length, (the longest about T £oth 
of an inch), being rather straight, generally attenuated at one end 
and usually shewing in a slight curve an indistinct central line, indicat- 
ing a moderately long but very thin ecthoraaum ; this latter is rarely seen 
ejected, but if it is it appears to be about one-third longer than the 
nettle-cell itself. The thinner ends of the cnidce slightly project on 
the lateral marginal surface of the craspedal bands, giving them a 
very fine ciliated appearance. Numerous pigment cells and others are 
also observable between the marginal cnidce. 

The true nature of the craspeda in the physiological economy 



44 Anatomy of Sagartia Schilleriana [No. 1, 

of the animal is not known, and various suggestions have been 
made as to their signification. It appears to me that most pro- 
bably they represent some organs of secretion. It is, however, 
likely that they also serve other purposes at the same time. I 
shall subsequently relate a case which tends to prove that they 
are especially active when the Sagartia takes some food into its 
stomach, thus, by their natural central position, they not only guard 
the reproductive organs against any injury from hard particles which 
are received as food into the internal cavity, but they most probably 
also facilitate the maceration and digestion of the food. The ready 
nutriment, or chillis, must be absorbed by the entire inner surface of 
the body, for no special organs are observable for its distribution. 

1. Next in importance, for the existence of the animal, appear to be 
the acontia, which are also flat bands consisting of cnidce ; these being 
likewise arranged transversally in two rows on either side, leaving a 
narrow space in the centre which is, however, in the present case occu- 
pied by large transparent cells, a very small quantity of a fine granular 
substance, and by cnidce of different size (see figs. 9, 9a, 9b, pi. XI). 
The marginal cnidce are projecting at the edges about one-fourth or 
one-fifth of their length, and not unusually have their ecthorcea ejected. 
The cnidce of the acontia are distinguished by their great length 
(some of them being above 4^o tn °f an inch) ; they are either straight, 
or more often slightly curved, and almost equally attenuated on both 
ends. The ecthorcea, when ejected, often exceed the cnidce by one 
half of their length, and are sometimes doubly as long ; their thickness 
is about y'g-th of that of the cnidce, being hollow and provided nearly to 
the tip with short, reversed cilia (fig. 9a, pi. XI). It is not improba- 
ble that the ecthorcea of all the other kind of cnidce are also bearded 
but I have not been able to observe their minute cilia, The 
cellular substance in the centre of the acontia is transparent, but 
the large number of the marginal cnidce produces a milky white 
colour, which strongly contrasts with the purple colour of the ovarii 
and the yellowish craspeda, and thus niaJies the acontia readily 
discernible. 

The acontia are in constant motion, expanding and contracting, 
and winding up and down in different directions ; their movements 
being much quicker, than those of the craspeda. Their length 



1869.] and ALcmbranipora Bengalensis. 45 

generally amounts to three or four inches, probably sometimes 
more. I have seen them ejected on every part of the column, 
even at the base, when the animal is forcibly removed from its 
place of attachment, in which case the large number of the acontia 
forms a regular net work round the animal. It is, I believe, 
principally clue to the bearded ecthorsea of the cnidce, that the acontia 
stick firmly to every thing which they meet, until the hooks are 
forcibly removed, or until the organs themselves relax. For small 
animals the acontia are, therefore, formidable weapons, and there can 
be little doubt that the fluid of the cnidce acts as a kind of poison, in 
the same way as it does in the Acalephce. 

The different modes of emitting the acontia from the body will 
be mentioned subsequently, but I must make here some observa- 
tions regarding their internal attachment, although it is very 
difficult to pronounce a conclusive opinion on this point. I have 
dissected several specimens for the sole purpose of obtaining a clear 
idea as to the places where the acontia originate,* and it always 
appeared to me that some of them are attached at the larynx, between 
the ovaria and the craspeda, but at the same time there seem to be 
some of them fixed below, near the centre of the base, between the 
muscular thickenings of the mesenterial folds. I am not aware 
whether any thing about the attachment of the acontia has been 
previously observed, and it is possible that the basal attachment is 
only auxiliary to the one at the larynx, so as to support the mus- 
cular power required for their emission. 

m. Each ovarium, consists of two parts, one placed on either side of 
the primary septa. The ovaria are long undulating strings, which are 
firmly attached with one end on the internal side of the larynx, then 
partially all along the internal cavity between the mesenterial folds, 
and loosely by some threads to the base. The halves of each pair are 
perfectly symmetrical, they run in a slight curve, generally parallel to 
the convexity of the column. The colour is a bluish purple, slightly 
varying in tint in different specimens. 



* This operation is indeed not so simple, as it would appear, judging from the 
transparency of the animal. As soon as a portion of the \ cut uff, it 

immediately contracts to such a degree that it is almost impossible to observe 
separately any of the internal parts. 



46 Anatomy of Sagartia Schilleriana [No. 1, 

Blainville was one of the first who pointed out different sexes in 
the Actiniacea, and since then, it has been repeatedly stated, that 
some of the species are hermaphrodites, while others appear to be sex- 
ually distinct. I have examined a large number of specimens of the 
present species, and always found the ovarian strings consisting of 
ova only, being connected by thin threads, attached to a conspicuous 
median string, and enveloped in a pale purplish coloured mucous 
substance, (see pi. XI. figs. 10, 10a, 10b). The eggs usually were 
of various sizes, some of them small, evidently in a young stage, 
others much larger, those of largest size measuring about Z * T of an 
inch in diameter, so as to be distinctly visible even without a 
glass, (see fig. 10a, pi. XI). The apparantly ripe eggs were perfectly 
globular, each attached to the ovarium by a thin string, it possessed a 
markedly thickened epidermis, surrounding a finely granular dark 
substance, and having a large, usually eccentric transparent spot, 
with a minute opaque centre, (see fig. 10b, pi. XI). Besides 
these eggs there were always smaller and larger globular masses 
of irregular shape visible ; they were in a constant rotating motion, 
and probably represented earlier stages of ova, or others in a 
state of furcation. Boiled in hydrochloric acid, the ova remained 
almost unchanged, from Avhich it would seem that their epidermis 
partially consists of chitin, which I have reason to believe is also 
represented in the integument. In the mucous substance of the 
ovaria cnida are sometimes observed of an elongated oval shape, 
having a thin remarkably long and strongly bearded ecthorceum, as 
represented in fig. 10c on pi. XI. 

With respect to the sexual difference of our Sagartia, I have to 
record the following observations which, when confirmed, may throw 
some light upon the generative system of the Actiniacea. After 
having kept the specimen, figured on pi. X, and the history of which 
I shall relate subsequently, for about 18 days in my aquarium, it be- 
gan in small quantities to issue from its mouth a milky white, 
viscous substance which, upon examination under a very high power 
of the microscope, appeared to consist of small round globules of 
different sizes, not however exhibiting any motion. There were only a 
few cnidce interspersed in that mass. Sickly Actinice are said often to 
issue a similar white substance, but in the present case I could not 



1869.] and Membranipora JBengalensis. 47 

see the slightest distinction between the character and form of those 
granules (pi. XI, fig. 11) and early stage of eggs, attached to the 
ovaria themselves, except that the former were deprived of the purple 
coloured coating, which always surrounded the latter, when connected 
with the folicles of the ovaria. In connection with the white viscous 
mass, there were occasionally issued pale yellowish, contorted bands. 
Each of these consisted of a thin but tough, almost leathery skin, 
with numerous irregular partitions (pi. XI, fig. 12) filled with 
extremely minute spermatozoa ; on one side the edge of the band 
was considerably thickened. The spermatozoa appeared as round 
globules, each with a very thin and short tail (pi. XI, fig. 13) ; their 
motions were extremely rapid in all directions, and whenever a few 
eggs were introduced into the mass, the spermatzoa were seen 
collecting round each (pi. XI, fig. 14), until they formed a regular 
coating to it. Eggs observed a few hours afterwards, distinctly 
exhibited a motion of their fluid contents, but I have not been able to 
trace their further changes and development. It is not at all impro- 
bable that the spermatozoa, and in fact the whole of the male folicles, 
are developed, as in many other corals, either at a certain season of 
the year, or at a certain age of the animals. The act of fructification 
may result in the death of the animal, but this is not at all likely to 
be always the case. I shall subsequently again recur to this subject 
in somewhat more detail, as connected with the existence of the 
animal. 

c. Physiology. 

In tracing out the principal physiological phenomena of the 
present Sagartia, I may best attain my object by briefly relating the 
history of the specimen figured on pi. X. 

The specimen was obtained, on the 22nd March, 1868, in a tank 
close to the railway station of Port Canning. I filled my aquarium 
with a quantity of the same brackish water, and placed the specimen 
with several others of smaller size in it. During the first ten days, 
the large specimen exhibited great activity, usually having its 
tentacles spread out, attacking every small animal that came in 
contact with them. The six primary tentacles, being considerably 
thicker than the rest, were bent out in a curve, usually leisurely 



48 Anatomy of Sagartia Schilleriana [No. 1, 

moving about between the bases of the other tentacles. The least 
touch with a solid object of any part of the body, or even an unusual 
movement of the water, or the sudden direction of the sun's rays 
against the animal instantly effected its sensitiveness, the effect being' 
a total or partial contraction of the bod'/! J At this net a quantity of 
water was emitted, and generally a few acontia" wqxq ejected from the 
cinclides of the collar, this being done with such a force, as to make 
the acontia rise nearly two inches in a perpendicular direction. They 
usually remained for a few moments in the extended position, and 
were then gradually rolled up in a closely coiled spiral line and re- 
tracted. Seldom were there any acontia seen to issue from any other 
part of the column. According to the magnitude of the disturbance, 
from one to about five minutes elapsed before the animal, when it 
had once entirely closed the disk, expanded again. 

After the first ten days, the specimen gradually lost somewhat of 
its high sensitiveness ; it almost constantly remained expanded, but 
the tentacles were much less active than before, and it required a 
rather forcible touch to induce the animal to retract them. In a 
similar manner, the expansion of the body, or the unfolding of the 
tentacles was remarkably slow, though the animal would not volun- 
tarily remain closed longer than five or six minutes. Other specimens, 
however, which also partially lost their original sensitiveness, would 
remain closed for several hours ; some of them did not expand their 
tentacles, even for many days, at least not in the day time. 

The acontia were always first discernible to begin their movements 
near the centre of the base, -proceeding towards the periphery, then 
rising along the wall of the column, till they met a cinclis, through 
which they were ejected ; they did not, however always rise as high as 
the collar. When they came in contact with a foreign object, they 
attached themselves so firmly, that they had to be removed with force. 
This attachment is, as I have already stated, undoubtedly due to the 
serrated or bearded ecthorcea of their cnidce which are of consider- 
able length. The ejection of the acontia is almost momentanous, but 
the retraction sometimes extends over 8 or 10 minutes, or even 
longer ;-in a perfectly healthy animal for about three minutes. When 
the acontium is retracted within the body, it again usually remains 
lying for sometime along the wall of the column, or is coiled up at the 



1869.] and Membranipora Bengalensis. 49 

periphery of the base, till it wholly disappears towards the centre. 
I have never seen any acontia issuing from the tentacles, or any part 
of the disc ; as a rule they are emitted only from the sides of the 
column, but when the animal has been removed from the place of 
its attachment, I have seen them as already stated, to be emitted from 
the base near its periphery. 

Grosse says that each cinclis is not assigned to a special acontium, 
but that at the contraction of the animal, a quantity of water is thrown 
out, carrying the acontia with it, and issuing them through any cinclis 
which happens to lie nearest. This appears in general to be correct ; 
but at the same time it can, I believe, hardly be questioned that 
some muscular power is connected with the issue of the acontia, and 
perhaps the motion of the water only supports the former principal 
action, and directs the acontium towards a cinclis. It would be, for 
instance, impossible to understand why in the fresh and healthy 
animal, nearly all acontia issue at the collar ; and besides that some 
of them are under circumstances issued with great force in a contracted 
state of the animal, where extremely little water is given out. More- 
over it is very probable that the same muscular power which retracts 
the acontia, after they were ejected, is also in operation at the act of 
their emission. 

Regarding the digestive system of which I have previously treat- 
ed, I must here record a very interesting observation, inasmuch 
as it supports the suggestions previously made. I fed a large 
specimen with a small Crustacean, -after it had been slightly press- 
ed, so as to reduce its active motions, and prevent its escaping 
from the mouth of the animal. The Sagartia kept the Crustacean 
for about five minutes between the lips, and then by almost insensibly 
slow movements of the labial muscles gradually swallowed it down. 
When this had been done, it remained in a half contracted position 
for more than an hour. During this whole time the craspeda were 
seen much more actively moving about, than either before or after 
that. The Crustacean was actually so thoroughly enveloped in the 
net of the craspeda, that I could not trace its form ; even the next day 
the craspeda were seen more approximate and arranged round the 
central space, than they were on former occasions. This observa- 
tion appears to be in favour of my previous statement, that the 

7 



50 Anatomy of Sagartia Schilleriana [No. 1, 

physiological signification of the craspeda is to some extent that 
Of secretive organs, as liver, gall, panacreas &c, being essential 
for the digestion of the food. It would be probably going too far 
in stating that the ready chylus is also conveyed through the craspeda 
to the body, though the anatomical structure of their central portion 
is not directly opposed to this opinion. There can be however, little 
doubt that by the numerous marginal enidce, the craspeda have 
among others the object of protecting the generative organs from any 
injury which could be produced by the objects taken internally as 
food. The acontia evidently only serve for external defence, they do 
not seem to have any other physiological duties to perform. 

Passing these remarks, I may return to the history of our specimen. It 
remained in the less active state, as previously described, for about 8 or 
10 days. After this time it generally somewhat retracted the tentacles 
raised the disk and the lips (pi. X, fig. 7), and began to emit from the 
mouth a granular substance, the granules appearing, as I have already 
noticed, to be eggs in very early stages of development. The white 
substance was extremely viscous, and in irregular masses more or 
less resembling contorted strings. The next day I observed that, 
besides the white substance, there also were pale yellowish strings 
issued, containing the very minutest spermatozoa, as above described 
(p. 47). This issue of white substance, with eggs (?) and spermatozoen 
follicles lasted in intervals for two days, after which the specimen began 
to expand and contract its body in various ways. The tentacles were 
reduced to about half their usual length, the lips were projecting, the 
disc was occasionally produced, then again retracted, the collar more 
or less inflated, and at the same time, either the upper or the lower 
part of the body attenuated and extended, sometimes to more than 
double the usual length, (see pi. X, figs. 6, 8, 9). These various 
transformations of the body were observed for about 8 hours, during 
which time the Sagartia left its former place of attachment, (being a 
small piece of wood) and was seated at the bottom of the aquarium, 
on a horizontal ground. The next morning the specimen was found 
flat, perfectly turned inside out, exhibiting all the internal organs, 
(pi. XI, fig. 1). The acontia, craspeda, and even the tentacles shewed 
subsequently signs of vitality for more than 24 hours. Upon examining 
the figured, and another specimen which died under similar conditions, 



1869.] and Membranvpora Bengalensis. 51 

I found that the eggs on the ovaria were rather larger than usually in 
other live specimens, and the spermatozoa were accumulated in large 
numbers between all the mesenterial folds, and some of the pale 
strings which contained them, appeared to be attached irregularly 
between the ovaria. In a third instance they almost seemed to me that 
they have taken the place of some of the craspeda. 

The important question resulting from this observation is, whether 
the death of the specimen was an accidental, or a natural one. I 
would not in the least deny, that the somewhat different conditions 
under which the animals were placed, accelerated the death of two of 
the specimens, but it would be strange to affirm that their death was 
caused merely by these different conditions,* inasmuch as they had 
hardly any influence upon other specimens, living in the same 
aquarium, and remaining healthy for a long time. Before those 
observations were made and afterwards, I had at different times dissect- 
ed several specimens, but I never found a trace of any spermatozoen 
follicles, or any spermatozoa between the ovaria, though the ova were 
sometimes of large size and highly developed. I have, never observed 
internally any young Sagartics. Still it appears very probable that 
the present species is like many other Acliniacea viviparous, this 
being the ordinary course of propagation. I have likewise not 
observed any buds or stolones, or a natural division of any of the 
specimens. However, either at certain times of the year or, more likely, 
at a certain age the male follicles may be formed and spermatozoa deve- 
loped in large numbers. The death of a specimen after the act of 
fructification may be only an accidental one, but this has still to be 
confirmed by other observations. In the specimen of which I have 
given the history, the eggs remained after its death perfect, only 
loosened from the ovarian strings, while the other animal substance 
quickly decomposed. G-osse says that he once observed an Actinia issuing 
spermatozoa, but he does not state whether the act resulted in the death 
of the specimen or not. Blainville's observations, if I remember rightly, 
gave a distinct proof that in some species ovaria and spermatozoa are 
developed in one and the same specimen. 

* Being probably a slight alteration of the percentage of the saline consti- 
tuents of the water, caused by evaporation, (though this percentage was 
maintained as much as possible), greater exposure to light and increased 
temperature, want of sufficient motion in the water, etc. 



52 Anatomy of Sagartia Schilleriam [No. 1, 

It is usually stated that, when an Actinia is cut into a number of 
pieces, each restores itself to a perfect animal. Though this kind of 
propagation no doubt has its limit, I may, record, that experiments 
made on some specimens of this species in general confirm the great 
vitality and reproductive power of the Actiniacea. 

With the object of observing some of the ovaria, I once cut a speci- 
men in two halves, and left one part of it in water attached to a piece 
of wood. In about 24 hours I found the half Sagartia closed again and 
after a few days the animal was perfectly restored, only counting a 
smaller number of septa, but even these were in time partially replaced. 
The specimen, however did not grow larger, although I fed it with 
mosquitoes and various larva? for about six months. The other half 
which was removed from its place of attachment died shortly afterwards. 

d. Habitat. 

It is generally stated that all the Actiniacea are truly marine 
animals, and there are indeed very few instances known where 
species have for a time been kept in aquaria in which the saline con- 
stituents of the water were in proportion considerably less, than repre- 
sented in pure sea-water. Actinice, and others, are sometimes found 
attached to rocks above the low-water mark, or living in small pools 
of sea-water, but I am not acquainted with any record of a species 
having been observed living permanently in brackish water. 

The present species was found, as I have already stated, in one 
of the tanks close to the railway station of Port Canning. It lives 
here attached to old trunks of trees* I have not observed it in any of 
the other tanks, partially on account of a difference in the water, 
partially on account of the want of any fit places of attachment. The 
specimens which I collected were of different size, the smallest about 
one quarter of an inch in the basal diameter, and the largest measuring 
about 1 J inches in the same diameter. They usually were seen 8 
or 10 inches below the surface of the water but sometimes at the sur- 
face itself ; sometimes even a part of the animal was above it, and 
while the exposed portion became perfectly dried up under the direct . 
influence of the sun, the other half remained as usually vital. 

Slight progressive movements have often been observed in Actinia 

* Hseckel's name Petracalephce would on this account not suit this species, "WO 
had to create a name something like Lignacalephce. 



I, 



1869.] and Membranipora Bengalensis. 53 

and I may mention, that one of my specimens moved in 24 hours by 
gradually contracting and expanding its base* four inches on a level 
horizontal bottom, and three inches on the perpendicular side of the 
glass, so as to reach the surface of the water ; in all therefore seven 
inches. All the specimens shewed a particular liking to move rearer 
to the surface of the water. The above shews that the Sagartia has 
the power to move progressively at about the rate of 0.26 of an inch in 
one hour, which is comparatively a very quick motion for these usually 
sessile animals. 

The species is also common all along the banks of the Mutlah river. 
During low water the specimens often remain for hours exposed to the 
direct influence of the sun, attached to wooden pillars, stems of trees, 
&c. Each specimen always retains a large quantity of water during 
the time of exposure, and gives a portion of it up when disturbed. 

In conclusion I have only to mention a few words regarding the 
chemical constituents of the brackish water, in which the animals 
were found living, as compared with those of sea water. Mr. D. 
Waldie, who very kindly undertook to make an analysis of the 
water, tells me that 1000 grs, contain a total quantity of solids of 
12.87 grs., of which are 0.78 sulphuric acid (anhydrous), 0.78 
magnesia and 0.23 lime. Mr. Waldie further observes, " the arrange- 
ment of the constituents is arbitrary ; supposing the acids and bases 
are combined in accordance with the analyses usually given of sea- 
water, it will stand as follows : — 

Chloride of Sodium (including potassium), 9.81 

„ „ Calcium, 0.46 

„ ,, Magnesium, 0.93 

Sulphate of Magnesia, 1.17 

Carbonic acid, <fcc, 0.50 

12.87 

This will be found very nearly the composition of sea-water as to its 
principal constituents, but in quantity amounting only to very nearly 
one-third of sea-water for the same volume of water." Dana in his 
Manuel of Mineralogy also states that the amount of solid substances 
in sea-water changes between 32 and 37 parts in 1000 pts. of water. 
* Measuring about one inch in diameter. 



54 Anatomy of Sagartia Schiller iana [No. 1, 

We may, therefore, say that the brackish water from Port Canning is 
composed of very nearly one part of sea, and two parts of river -water. 

The occurrence of a species of Sagartia in brackish water, resembling 
in nearly all respects of its organisation marine species, is one additional 
fact how often an animal has it in its power to select or change the con- 
ditions of its life. It does not apparently depend so much on the quantity 
of certain solid constituents, composing sea- water, as it does on their 
presence in general ; smaller quantities of them may occasionally have 
no effect upon the animal life, but the absence of one or the other 
of them could likely produce a thorough change in the fauna. 

Considering the great disturbances of the atmosphere which have 
taken place towards the close of the last year (1867), we could 
suppose that these corals may have been transferred from the sea coast 
in the tank accidentally. This however is not the case. Although 
the water of the river is subject to constant changes of flood and tide, 
and contains a large proportion of fine mud and silt, which undoubtedly 
would greatly interfere with the existence of most other corals, the 
Sagartice live in it in large numbers. I also found them several miles 
north of Canning, in the tributaries of the Mutlah river, where the 
water is often much less brackish than further south. Besides the 
Sagartice there are in the same tanks at Port Canning, and in the 
neighbourhood, a large number of most interesting species of Mollusca 
living which mostly belong to marine types. Many of the animals may 
die or otherwise become less active, when during the monsoons the 
water of the tanks is nearly quite fresh, but some of them certainly must 
survive. Pure fresh water, or even that of the Hooghly obtained at the 
height of the flood, acted injuriously on the Sagartia. The animals, 
when placed in it were momentarily paralysed, though exhibiting 
vitality for some time afterwards, but they died in about 24 hours ; still 
I think it very probable that the specimens would gradually and in 
time get accustomed to the Hooghly water also and they probably also 
occur in this river further south, and nearer the sea. 

I have associated with this extremely interesting species, which gave 
me the opportunity of observing so many new points regarding the 
anatomy of the Actiniacea, the name of my friend, Ferdinand Schiller, 
who has been so actively engaged in the improvements of the locality 
where the species was discovered. 



1869.] and Membranipora Bengalensis. 55 

Phylum, Mollusc a. 

Sub-phylum, Himatega.* 
These animals are also called Moluscoidea, — they are without a 
complete nervous system, the heart is wanting and if present it is 
without an auricle. 

Class, Bryozoa or Ciliipoda (Polyzoa, auctorum). 
Heart and special organs of sensation wanting. 

Sub-claSS, GYMNOL^lMA.f 

With a simple row of tentacles. 

Order, Chilostomata.J — (Cellulinea d'Orb.) 
Cells more or less ovate, aperture not produced, closed by an 
operculum or a muscular lappet. 

Sub-order, Incrustata. 
Cells more or less attached by the entire, or a portion of their base. 

Tribe, Membranacea. 
Cells above wholly or partially membranaceous, the aperture being 
situated in that membrane. 

Family, FLUSTRELLARIIDiE. 

Cells without special pores. 

Genus. Membranipora, JBlainville. 

Cells large, depressed, their single layers generally incrusting 
different objects ; upper portion mostly membraneous ; aperture with 
simple, entire margins, situated at the anterior end. 

Species. Membranipora Bengalensis, Stoliczlca, 1868. 

PI. XII. 

Memb. polyzoario semi-calcareo, simplici, incrustante seu varie 
torto ; cellulis depressis, sexangularibus, longioribus quam latis, in 
seriebus alternantibus positis, supra membranaceis, minutissime porosis, 
infra ac lateraliter calcareis, in adultis ad marginem superiorem non- 
nullis spinis solidulis paulum elevatis instructis ; apertura in adultis 
speciminibus sub-rotundata, antice ad terminationem sita, maryinibus 
integris ah quantum prominentibus circumdata ; margine posteriori paulo 
producto atque scepius quatuor spinis postice prolonyatibus instructo : 

* Hasckel, Oenerelle Morphologie, Berlin, 1866, Vol. II. p. cv. 
t The other sub-class form the Phylactol^ema. 

X The other orders are Cyclostomata, Ctenostomata, Paludicellea and Urna- 
tellea. 



56 Anatomy of Sagartia Schilleriana [No. 1, 

spinis incequalibus, exterioribus brevioribus quam interior ibus. Animal 
virescente album, tentaculis longis, 14-18 instructum. 
a. Form of cells. 

The polyzoarium of this species is extremely variable, its form be- 
ing altogether dependent upon that of the object to which it is attached. 
It is either found incrusting stones or wood, or it grows on different 
water-plants,beingthen variously contorted and apparently partially free. 
According to this the cells undergo many variations, often so much so 
that it is extremely difficult to determine the characters of the species. 

As a rule they are hexagonal, slightly elevated, about twice 
as long than broad and posteriorly emarginated (pi. XII, fig. 1, f). 
The base and the sides are in full grown cells always solid, the 
upper portion more or less membranaceous, representing a usually 
slightly convex, very thin covering. The upper margins of the solid 
portion of the cell, — where the thin membrane is attached — are some- 
what raised, and each cell is separated from the next by a slight furrow. 
The aperture lies at the anterior end, being roundish and provided 
with somewhat thickened, elevated and solid lips. The anterior portion 
of each cell with its margin extends into the basal indendation of the 
previous one, while the posterior margin of the aperture is much 
more prominent, possessing a small thickened projection which is 
posteriorly often prolonged into four, radiating spines, the outer pair of 
these being much shorter than the inner one (see pi. XII, fig. 2). 

In consequence of the greater elevation of the posterior margin the 
aperture, when viewed perpendicularly from above, appears almost semi- 
circular, but viewed at about an angle of 45 degrees from the front its 
round shape* is distinctly perceptible. The posterior upper portion of the 
cell is always convex, thin, finely perforated, and according to the differ- 
ent stages more or less solid. The radii or ribs originate at the upper 
lateral solid edges and extend in a more or less regular way from 
both sides toward the centre. Sometimes, but not usually, they unite 
in the median line and form solid cross bars. The length of the 
radii also varies with the age of the cells, but their number appears 
entirely to depend upon the length of the cells, (see figs. 3, 4, pi. XII). 

* I mention this point here particularly, because the same roundish form of 
the aperture also occurs in many marine Ccllejporce and Lepraliw, and is usually 
stated to be semilunar, though in reality it is not so. 



1869.] and Membranipora Bengal ensis. 57 

In live specimens, the cells are so thoroughly transparent, that 
their detailed structure is very difficultly noticed ; but in dead cells the 
membranaceous covering generally disappears, and the solid radii or 
spines are seen to project towards the median line. It is, however, not 
always the case that they can be observed, even when the cells appear 
well preserved. On account of their great tenderness, they not only 
become in dried specimens variously contorted, but are often very easily 
broken off ; such is the case in almost all the fossil Membranipora. In 
some, even very old cells however, they remain rudimentary, or do 
not develop at all, with the exception of. one posterior, median spine 
which is always present. Again other very old cells become en- 
tirely incrusted, even at the aperture. All these variations of the 
form of the cells and the differences in the arrangement of the 
marginal spines are amply exhibited in figures 1-4 of plate XII, and 
these will give a better idea of those changes than any lengthened 
description. 

I hardly need to notice the great importance of the study of those 
structural differences of the cells in one and the same species. In the 
present case, I find that the cells which spread over a large flat surface 
usually are short and broad (fig. 3), those which incrust small, thin 
stems of water plants, and the like, are much elongated and narrower 
(fig. 4). Were these forms not passing one into the other, and had 
the animals not in each case been observed, one would certainly may 
think to have a good reason for acknowledging these forms as distinct 
species. How different would this be in the case of their being fossil 
Lepralice or Membraniporcn I It is certainly true that we often de- 
scribe merely fossil forms, and not species. 

Only the sides and the base of the cells are, as I have previously stated, 
solid ; they are chiefly composed of carbonate of lime, forming a thin po- 
rous layer. Each cell communicates through a large pore with each of 
the six adjoining cells. Two of those larger pores are found on each 
side and one in front and one behind. Sometimes, however, in younger 
cells the number of large pores is greater. When the polyzoarium is 
partially free, for instance in growing round a quantity of algse, each 
cell usually has at the base a long membranaceous tube, through which 
a muscle, originating at the lower side of the mantle, is protruded, 
attaching the cell to the plants, (figs. 7 and 8). The round opening 1 



58 Anatomy of Sag artia Schilleriana [No. 1, 

of this tube brocken off, with a slightly raised margin, is generally 
visible near the centre of the base of each dead cell, when carefully 
removed from its place of attachment ; it is rarely wanting except in 
very old cells (see pi. XII, figs. 5 and 6). When, however, the cells 
are firmly attached with their entire base the opening often becomes 
closed up, and in time disappears altogether. Viewing the basal 
portion of a polyzoarium each cell appears separated from the others 
by a raised margin, while their median portions usually are slightly 
excavated. The surface is finely porous. The usual colour of the 
cell is pure white, occasionally slightly opac or brownish. 

h. Animal. 

There is little of special interest that I can mention with reference to 
the animal of this species. It is enveloped in a perfectly transparent 
mantle, which lines the internal, slightly rugous surface of the cell, 
and appears to be firmly attached to it posteriorly and at the margins 
of the aperture (see fig. l,f pi. XII). When the cell is broken and 
the animal taken out, the mantle generally remains with the cell ; 
it is therefore very difficult to trace out the connection of the 
animal to its mantle. I have only observed a few very thin muscles 
posteriorly, but none anteriorly, though they also may exist. Equally 
difficult is it to observe the animal expanded, because the slightest 
motion of the water compels it to remain closed for a long time. 
When it protrudes out of its cell, the total length of the tentacles 
and a portion of the collar is visible. In the retracted position 
the V-form twisted viscera can be clearly traced through the cell- 
membrane. In the animal, taken out (fig. 1, h) of its cell, the 
length of the retracted tentacles (t) measures nearly one fourth of 
that of the entire body ; they are separated by a groove from the 
muscular larynx, in the centre of which lies the mouth ; then 
follow the viscera, usually somewhat contorted, being thickest in 
the middle, and by a sharp twist joining the membrane which 
surrounds the tentacles at about one-third distance from their 
base. At the end of the visceral cavity, there is usually seen one, 
Beldom two or three oval, dark bodies, — probably statoblasts. These 
viewed under the microscope, seemed to be filled with a rather 
homogenous, granular mass, but sometimes there was a contorted, 



18C9.] and Membranipora Bcngalensis. 59 

dark string visible, and the rest was filled with a clear fluid 
(fig. 1 i ). Whether this difference is due to different stages of growth 
I am not in a position to say. I have not observed their develop- 
ment in the present species, but I hope to recur to this subject at some 
future occasion, when treating of the development of some of our fresh- 
water Bryozoa. 

The microscopical structure of the animal is a granular, or cel- 
lular substance in which numerous greenish pigment cells are inter- 
spersed. There is no trace of cnidce, such as described in the Actiniacea 
and Acalephcd. The tentacles generally are moved about slowly, not 
being usually widely separated from each other, and the move- 
ments of each are independent from those of the other, they also 
often have the tips bent outward, (see fig. 1, g, pi. XII). It is 
generally stated that the tentacles of all the Bryozoa are tubular, but 
in the present species it always appeared to me, that they are flat 
bands with the lateral edges folded in, so as to leave a broad furrow 
in the middle. They consist of about six or seven rows of largo 
angular cells, being finely ciliated on either side. The cellular 
structure is perfectly different from that of the tentacles of the corals, 
but remarkably resembling, for instance, that of the tentacles or 
eye-pedicles of small G-astropoda (see pi. XII. fig. 1, 7c). ■ 

c. Groivth of the polyzoarium. 

The progressive growth of the polyzoarium of the present species 
deserves a short notice, inasmuch as the observations on this point are 
as yet rather imperfect. 

The terminal end of each fresh polyzoarium (see fig. la) is very thin 
and membranaceous, being wholly composed of young cells, in different 
stages of development. It is in all the incrusting species of this group of 
Bryozoa free, becoming attached only in an advanced age. The first stage 
(16) appears to be that of a small, flat and homogenous cell, filled with 
a quantity of a dark granular substance. This cell is produced in the 
form of a knosp from the previous cell of the same row. Young cells, 
especially seem to have the power of propagating themselves by buds, 
but in the old cells this mode is replaced by the formation of stato- 
blasts. 



60 Anatomy of Sagartia Schilleriana [No. 1, 

In a next stage, subsequent to that above mentioned, cells are 
observable in which the granular substance is a little reduced, but 
generally in the right basal corner a dark spot becomes visible with a 
translucent centre. This is the first distinct embroyonal form (fig. lc). 
Subsequent to this the upper edges of the sides of the cell and the 
base become more solid, (fig. Id), then a small spine appears posteriorly, 
but no aperture as yet in the upper membrane, though it seems to be 
indicated by an opac-line (fig. 1 e). In the transparent centre of the 
embryo there are furrows to be observed, radiating from the centre and 
indicating the formation of the tentacles ; a few thin muscles are also seen 
attaching the young animal to the posterior end of the cell. After 
this, the development appears to make more rapid progress ; the body 
extends, the twisted viscera become perceptible, the membrane covering 
the aperture is absorbed and the basal string which gives the cell a 
fixed position developed (fig. 1 jQ. Thus the animal is seen perfect, 
lying in the cavity of the cell, and the mantle becomes attached all round 
the margins of the aperture. At a progressive age, the statobasts 
appear in the posterior portion of the visceral cavity, and the upper 
membrane of the cell gradually attains a greater solidity by a number of 
thickened radii or spines. All these stages of cells may often be 
observed on only a small terminal portion of a large polyzoarium 
(fig. 1). The basal string is very strong in the young cells, but 
becomes obsolete in advanced age, as I have previously mentioned, 
it is therefore only a temporary organ, and not essential to the existence 
of the animal. 

I also may notice at this opportunity that I observed on one of the 
polyzoria, small membranaceous tubes attached between each two cells, 
near their apertural margins. Out of these tubes an organ was 
voluntarily, and independent of the animals in the cells, projected and 
retracted. It simply consisted of two fleshy flag dice ; these were 
probably the so called avicularia the true nature of which, — as appre- 
hensive organs, — is as yet little known, but the surface was so much 
covered with different Spongillcd, that I was unahle to trace the 
immediate condition of these supposed avicularia with the cells 
themselves. When the polyzoarium was dried, the membranaceous 
tubes and naturally also their contents disappeared. 



1869.] and Membranijoora Bengalemis. 61 

d. Chemical composition of the polyzoarium. 

When boiled in hydrochloric acid, the polyzoarium left as re- 
sidue a very thin membranaceous skeleton ; it was complete as 
regards form of the cells. This membranaceous skeleton could 
hardly be anything else, than chitin, as distinguished from the 
common horny snbstance by being insoluble in hydrochloric acid.* 
Subsequently I burned several portions of the polyzoria in a platina 
crucible, until every trace of organic matter disappeared. The cells 
were by this operation not materially affected, but placed in hydro- 
chloric acid, they were almost perfectly dissolved, they seem therefore 
to a very large proportion to consist of carbonate of lime. There was a 
small residue of siliceous spicuke and scleroid particles left, but these 
were most probably derived from the numerous S^ongillm adhering to 
the cells. 

e. Habitat. 

Membranipora Bengalemis was found at Port Canning with Sa- 
gartia Schilleriana in the same tank of brackish water ; it is, how- 
ever, much more widely distributed as the last. It also occurs in 
tanks, the water of which contains only about one fifth of sea-water. 
I found the species incrusting old trunks of wood on several places 
along the Mutlah river, on many points in the salt -lakes and in other 
places of the Sanderban. The present species does not, however, occur 
in fresh water, where it appears to be replaced by Hislopia, evidently 
belonging to the same family of Ghilostomata. There are a large num- 
ber of similar forms found on various places of the coast of the Bengal 
Bay. One of these, with smaller cells, is often seen on shells and 
fragments of wood coming from the lower portions of the Sanderban, 
but it is difficult to obtain it in good preservation. 

A marine species which I lately collected at Ceylon and at Aden is 
very like the one here described but it has the cells much more solid. 

I * The plates at the entrance of the oesophagus, or the so-called thocth, 
- have been found also to consist of chitin. 



62 Anatomy of Sagartia Schilleriana [No. 1, 

Explanation of Plates. 

Plate X, (p. 33). 

Fig. 1. Unfolded specimen of Sagartia Schilleriana, in natural size (see 
p. 33) ; 1 a, a portion of a tentacle of the second series ; 1 b, a portion of 
a tentacle of the first series, both enlarged twice the natnral size ; 1 c, 
termination of a primary tentacle, with the cnidce arranged in spiral 
rows, six times the natural size ; 1 d, longitudinal section of one tentacle, 
shewing the different layers of which it is composed, (p. 39). 

Fig. 2. Top-view of the specimen represented in fig. 1, when in a half 
contracted position, (p. 34). 

Fig. 3. Side-view of the same, with the ovaria visible through the trans- 
parent body, the tentacles half protruding, and several acontia ejected. 

Fig. 4. Side-view of the same specimen in a fully contracted position, the 
transverse rugations being more distinct than in the former positions, 
(p. 34). 

Fig. 5. View of the basis ; numbers 1-5 shewing the 5 series of the septa ; 
the dark spots, each situated on either side of the primary septa, 
represent the ovaria, and the striped marks, more centrally situated, the 
bundles of the craspeda, (p. 35.) 

Figs. 6 — 9. Side-views of the various abnormal forms of the same specimen, 
(p. 50). 

Plate XI, (p. 35). 
Fig. 1. View of a specimen turned inside out, the primary septa and the 

ovaria accompaning them being prominent, (p. 50) ; 1 a, represent three 

shrunken tentacles, enlarged. 
Fig. 2. Ideal representation of the distribution of the septa and tentacles 

according to the different circles (p. 40). 
Fig. 3. Ideal perpendicular section of a Sagartia, in half of its basal 

diameter, (see explanation of the various letters on p. 35). 
Fig. 4. Appearance of the mucous layer, enlarged 200 diameters ; 4 a, a few 

isolated cnidce, enlarged 500 diameters (see p. 36). 
Fig. 5. Upper or outer view of the scleroid tissue ; 5 a, the internal view 

of the same ; 5 b, calcareous scleroids ; 5 c, siliceous scleroids, very 

much enlarged, (p. 37). 
Fig. 6. A portion of the scleroid skeleton, after the specimen was burnt in a 

crucible (see p. 38). 
Fig. 7. Cnidce of the tentacles (p. 40). 
Fig. 8. Longitudinal section of a portion of a craspedum, and 8 a, its cnida, 

more enlarged (p. 43). 






1869.] and Membranipora Bengalensis. 63 

Fig. 9. Longitudinal section of a portion of an acontium ; 9 a and 9 b, its 

cnidce (p. 44). 
Fig. 10. A portion of an ovarium, 10 a, shewing the distribution of the 

eggs in the mass ; 10 b, eggs much enlarged ; 10 c, one cnida from 

the ovaria (p. 46). 
Fig. 11. Appearance of the spermatozoa slightly enlarged. 
Fig. 12. Male follicle, (see p. 50). 
Fig. 13. Spermatozoa, very much enlarged. 
Fig. 14. Eggs surrounded by spermatozoa, (p. 47). 

Plate XII, (p. 55). 

Fig. 1. Natural size, of a portion of the polyzoarium of Membranipora 

Bengalensis ; 1 a, enlarged, with two supposed avicularia on the left 

corner ; 1 b, — If, various stages in the development of one cell (see p. 59) ; 

1 g, a full grown cell with the animal partially protruding, the body 

seen through the transparent cell ; 1 h, the animal taken out (p. 58) ; 

1 i, a statoblast ; 1 7c, internal view of the terminal portion of a tentacle 

(p. 59). 
Fig. 2. Front view of a few cells, greatly enlarged, also shewing the spines 

attached to the lower lip (p. 57). 
Fig. 3. Front view of a number of cells of an oval shape ; 3 a, much 

enlarged portion of the upper surface, with two transverse, solid radii. 
Fig. 4. Much elongated cells which were attached to a stem of a plant. 
Figs. 5-6. Back-views of two kinds of cells, corresponding to figures 3 and 4. 
Figs. 7-8. Side-views two cells, shewing the lateral pores by which they 

communicate with the adjoining cells, and also shewing the lower string 

which is well developed in young cells. 



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On some neiv marine Gastropoda from the Southern Province of 
Ceylon ; — by Messhs. G-. & H. Nevill. 

(With plate XIII.) 

[Received and read 5th August, 1868.] 

The seven new species described in this paper, are the first of 
a considerable nnmber of new shells, fonnd by ourselves in Ceylon . 
Up to the present, we have succeeded in identifying over 1,000 
species, and are still obtaining many fresh additions, some of which 
are very interesting forms, and of which we trust, before very long, to 
publish as complete a list as possible. Ceylon has been much 
neglected in this respect, as regards marine Mollusca, nothing having 
been published about them, except the list in Sir E. Tennant's 
admirable work which, however, only mentions some of the well- 
known and characteristic Trincomalee species. 

Of the shells here described, two belong to the genus Oxijtioc, 
proposed by Rafinesque in the " Journal de Physic" of 1819, for a shell 
from the Mediterranean, 0. olivaeea ; the description is a very good 
one. Morch in the "Journal de Conchyliologie" for 1803, Vol. XT, 
mentions nine species as belonging to this genus, namely — 

1. 0. olivaeea, Raf., Malta. 

2. ,, Sieboldii } Krohn, Sicily. 

9 



66 On some new marine Gastropoda. [No. 2, 

3. O. brachycephalus, Morch, Loc. ? This species would seem 
to require confirmation, Morch having merely described it from 
H. & A. Adams' figure, intended for 0. Sieboldii, from which, how- 
ever, he states it differs too much to be possibly the same species. 

4. ,, Krohnii, A. Ad., Sandwich I. 

5. ,, pellucidus, ,, Loc. ? 

6. ,, Antillarunij Orst and Morch, St. Thomas. 

7. ,, viridis, Pease, Sandwich I. 

8. ,, Cuminyii, A, Ad., W. Columbia. 

9. „ Vigourouxii Montr, and Souv., N. Caledonia. 

There can be no doubt, the two last named species, must be re- 
moved to the genus Volvatella, Pease, (see Amer. Journ of Conch., 
1868, Pt. 2). 

We have also here described two species of the rare genus Cijlin- 
drobidla, formed by Fischer in the Journ. de Conch, of 1857, for 
a species from Guadaloupe, O. Beauii ; the only other species, as yet 
described, is from South Australia, C. Fischeri, Ad. and Ang. 

Of Krohn's genus Lobiger, two species have been described from 
the Mediterranean, L. Pkilipii, Krohn, and L. corneus, Morch ; a third 
named is from Guadaloupe, L. Souverbii, Fisch., and a fourth from 
Polynesia, by H. Pease, L. pecta. (Amer. Journ. of Conch. 1868, 
Pt. 2). 

Three species of Broderipia are known from the Philippines, B. 
iridescens, Brod., B. rosea, Brod., a'nd B. Cumingii, A. Ad. A fourth 
was described from Bourbon by Deshayes, B. nitidissima, the same 
writer records B. iridescens, as occurring at the same locality ; 
we have also ourselves found at Ceylon, the rare and pretty species 
B. rosea and add a new species under the name of B. eximia. 

The only species of the Delphinulince at all closely allied to the 
shell here described, Cyclostrema sub-disjuncta, H. Ad., is Delphinula 
nivea, Chemn. Indeed we do not feel quite sure, but that the present 
is the species originally described under that name, and that the shell 
described and figured for it by Kiener and Reeve, may prove to be 
a different one, certainly the two figures in Krister's Conchylien- 
Cabinet, one after Chemnitz, the other after Kiener, belong to per- 
fectly distinct species ; the present shell, if not the same, is very close 
to the former, but differs essentially from the latter. 



1869.] On some new marine Gastropoda. 67 

Fam. Philineid^;. 
Volvatella, Pease, 1860. 
Volvatella Cincta, n. sp. (Plate XIII, Fgs. 4. 4a 4b.) 

T. ovato-cylindracea, membranacea, involuta, in medio paululum con- 
stricta, utrinque producta ; postice abrupte contracta, antice lente ro- 
tandata atque subdilatata ; apertura postice angustissima, in medio 
clausa, antice subrotundata, labio paulo reflexo ; labro tenui, postice 
oblique desinente, in medio sinuoso ; epidermide cornea, pallide 
fusca, cingulis latis rufescentibus instructa ; striis incrementi minutis, 
regulariter flexuosis. 

Long. 11J Mil.— Diam. 6J Mil. 

Differing from its nearest ally, V. Vigourouxii, in the pecu- 
liarity of the epidermis and in the anterior part of its aperture being 
more rounded and not nearly so dilated ; there is also no callosity 
near the margin of the inner lip, the difference in size is equally very 
great, V. Vigourouxii being 24 Mil. in length and 14J in breadth. 

The animal resembles that of V. fragilis, Pease, (Am. Journ. of 
Conch. Pt. 2. 1868), the colour being bright orange with bands of red 
aggregrated corpuscles ; it lives in shallow water on reefs among coral- 
lines &c. ; when molested, exudes a milky fluid. 

Fam. Oxynoeid^j. 

Oxynoe, Baf., 1819. 

(Syn. Icarus, Forb. 1844. Lophocercus, Krohn, 1847.) 

Oxynoe delicatula, n. sp. (Plate XIII, Fgs. 5. 5a. 5b. 5c.) 

T. ovata, involuta, postice paulo contracta ac truncata, antice rotun- 
data, albida, tenuis ; apertura postice subcircularis, antice ovata, elon- 
gata, dilatata, marginibus prope terminationem posticam approximatis 
instructa, labio levi, tenui, labro postice paulo inflexo, ad marginem 
acuto. 

Long, 6 Mil.— Diam. 3| Mil.— Rare. 

The much smaller expansion of the outer lip, &c, at once distin- 
guish this species from 0. Sieboldii, which it most resembles. 



68 On some new marine Gastropoda. [No. 2, 

The animal of this species proves it to be a true Oxynoe, it is of a 
pale sea green colour spotted with round turquoise blue spots, it is 
found on reefs in very shallow water. 

Cylindrobulla, Fisch., 1857. 
Cylindrobulla sculpta, n. sp. (Plate XIII, Fgs. 3. 3a. 3b. 3c.) 

T. cylindracea, tenui, alba, medio angustata, postice sub-gibbosa ; 
sutura postice profunda incisa et ad temiinationem truncata ; labio 
incrassato, labro sinuose inflexo ; apertura antice subdilatata ac 
rotundata ; superficie striis incrementi minutis, flexuosis, postice 
crassioribus, prope rectis notata. 

Long. 6 Mil.— Diam. 4 Mil.— Very rare. 

Cylindrobulla pusilla, n. sp. (Plate XIII, Fgs. 2. 2a. 2b. 2e.) 

T. elongato-cylindracea, postice sub-gibbosa, truncatim desinente, 
alba,nitida, pellucida, tenuissima ; sutura postica angusta ; labro inflexo ; 
apertura antice transversaliter subdilatata, marginibus tenuibus instruc- 
ta ; superficie striis minutis, postice approximatis notata. 

Long. 4 Mil.— Diam. 2 Mil.— Very rare. 

Rather closely allied to O. JBeauii, but differing in the overlapping 
of the outer lip, &c. There also appears to be considerable resem- 
blance to a shell described by H. Peace as Volvatella Candida, (Amer. 
Journ. of Conch. 1868). 

Lobiger, Krohn, 1847. 
Lobiger viridis, n. sp. (Plate XIII, Fgs. 6. 6a. 6b.) 

T. ovata, involuta, tenuis, virescens, ultimo anfractu postice 
valde inflata ; apertura oblonga, antice attenuata et rotundata, postice 
breviter producta, sub-angustata ; labio tenui, prope recto, levi, lente 
elevato ; labro arcuate expanso, ad marginem tenui. 

Long. 3 J Mil.— Diam. 5£ Mil,— Very rare. 

L. viridis differs from the other species of the same genus in being 
anteriorly much more gradually rounded, as also by its greater tumidity 
near the spire, &c. 



1869.] On some new marine Gastropoda. 69 

Fam. Troohid^;. 

Cyclostrema (Tubiola) sub-disjuncta. H. Ad. 

(Plate XIII, Fgs. 1. la. lb. lc.) 

Delphinula tubulosa, n. sp. Proceedings Asiatic Society Bengal? 
August, 1868. 

T. tenuis, subturbinata, moderate umbilicata, spira paulo elevata, 
anfractibus quinis, fere tubulosis, rapide crescentibus instructa, ultimo 
prope terminationem dissoluto ; superficie striis numerosis spiralibus 
ornata ; apertura transversaliter sub-rotundata, marginibus tenuibus 
conjunctis ; labro supra atque ad basin insinuato. 

Long. 6J Mil.— Diam. 9 Mil,— Rare. 

Since the publication of the Abstract of this paper, where this shell is 
noticed as new, we find Mr. H. Adams has described it under the 
above name in the Proc. Zool. Soc. (1868, p. 293) from a specimen we 
sent to him some little time ago. 

Fam. Stomatiid^. 

Broderipia eximia, n. sp. (Plate XIII, Fgs. 7. 7a. 7b, 7c.) 

T. regulariter oblonga, patelliformis ; apice excentrice sub-postico 
paululum incurvo, antice sub-applanato, postice lente convexo ; super- 
ficie costulis radiantibus, longioribus ac brevioribus alternantibus, 
prope apicem obsoletis, interstiis fere sequidistantibus separatis ornata ; 
striis incrementi concentricis, minutis ; costulis albescentibus, sulcis 
fusco-rubidis ; testa interna margaritacea, in medio callositate tumcs- 
cente, incrassata. 

Long. 10 Mil.— Diam. 7 Mil.— Alt. 4J Mil.— 

Somewhat close to B. nitidissima, Desh., from Bourbon, though dis- 
tinguishable at the first glance. 



70 On Pandanophyllum and allied genera. [No. 2, 



On Pandanophyllum and allied genera, especially those occurring 
in the Indian Archipelago ; by S. Kurz, Esq., Curator of the 
Calcutta Herbarium. 

[Received and read 7th October, 1868.] 

The genus 'Pandanophyllum, established in 1844, by Dr. Hasskarl 
in his catalogue of the plants, cultivated in the Botanic gardens at 
Buitenzorg (p. 297) remained for a long time but imperfectly known, 
until Dr. Thwaites in his Ceylon plants, and Professor Otidemans in 
von Mohl and Schlechtendal's " Botanische Zeitung" directed the 
attention of botanists to this interesting genus of tropical plants. 

Some time ago I noticed, in Professor Miquel's supplement to the 
flora of Sumatra, several species which that author had placed in the 
genus Lepironia, but which doubtless are congeners of Pandano- 
phyllum. This circumstance has induced me to examine all the 
Indian species belonging to Pandanophyllum and its allies, and at 
the same time to describe those species, w T hich occur in the Indian 
Archipelago, as far as the materials at my disposal allow it. In 
the present communication, I shall briefly state the results which 
I have thus obtained, trusting that they will be acceptable to Indian 
botanists. The new genus, Thoracostachyum, of which I shall give 
a detailed characteristic in the course of this paper, forms to a certain 
extent a connecting link between Hypolytrum and Lepironia, but it 
is sufficiently distinct from both of them, and deserves to be treated as 
an independent genus of Cyperace^e. 

Scirpodendron, established by the late Zippelius in the Herbarium 
of the Botanic gardens at Buitenzorg, is the most gigantic of all 
the Cyperace^ I am acquainted with and, when destitute of flowers, 
it is hardly to be distinguished from stemless screw-pines. 

HYPOLYTKE.E, N. U. 
Spicae compositae squamis undique imbricatis sqamulis squamae * 
ut plurimum contrarie instructis ; spiculae solitariae, rarius teniae, 
squama opposita obtectae, compressae, 1 — multiflorae, diclines v. raro 
hermaphroditae ; flosculi masculi monandri, uni-squamulati, saepius 
ad squamulam solam reducti ; flosculus femineus centralis v. excentri- 



1869.] On Pandanophyllum and allied genera. .71 

cus, nudus v. rarius squamulatus ; stylus 2-3— ficlus ; achenium v. 
achenium drupaceum. 

I shall at first give a short review of the genera belonging to this 
tribe of the natural order Cyperace^:, and then enter in detail upon the 
description of the species, as far as this appears necessary. 

Conspectus generum. 

A. Pauciflorae. Spiculae 1-3— -florae; flosculi hermaphroditi v. 
diclines. 

1. Hypolytrum : Spicae corymbosae; spiculae 3 — florae; fl. masc. 
2-3 ; flosc. femin. nudus, centralis ; stylus bifidus ; achenia ossea. 

B. Multiflorae. Spiculae 6 — multiflorae ; flosculi diclines. 

* Achenia ossea. 

2. Thoracostachyum : . Spicae corymbosae ; spiculae circiter 6- 
florae; flosc. exteriores masculi, sequentes ad squamulas reducti ; 
flosculus centralis femineus, nudus ; stylus trifidas. 

3. Lepironia : Spica solitaria, sub apice culmi lateralis ; spiculae 
multiflorae ; flosc. masc. 1 — 6, vario modo inter squamulas vacuas 
dispositi ; flosc. centralis nudus ; stylus bifidus. 

* * Achenia drupacea. 

4. Pandanophyllum : Spicae capitatae, v. rarius solitariae, termi- 
nales ; spiculae 6-8 — florae ; flosc. 3 exteriores masculi, sequentes ad 
squamulas reducti ; flosc. femineus excentricus, squamulatus ; stylus 
2-3 — ficlus ; achenia acuminata, non stipitata. 

5. Cephaloscirpus : Spicae capitatae ; spiculae circiter 7-10 — 
florae ; flosculi 3 exteriores saepius masculi, sequentes ad squamulas 
reducti ; flosc. femineus excentricus squamulatus et squamulam vacu- 
am amplectens ; achenia longe rostrata et longiuscule stipitata. 

6. Scirpodendron : Spicae compacto-paniculatae ; spiculae 8-10 — 
florae ; floscul. centralis femineus nudus ; fl. reliqui omnes masculi ; 
stylus bi— (v. tri ?) fidus ; achenium majusculum. sulcato— 6 costatum. 

I.— Hypolytrum, Mich. 
Spicae laxe vel compacto-corymbosae, teretes. Squamae arete 
imbricatae, dein deciduae, inferiorum nonnullae vacuae, reliquae 
triflorae, anclrogynae. Flosc. masc. 2—3, monandri, uni-squamulati ; 
squamulae squama opposita breviores, carinato-compressae ; flosc. 
j femin. nudus, centralis ; ovarium oblongum v. sublagenaeforme ; 
stylus bifidus. Achenium styli basi conica spongiosa rostratum, 



72 On Pandanophyllum and allied genera. [No. 2, 

compressiuscule ovatum. — Herbae perennes, rhizomate oblique- ramoso 
lignescente, foliis trifarie equitantibus, frequentius trinerviis, basi 
complicatis, culmis trigonis paucifoliatis, foliis culmeis ochreaeforme 
vaginantibus, corymbis squamosis, spicis parvis v. pusillis. 

1. H. latifblium, L. 0. Rich, in Pers. Syn. I. 70 ; Kth. JEnum, 
II. Fll ; Steud., Cyper. 132 ; 3fiq. Fl. Ind. Bat. III. 333 ; Bth. Fl. 

Hongfc. 389 ; Kurz in Tydsch. Nat. Yereen. Ned. Ind. deel XVIII. 
164 ; ejusd. in Bot. Ztg. 1865. 204. — Folia lato-linearia v. linearia, 
sursum margine costaque apicem versus serrulato-scabra, trinervia, 
nervis lateralibus 2 crassis in pagina superiore obtuse prominentibus ; 
culmi paucifoliati ; corymbus amplus, intricato-ramosus, v. (in var.) 
simpliciuscule ramosus, contractus ; acbenia vix nitentia, in sicco 
lacunoso-rugosa v. sublaevia. 

Rhizoma crassum, ram o sum. Folia subcoriacea v. cbartacea, 
trifarie equitantia, lato-linearia v. linearia, flaccida, basin versus 
parum angustata, complicata, superne explanata, plicato-trinervia, 
margine a medio costaque subtus apicem versus serrulato-scabra, 
2 — 2J ped. longa, 1J — J poll. lata. Culmi penn. gallin. crassi 
v. graciles, strictiusculi v. debiles, trigoni, laeves, glaucescentes, 
pauci — 1 — 2 foliati. Folia culmea basi ochreaeforme invagi- 
nantia, fol. superius corymbo saepe valde approximatum et potius 
involucro adnumerandum. Corymbus confertiusculus v. divaricatus, 
nunc simpliciuscule nunc intricate ramosus, squarrosus, involu- 
cratus. Involucri pbylla solitaria, semiverticillos ramorum susti- 
nentia, sursum decrescentim minora et in bracteas transeuntia. Rami 
ancipites, laeves, v. acie scabrinsculi, basi bulboso incrassati ; in- 
feriores terni rarius quaterni, semiverticillati, 1J — 2 poll, longi, 
v. abbreviati basi unibracteati, superiores bini v. solitarii, basi 
bracteati ; ramuli J poll, longi, bibracteolati, apice 4 — 2 spiculas gerentes 
v. iterato ramulosi et bispiculati, basi vix incrassata ochreaeformi- 
bracteolati. Ramorum bracteae membranaceae, marginibus chartaceis 
ochreaeformi-vaginatae, 2 — 3 lin. longae, v. in ramulis superioribus - 
bractea inferior carinato-lanceolata acuminata, viridis, bracteola su- 
periore obtusa duplo longior. Spicae minimae, elliptico-oblongae, 
obtusiusculae v. acutiusculae, castaneae, nitentes. Squamae ovales, 
obtusae, infimarum nonnullae vacuae, reliquae 3 — florae. Flosculi 
laterales masculi, monandri, antlieris inclusis, uni-squamulati ; squa- 



1869.] On Pandanophyllum and allied genera. 73 

mulae carinato-compressae squama multo breviores ; flosc. centralis 
nudus, femineus, cum flosculis masculis quasi nosculum bisquamula- 
tum hermaphroditum representans. Ovarium sublagenaeforme, gla- 
brum ; stylus breviusculus, bifidus, ramis crassis exsertis. Ache- 
nium parvum, in sicco frequentius rugoso-lacunulosum, nitidum v. 
sub-canescens. 

Hab. — In hill forests, from Ceylon through Hindoostan to Birma, 
Malacca, and the Indian Archipelago, also occurring in the Philip- 
pines, Tropical Africa, Mauritius, Fidji islands. 

Native names : Harassas lalakki, Sund., according Hassk. ; ielat, 
Mai., but the same name is applied by the Malays to many other 
Cyperace^j. 

This would appear a very variable plant, judging from Bentham's 
identification of H. latifolium with H. trinerve. I myself have not met 
with the intermediate forms, and I accept here their identity merely on 
the authority of that distinguished botanist who, no doubt, had a more 
complete series to compare than I have at present at my disposal. The 
varieties might be distinguished as follows : — 

Var. a. genuinum, — spicae duplo majores, circ. 2 lin. longae, 
fiuctigerae, ovales, fusco-canescentes ; achenia oblonga, crasse rostrata 
praesertim rostro canescente puberulae. — H. latifolium, L. C. Pick., 

I. c. ; H. Mauritianum, JST. E. in Linn. IX. 288 ; Kill. Enum. 

II. 272; H. giganteum, Wall. Cat. 3404; N. E. in Linn. 
IX. 288 ; ejuscl. in Wight Contr. 93 ; H. diandrum, Dietr. Spec. 
II. 365 ; Albikia scirpoides, Prsl. Peliq. Haenk. I, 185, t. 35 ; 
Tunga diandra, Rxb. Fl. Ind. I. 184 ; Hypaelyptum nemorum, P. 
d. B. Fl. d' Oivare, II. 13 t. 67 ; H. ensifolium, Willd herb. 1450 ; 
Schoenus nemorum, Vhl. Symb. III. 8. (Rheede XII. t. 58) ejusd. 
Enum. II. 227. 

Hab.— Sumatra ; Singapore : T. Anderson, No. 204 ; South Anda- 
man ; Birma, Moulmein and Amherst : Wall. Cat. 3404 ; Penang on 
the hills (rompot ayam incol.) : Wall. Gat. 3404 ; Silhet : Wall. Cat. 
3404 ; Malay Peninsula : Griff. 6271 ; Fidji islands : Seemann. 

Var. p. trinerve, spicae minores, f ructigerae globosae, fuscescentes ; 
achaenia laevia, in sicco magis minusve lacunoso-rugata, nitentes, 
fuscescentes.— Hypolytrum trinervium, Kth. En. II. 272 ; Steud. 
Cyp. 132 ; Miq. Fl. Ltd. Eat. III. 332 ; Karz in Tydtch. Nataurk. 

10 



74 On Pandanophyllum and allied genera. [No. 2, 

Vereen. Ned. Lid. deel. XVIII. 164 ; ejusd. in Bot. Ztg. 1865, 204 ; 
Albikia schoenoides, Br si. in Belia. Haenk. I. 185, t. 34 ? Hypoly- 
tmm schoenoides, JV. i?. iw Zinw. IX. 283 ; Scirpus anomalus, Retz. 
Obs. V. 15; Hypolytrum myrianthum, Mia. Fl. Ind. Bot. III. 333. 

Sub-var. 1, contracta; — folia ultra poll, lata; culmi perm. gall, crassi ; 
coryrubi (praecipue fructigeri) contracti, ramosissima ramis inferiori- 
bus plerumque quaternatis. — Western Java ; Sumatra, in Priaman : 
Diepenhorst (paro-paro inc. ; Herb. Bogor. No. 2888.) 

Sub-var. 2, diffusa; — folia ultra poll, lata, culmi penn. gall, crassi ; 
corymbi divaricato-squarrosi, ramosissimi, ramis inferioribus ternatis. 
Rather frequent in the hill forests of Western Java, as on the Salak 
and Pangerango. 

It is often difficult to distinguish Sub-var. 1 and 2 from each other, 
as there are many transgressions. 

Sub-var. 3, gracilis; — folia vix. poll, lata, 3 — 3£ ped. longa ; culmi 
graciles ; corymbi divaricato-squarrosi, ramosi, ramis inferioribus 
ternatis. — This form is cultivated in the Botanic gardens, Buitenzorg, 
and most probably has come from the hill forests of the Pangerango or 
Salak. It is especially marked by the narrow leaves and the slender 
habit. 

Var. y minor, folia angustissima, J poll, lata v. angustiora ; culmi 
graciles ; corymbi parvi, ramis abbreviatis vix ramosis ; acheniis ut 
in var. /?. 

Andamans, on Termoklee island'; Ceylon : Thwaites, 3468. 

2. EL BomGense, Kurz. — Folia anguste linearia, apicem versus 
serrulato-scabra, sub-plana, nervis 2 lateralibus in pagina superiore 
impressis, subtus acute prominentibus ; culmi nudi ; corymbus parvu- 
lus, squarrosus, ramis vix ramosis ; achaenia laevissima, nitida, bisul- 
cata. 

Rhizoma stoloniferum, horizontaliter repens, squamatum, radices 
crassas demittens. Folia sub-coriacea, trifarie equitantia, e basi sen- 
sim angustata linearia, acuminatissima, trinervia, nervis omnibus 
subtus acute prominentibus, supra autem immersis, marginibus costaque 
subtus apicem versus spinuloso-scabra, 1 — 1£ pedalia, 6 — 8 lin. lata. 
Culmi foliis longiores, trigoni, nudi, laevissimi ; corymbus vix pollicaris 
in diametro, contractiusculus, basi phyllis 1 — 2 culmo ipso triplo 
longioribus sustentus ; spicae fructigerae subglobosae, iis H. latifo- 



1869.] On Pandanophyllum and allied genera. 75 

liae, var. /?. trinervis, simillima; achenia nitida, ovata, atrofusca, 
acuminata, in sicco bisulcata. 

Hab. — Borneo, Labuan : Barber, No. 193. 

This species, in general appearance, resembles H. latifolium y. 
minor, but may be readily distinguished by the nervature and the 
bisulcate achens. 

(3.) H. Longirostre, Thw. Fktum. PI. Zeyl. 346. 

Hab.— Ceylon : Thwaites, No. 3468. 

Species dubia. 

Hypolytrum compactum, N. F., in Linn. IX. 280 ; Kth. Enum. II • 
272 ; Steud. Cyp. 32 ; Mig;., Fl. Ind. Bat. III. 333. 

A Luzon species which by Steudel, and subsequent authors, is 
compared with Pandanophyllum humile, Hassk. 

II. Thoracostachyum. 

Kurz in Tydsch. Nat. Vereen. Ned. Ind., deel. XXVII. (nomen 
nudum). 

Spicae corymbosae, teretes. Squamae undique imbricatae, dein 
deciduae, inferiorum nonnullae vacuae, reKquae spiculam 6 — 7 
floram androgynam foventes. Flosculi 3 exteriores masculi, sequentes 
ad squamulas reducti ; flosculus summus femineus, uni-sqamulatus. 
Squamulae squama communi breviores et oppositae, carinato-com- 
pressae. Ovarium compresso-oblongum, utrinque attenuatum ; stylus 
trifidus. Achenium osseum, lenticulari-compressum, utrinque attenu- 
atum, rostratum. — Herbae habitu et vegetatione omnino Hypolylri, 
sed spicis multo majoribus rigide sauamatis insignes. 

1. Th. SumatrailUm, Kurz. Folia linearia, plicato-3-nervia, 
spinuloso-serrulata ; culmi foliis longiores, trigoni, oligophylli ; corym- 
bus polystachyus, involucratus, divaricato-squarrosus ; spicae obov- 
oideo-ellipticae, parvulae, in sicco stramineae ; achenia lenticulari- 
compressa, utrinque attenuata, rostrata, laevia. — Lepironia Sumatrana, 
Mia., Suppl. Fl. Sumatra, 604. 

Khizoma abbreviatum, verticale, radices crassas demittens. Folia 
firma, densa, trifarie equitantia, linearia, acuminata, plicato-trinervia, 
margine costaque subtus a medio spinuloso-serrulata, 2 — 2£ ped. 
longa, \ poll. lata. Culmi folia longitudine superantes, 3 — 3£ ped, 
longi, trigoni, striati, glabri, basi paucifoliati. Corymbus polysta- 
chyus, divaricato-squarrosus, ramis brevibus triquetris ; rami inferi- 



76 On Pandanophyllum and allied genera. [No. 2, 

ores foliis fere 1 — 3 ped. longis involucrantibus sustenti, reliqui sen- 
sim minora et in brae teas abeuntia. Spiculae 2 — 5 nae, aggregatae, 
oblongo-ovatae v. obovoideo-ellipticae, acutiusculae, majusculae, niten- 
tes, in sicco stramineae. Squamae cartilagineo-rigidae, convexius- 
culae, sursum deorsumque minores, elliptico-oblongae, obtusae ; in- 
fimae 4 — 5 vacuae saepe acutiusculae ; sequentes spiculam 7-floram 
androgynam includentes. Flosculi 3 exteriores masculi, monandvi, 
sequentes 2 neutri ad squamulas reducti ; flosc. intimus excentricus, 
femineus, uni-squamulatus, squamulam septimam sterilem amplectens. 
Squamulae laterales 2 compresso-naviculares, in carina ciliolatae, 
reliquae depressae. Ovarium e basi constricta compresso-oblongum, 
acuminatum ; stylus brevis, cum ovario continuus, trifidus, rami* 
elongatis exsertis. Achenium compresso-lenticulare, utrinque attenu- 
atum, styli basi persistente acuminato-rostratum. 

Hab. — Sumatra, in the forests of the Lampong district, near Ipil, 
Battang lekko : Teysmann (H. Bogor. No. 3932). 

Native names : Selingsieng (inc. Lampongensium). 

2. Th. Bancanum, Kurz, in Tydsch. Nat. Vereenig. Ned. Ind. 
XX7II. 286; ejusd, in Bat. Ztg. 1865. 204. Folia elongato-line- 
aria, spinuloso-serrulata ; culmi trigoni, aphylli ; corymbus involu- 
cratus, contractus ; spicae breviores, ellipsoideae, obtusae, pauci spi- 
culatae, in sicco griseae ; achaenia ellipsoideo-trigona, convexa, 
apiculata. — Lepironia Bancana, Miq. Suppl. Fl. v. Sumatra, 604. 

" Caulis subnullus ; folia densa,-trifarie equitantia, elongata, line- 
aria, marginibus carinaque spinuloso-serrulata; culmus trigonus, 
aphyllus, angulis versus apicem scabris ; involucrum inaequaliter 2-4 — 
phyllum; corymbus contractus, ramis 6 — 10 — stachyis, pedicellis ad 
angulos serrulato-scabris geminis ternis pluribusve confertis ; spiculae 
ellipsoideae, obtusae, squamis infimis vacuis subacutis, reliquis ovali- 
bus obtusis striulatis griseis cum levi rubore (sub anthesi) ; squamulae 
interiores 6 (?), quarum exteriores naviculari-compressae, carina 
ciliatae ; achaenia in singula spicula circiter 4, reliquis suppressis, 
ellipsoideo-trigona, faciebus convexis, sulco interjecto separatis, una 
majore, 2 aequalibus minoribus, crasso-crustacea, styli basi apiculata, 
(Miq. 1. c.) 

Hab. Banca, especially on river banks and in swampy places of 
the forests ; Singapore, near swamps : Wall. Cat. 3401. 



1869.] On Pandanopliyllum and allied genera. 77 

III. Lepironia, L. C. Rich. 

Spicae solitariae, infra culmi apice laterales, teretes, multi-spiculatae. 
Squamae spiraliter arete imbricatae, deciduae, inferiorum nonnullae 
vacuae, sequentiuru paucae passim squamulas steriles plurimas cum 
floscnlo femineo includentes, reliquae multiflorae, androgynae. Flosculi 
masculi monandri 1 — 6, vario modo interpositi, uni-squamulati, 
reliqui ad squamulas reducti ; flosculus femineus centralis, nudus. 
Squamulae carinato-naviculares. Antherae spurie 4-loculares, mu- 
cronatae. Ovarium sublagenaeforme ; stylus bifidus. Achaenium 
lenticulare, compressum, obovatum, styli basi persistente rostratum, 
osseum. — Herba perennis aphyllct Jiabitu Juncorum, rhizomate vage 
repente squamato, culmis teretibus basi vaginalis, spicis indole Scirporum 
quorundam. 

1. L. mucronata, L. G. Rich, in Vers. Syn. I. 170 ; A. Rich, 
in Dietr. Glass. 297 ; Kth., JEnum. II. 366 ; Miq., Fh Ind. Bat. III. 
346; Steud. } Glum. I. 181. — Scirpus coniferus, Poir., Encycl. 756; 
Suppl. V. 90 ; Restio articulatus, Retz., Obs. TV. 15 ; Chondrachne 
articulata, R. Br., Prod. 220. 

Hab. : Indian Archipelago, Sumatra in Lampongs : Teysm. Hb. 
Bog. 4249 ; isl. Banca ; Borneo, Banjermassing : Motley, Hb. 1267, 
Singapore. 

Distrib. New Holland ; Madagascar. 

Native names : Tikooh in Lamp. ; Pooron in Banca. 

Planta elegans, 2 — 3 ped. alta et altior, vegetatione Juncis acce- 
dens. Bhizoma vage repens, hypogaeum, radices crassas perplurimas 
emittens, squamis chartaceis testaceis v. brunnescentibus striatis 
obtectum. Culmi pennae scriptoriae crassitudinis v. crassiores, atrovi- 
rides, striati, intus transverse septati, in sicco ad septa nodosi, 
aphylli, basi p'auci-vaginati. Vaginae striatae, marginibus membra- 
naceis, mucronatae, culmo magis minusve concolores, basin versus 
fusco-purpurascentes, infimae 1 — 2 ovatae v. ovato-lanceolatae e 
rhizomate orientes ; sequentes magis elongatae amplectentes ; suprema 
usque semipedalis, caeteras longitudine nmlto excedens. Spica soli- 
taria, lateralis, elliptico-ovalis v. oblonga, obtusiuscula v. acutiuscula, 
multiflora, basi culmi processu dilatato versus apicem terete spurie 
bracteata. Rhachis elongato-conica, confertissime et spiraliter cicatri- 
sata, sublignea, intus medullosa. Squamae spiraliter dispositac, con- 



78 On Pandanophyllum and allied genera. [No. 2, 

fertissimae, post acheniorum maturitatem valde deciduae, inaequali la- 
to-oblongae, obtusissimae, concaviusculae, scariosae, ad niargines 
non raro magis minusve laceratae, fusco-ferrugineae v. badiae, apice 
intensius coloratae. inferiores paucissimae, vacuae, reliquae spiculam 
squama propria vix longiorem androgynarn continentes. Spicula 12 — 
15 flora, flosculi masc. unisquamulati, 1 — 6, monandri, reliqui ad 
squamulas reducti et sine ordine manifesta circum flosculum femin. 
excentricum nudum dispositi. Squamulae hyalino-albidae, apice 
brunnescentes, acuminatae ; laterales carinato-naviculares, carina ele- 
ganter ciliatae : staminigerae medianae depressae, marginibus intlexis ; 
steriles lineari-lanceolatae, planae. Antherae dein exsertae, spuria 
4-loculares, lineares, atropurpureae, mucrone albo terminatae, loculis 
longitudinaliter dehiscentibus, filamenta pilosiuscula, glabrescentia. 
Pollinia, irregulari-ovalia, sulfurea. Ovarium compresso-ellipticum 
uni-ovulatum, ovulo erecto, glabrum ; stylus bifidus. Achaenia plano- 
convexa, oblonga, utrinque attenuata, marginata, striata, nitentia, 
testacea, stylo persistente rostcllata ; rostrum dimidium fere longitu- 
dinis acliaenii ipsius attingens introisum curvatum. 

IV. Pandanophyllum, Hassk. 

Spicae solitariae v. capitato-compactae, teretiusculae, magnae, 
multispiculatae. Squamae undique imbricatae, dein laceratae et 
emarcescente-persistentes ; inferiorum plures vacuae, reliquae spicu- 
lam 5 — 8-noram androgynarn squama ipsa paullo longiores v. brevi- 
ores gerentes. Flosculi exteriores 3 masculi, monandri, uni-squamu- 
lati ; sequentes 2 — 4 steriles squamulis totitem representati ; flosculiis 
femineus excentricus unisquamulatus saepius squamulam sequentem 
vacuam amplectens. Squamulae laterales carinato-compressae, navi- 
culares, squamae contrarie insertae. Ovarium sublagenaeforme v. 
oblonguin ; stylus 2 — 3 bifidus. Achaenium obovatum, styli basi 
persistente rostratum, utrinque attenuatum, pericarpio carnescente 
indutum, nucleo lapideo, hilo excavato. — Herhae perennes, liabitv, 
omnino Pandmoium, rliizomate lignescente ; foliis trifariis basi com- 
■plicatis sessilibus v. petiolatis trlnerviis ; cuhnis trigonis, e stolonibus 
abbreviates squamatis ortis, nudis v. squamatis ; spicis solitariis v. 
capitalis, basi involucratis v. subnudis. 

1. P. palllStre, Hassk. Cat. Bog. 297 ; ejusd. Tydsch. Nat. 
Vereen. X. 118 ; Steud. Glum. I. 134 ; Zoll. Cat. 61 ; Walp. Ann. 



1869.] On Pandanophyllum and allied genera. 79 

I. 753 ; Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. III. 334.— Folia lato-linearia, acumi- 
natissima, trinervia, margine costaque spinuloso-serrulata, rigide 
coriacea ; ciilrai 1 — 1^ pedalia, aphylli, obtuse trigoni ; capitulum 

oligo-v. polystachyum, compactum, magnum, phyllis 3 — 4 latis 
squaniaeformibus eo ipso brevioribus v. aequilongis involucratum ; 
squamae lanceolatae, obtusae v. apice dilaceratae, sub-enerviae, char- 
taceae ; acbaenia inaequali-oblonga, styli basi acuminata. 

Var. a. Malesica, capitulis saepe pugni infantis magnitudine, 
hemispbaericis v. subglobosis, polystacliyis ; spicis autem duplo v. 
triplo minoribus. 

Var. /?. Silhetana, capitulis irregulari oblongis, e 3 — 9 spicis 
maximis compositis. 

Hab. — In damp hill forests in Western Java frequent, as on Pan- 
gerango, 3 — 4000' ; on the Salak 4—5000' ; var. /?, between rocks and 
tree stumps, Passir Madang, Probakti, 2 — 4000' ; Zollinger. Singa- 
pore : Wall. 3541 (young inflorescence) ; Silhet : Wall. Gat. 4474 
(var. /?). 

Native names : Bangkonoh or Harassas tjaee in Java. 

Rhizoma crassum, obliquum, radices crassas demittens. Folia rigide 
coriacea, trifarie equitantia, lato-linearia, acuminatissima, trinervia, 
marginibus rectangulariter deviis spinuloso-serrata, subtus in carina 
basi retrorse scabra, apicem versus spinuloso-serrulata, 6 — 9 ped. 
longa, \\ — 2 poll, lata, supra atroviridia, nitida, subtus glaucescenti 
viridia. Culmi 1 — 1^- pedales, deorsum sensim attenuati, obtuse tri- 
goni, basin versus subteretes, glaucescenti-virides, glabri, sublente 
albido-punctati. Spicae plurimae elliptico — v. conico-oblongae, \ — 1 
pollicem paene longae, capitato-conglomeratae, involucratae ; involucri 
phylla 3 — 4 v. 6 — 8, squamaeformia, coriacea, e basi latissima oblongo- 
ovalia, acutata, planiuscula v. concaviuscula, spicularum longitudine 
sequalia v. vix longiora. Squamae lato-lanceolatae v. lanceolatae, apice 
obtusae v. saepius dilaceratae, sub-enerviae, laeves, chartaceae, e flaves- 
cente brunnescentes ; inferiorum nonnullae vacuae ; sequentes spiculam 
squama breviorem 6-floram androgynam includentes. Flosculi omnes 
uni-squamulati ; exteriores 3 monandri, interiores 2 ad squamulas 
reducti, flosculus intimus excentricus femineus. Squamulae laterales 
compresso-naviculares, carina ciliatae ; squamula flosculi feinin. line- 
aris, sub-plana, marginibus inflexis. Antherae exsertae, biloculares, 



80 On Pandanophyllum and allied genera. [No. 2, 

ab ovario aversae. Ovarium sublagenaeforme, glabrum ; stylus lon- 
giusculus, bifidus. Acliaenium inaequali-oblongum, utrinque attenu- 
atum, obsolete trigonum, styli basi persistente acuminatum, pericarpio 
tenui carnescente testaceo, nucleo lapideo nigro. 

2. P. squamatum, Kurz. — Folia lato-linearia, acuminatissima, 
trinervia, margine costaque spinuloso-serrulata, rigide coriacea ; culmi 
abbreviati, % — 1£ — pollicares, squamati, trigoni, obscuri ; capitula 
oligo-rarius mono-stachya, compacta, oblonga ; squamae ellipticae, 
obtusae v. apice laceratae, in sicco striatae, cliartaceae ; achaenia 
utrinque attenuata, bicarinata, rostrata. 

Hab. Java, in billy parts of Buitenzorg : Zippelius (in Hb. Bogor.) 
Rhizoma lignescens, verticale v. obliquum, radices crassas demit- 
tens. Folia trifarie equitantia, e basi complicate lato-linearia, acu- 
minatissima, trinervia, lateribus deviis margine subtusque in costa, 
apicem versus spinuloso-serrulata, coriacea, 5 — 6 ped. longa, 1 — 1£ 
poll. lata. Culmi e foliorum axillis erumpentes, abbreviati, \ — \\ 
poll, longi, undique, praesertim basi, squamis ovato-oblongis concavis 
acutis striatis obtecti, trigoni, striati, glabri. Spicae 2 — 3, capitato- 
conglomeratae, rarissime solitariae, oblongae, obtusae. Squamae un- 
dique imbricatae, ellipticae, obtusae v. saepius lacerantes, in sicco 
striulatae, fuscescentes, inferiores 4 — 5 vacuae saepe involucrantes, 
reliquae spiculam 6-rloram squama propria paullo longiorem andro- 
gynam continentes. Flosculi 3 exteriores masculi, monandri, sequentes 
ad squamulas reducti, tlosculus intimus excentricus femineus squamu- 
lam vacuam amplectens. Squamulae laterales lineares, curvati? 
carinato-naviculares, in carinis minute denticulatae. Achaenium 
adliuc (immaturum) oblongum, utrinque acuminatum, bicarinatum, 
pericarpio tenui coriaceo, nucleo lapideo cinerascente apiculato. 

3. P. ZeylanicUIXl, Thw. Enum. PI. Oeyl. 345. 
Hab. Ceylon : Thivaites, G. P. 3029 ; South Andamans. 

This species, which is not yet recorded from the Indian Archipela- 
go, differs from the next one, P. lliquelianum, especially by the 
more robust and obtuse spikelets, which form a head, when fully 
grown, not dissimilar to that of P. palustre. The scales are 
furnished by a broader white (in dried state brown) margin. Dr. 
Thwaites describes his plant as having a clavate style, but the Anda- 
man specimens have them normally two cleft. I saw the Ceylon 



1869.] On Pandanophyllum and allied genera. 81 

plant in the Herbarium of the Botanic gardens at Buitonzorg, but 
unfortunately I have here no specimen to examine. I strongly suspect 
that Dr. Thwaites, when describing the plant, has had before him 
young spikelets only. 

4. P. Miquelianum, Kurz. Folia elongato-linearia, acu- 
minatissima, trinervia, margine costaque spinuloso-serrulata, flaccida, 
utrinque nitentia, saturate v. flavescente viridia; culmi elongati, 
l£ — 3 pedales, nudi, trigoni, nitentes ; spicae solitariae, squamis laete 
viridibus anguste albide (in sicco fuscescente) marginatis ; achenia 
oblonga, utrinque attenuata, acuminata, vix carinata. — Lepironia 
enodts, Miq., Suppl. Fl. v. Sumatra, 603 ; Lepir. foliosa, Miq 1. c. 
(spicis adhuc virgineis.) 

Hab. Sumatra, in the jungles of Danoh-tjaloh, Moesi, Palembang : 
Teysm. Hb. Bog. 3686 et 4051. 
Native name : Rumput selingsieng in Palemb. 
Rhizoma crassum, obliquum v. subverticale, lignescens, radices 
plurimas crassas demittens. Folia trifarie-equitantia, lato-, v. anguste- 
linearia, acuminatissima, infra medio paullo angustata, complicata, 
basi vix dilatata, 4 — 5 ped. longa, i— 1 poll, lata, margine versus 
^asin et apicem, v. tota longitudine, remotiuscule spinuloso-serrulata, 
costa apicem versus spinulosa, trinervia, marginibus rectangulariter 
deviis. Culmi e rhizomate stolonibus abbreviatis squamatis orientes, 1^- 
— 3^ ped. long., sursum sensim incrassti, obtuse trigoni, striulati, 
nitentes. Spicae terminales, solitariae, conico-ellipticae v. clavato- 
oblongae, obtusae, dein acuminatae. Squamae undique arete irnbri- 
catae, emarcescente persistentes, sursum sensim minores, oblongo- 
lanceolatae v. lato-oblongae, acutatae ; superiores obtusiusculae, virides, 
margine anguste membranaceo albidae (in sicco autem fuscescentes), 
sub-trinerviae, nervis tenerioribus parallelis percursae ; inferiores 9 — 10 
vacuae, sequentes 5— florae. Flosculi omnes unisexuales, exteriores 
3 masculi, monandri, intimus femineus squamulam sterilem aniplec- 
tens. Squamulae flosculorum exteriorum coinpresso-naviculares, carina 
erose-ciliolatae, medianae depresso-bicarinatae, in angulis ciliolatae. 
Filamenta dein elongata paullo supra squamulam exserta ; anthcrae 
, lineares filamento dimidio breviores, biloculares, longitudinaliter 
1 dehiscentes, flavescente-albidae, apice minute apiculatae. Flosculi 
teminei execntrici, squamula depressa, linearis, marginibus inrlexi> 

ii 



82 Chi Pandanopliyllum and allied genera. [No. 2, 

squamulam sterilem amplectens. Ovarium sublagenaeforme laeve : 
stylus breviusculus, ovario continues, emarcescente persistens, tri- 
fidus, ramis inclusis. Achaenium obovatum, basi angustatum, apice 
styli basi persistente acuminatum, pericarpio tenue carnosulo (in 
sicco coriaceo) laevi testaceo, nucleo lapideo nigrescente. 

Prof. Miquel, in establishing his Lepironia enodis had only the 
full-grown inflorescences before him, which were distributed from the 
Botanic gardens, Buitenzorg, under No. 3029, and described therefore 
the plant as having no leaves. But the leaves with young inflores- 
cences were (by mistake probably) distributed at the same time under 
No. 4051, coming also from Palembang, and upon these specimens 
he founded his Lepironia foliosa. 

5. P. Humile, Hassk., Cat. Bog., 297 ; Steud., Cyp. 134 ; Zoll, 
Cat 61 ; Walp., Ann. I, 753 ; Mia., Fl. Ind. Bat. Ill, 334 ; Oudem., in 
Bot. Ztg. 1866, 193. — Folia petiolata, lamina elongato-elliptica retusa 
abrupte subulato-cuspidata, marginibus apicem versus spinuloso-ser- 
rulata ; petioli complicati, basi vaginato-dilatati ; culmi plerumque 
geminati, elongati v. abbreviati, basi squamato-vaginati ; spicae solita- 
riae (rarius binae), squamis fuscescente viridibus plurinerviis ; achenia 
oblonga utrinque attenuata, acuminata, obsolete bicarinata. — Lepi- 
stachya praemorsa, Zipp. 31. S. ; Lepironia cuspidata, Mia. Suppl. Fl. 
v. Sumatra, 603 ; Pandanophyllum Zippelianum, Kurz in natuurk. 
Tydsch. v. Ned. Ind. XXVII. 126 ; ejusd. Bot. Ztg. 1865 204. 

Hab. : One of the most common grasses in the hill forests of 
Western Java, at 3-5000' ft. elevation ; occurs also in Banca : 
Teysmann ; and in Sumatra : Korthals. 
Native name : Sohlenat, Sunda. 

Rhizoma crassum, obliquum v. verticale, lignescens, radices pluri- 
mas demittens. Folia trifarie equitantia, subcoriacea, petiolata; 
lamina elongato-elliptica, 1 — 1£ ped. longa, 1^ — 2£ poll, lata, basi 
in petiolum complicatum longitudine ab 1 — 2^ poll, variantem basi 
vaginato-dilatatum decurrens, apice retuso abrupte subulato — ( — 2 
poll.) cuspidata, plicata, 3 — nervis, margine apicem versus costaque 
spinuloso-serrulata. Culmi e stolonibus abbreviatis squamato-vagi- 
natis plerumque geminatim orti, nudi, deorsum attenuati, obtuse 
trigoni, striati, glabri, 1 — 4 poll, usque ad pedem longi, intense 
virides opaci, sub lente albido-punctati. Spicae oblongae v. ovato- 






1869.] On Pandanojrfiyllum and allied genera. 88 

oblongae, obtusiusculae v. acutiusculae, solitariae, v. passim binae. 
Squamae arete imbricatae, emarcescente persistentes, sursum sensim 
minores ; inferiores 3 — 4 vacuae, lanceolatae v. oblongo-lanceolatae, 
obtuse carinatae, striatae, opacae, virides, margine membranacco 
brunnescentes ; sequentes ecarinatae, nervosae, teneriores, naves- 
cente-testaceae v. brunnescentes, nitentes, spiculam 6 floram andro- 
gynam foventes. Flosculi omnes uni-squamulati, 3 exteriores masculi, 
monandri ; 2 interiores ad valvulas reducti : flosc. intimus excentricus, 
femineus. Squamulae nosculorum laterali compresso-navicuculares, in 
carinis eroso-ciliolatae, medianae depressae. Antlierae exsertae. Ovari- 
um sub-lagenaeforme, laeve ; stylus brevis ovario continuus, emar- 
cescente persistens, trifidus, ramis elongatis inclusis. Acliaenia oblonga, 
styli basi apiculata, obsolete bicarinata, pericarpio carnescente (in 
sicco coriaceo) brunnescente asperulo, nucleo lapideo nigrescente. 

This is a very variable species, not only with regard to the leaves, 
which are longer or shorter petioled, but also with reference to the 
length of the culms, sometimes attaining nearly the length of the 
leaves, sometimes reduced so as to let the spike appear almost sessile. 
Sometimes these culms are furnished also with a few bracts. 

6. P. immersum, Thw. Enum. PI. Zeyl. 433. 

Hab. : Ceylon : Thwaites G. P. 3819. 

Rhizoma crassum, lignescens, radicosum. Folia trifarie-equitantia, 
2 — 2J pedalia, pollice angustiora, anguste linearia, acuminata, basin 
membranaceo-marginatum breviter vaginantem versus angustiora, 
complicato-trinervia, laevia, supra nitida, subtus glaucesoentia et 
opaca, marginibus costaque basin versus remote et minute serrulata 
v. omnino laevia. Culmi pollicares v. breviores, bracteis sursum 
majoribus spica ipsa solitaria, sublongioribus obtecti. Bracteae cul- 
meae superiores involucrantes, membranceo-marginatae, lineares, acu- 
minatae. Spica fructigera cerasi minimi magnitudine, densiuscula, 
squamis late-ovatis acuminatis in sicco fuscescentibus striatis. Ach- 
aenia ovata, incurvato-rostrata, ecarinata ; pericarpio carnosulo. 

V. Cephaloscirpus, Kuez. 
Spicae glomerato-capitatae, multi-spiculatae. Squamae undique im- 
bricatae, emarcescente persistentes, inferiorum nonnullae vacuae, reliquae 
spiculigerae. Spicnlae 7 — 10 florae, squama propria longiores. 
Flosculi omnes uni-squamulati, nunc 3 exteriores, nunc 3 alii mascuJs, 



84 On Pandanophyllum and allied genera. [No. 2, 

inonandii, reliqui ad squamulas reducti ; flosculus iutimus femineus 
squamulam sterilem amplectens. Squamulae laterales carinato-com- 
pressae. Ovarium basi stipitiformi-attenuatura ; stylus trifidus. Ach- 
aenium longe stipitatum, rostratum, pericarpio carnosulo, nucleo 
lapideo. — Hcrba perennis liabitu omnino P andanophyllorum, sed pliyllis 
involucrantibus longissimis etiam adspecta diver 'sa. 

1. C. macrOCephaltLS, Kwz. — Hypolytvum macroceplialuni, 
Gaud, in Freijc. Jt. Pot. 414 ;\Xth. En. II. 273 ; Steucl, Gyp. 133. 

Hab.- : Moluccos ; Gaudicliaud ; ib. isl. Batjan ; Teysmann. (in 
Hb. Pog.) 

Eliizoma Folia Culmi trigoni, glabri, pedales, basi pauci- 

foliati. Spicae semipollicares, majusculae, plurimae, inaequali- 
oblongae, compressiusculae, glomeratae ; glomeruli pliyllis singulis 
sustenti in capitulara involucratum pollicem dein 1^ poll, crassum 
compacti. Involucri pliylla inferiora 3 — 4, pedalia v. longiora, poll, 
lata, lato-linearia, subulato trigono-acuminata, trinervia, marginibus 
rectangulariter deviis, margine costaque subtus apicem versus spinu- 
loso-serrulata, subcoriacea, pliylla sequentia mox in bracteas glomerulis 
ipsis minores lato-ovatas acuminatas transeuntia. Squamae undique 
imbricatae pellucescente-cliartaceae, oblongo-lanceolatae, obtusius- 
eulae, trinerviae, glabrae, nitentes ; inferiorum nonnullae vacua e, 
reliquae spiculam 7 — 10— floram includentes. Spiculae lineares, com- 
pressae, squama longiores. Flosculus intimus excentricus femineus 
uni-squamulatus, squamulam sterilem amplectens ; flosculi sequentes 
3 v. 3 alii extimi masculi, monandri, uni-squamulati, reliqui ad squa- 
mulas vacuas reducti. Squamulae laterales compresso-naviculares, 
carina ciliatae, medianae depressae. Ovarium sublagenaeforme, utrin- 
que angustatum, glabrum ; stylus longus, persistens, trifidus, ramis 
elongatis. Acliaenia oblonga, basi in stipitem longum gracilem at- 
tenuata, tricarinata, stylo persistente longe acuminato-rostrata (ros- 
trum achaenium longitudine paullo superans), pericarpio carnosulo, 
(in sicco tenui coriaceo) glabro testaceo, nucleo lapideo nigrescente. 

I Lave not Glaudicliaud's work above cited for consultation, but I think 
I am correct in quoting bis plant fromKunth's and Steudel's descriptions. 

VI. SCIEPODENDRON, ZlPPELIUS. 

Spicae glomerato-paniculatae, compactae, undique squamatae. Squa- 
mae emarcescente persistentes, inferiores saepius tri — superiores uni- 



1869.] On Pandanojjhylluni and allied genera. 85 

spiculatae, 8 — 10 florae, androgynae. Flosculus centralis femineus, 
nudus ; flosculi reliqui masculi omnes monandri, uni-squamulati. 
Squamulae squamae contrariae ; laterales compresso-naviculares ; 
vacuae nullae (an semper?). Ovarium lagenaeforme ; stylus longius- 
culus, bi — (an etiam tri ?) fidus. Acliaenium magnum, obovatum, 
6, (12 ?) costatum, pericarpio carnoso (in sicco corticoso rugoso), 
nucleo lapideo mucronulato. — Planta perennis hahitu Pandanis veris 
acaulibus ita similis, ut ah his aegre discemenda nisi inflorescentia. 

1. Sc. COStatum, Kurz. Scirpodendron pandaniforme, Zipp. 
MS. ; Pandanopbyllum costatum, Thw. En. PI. Zeyl. 433 ? Scleria 
macrocarpa, Wall. Cat. 

Hab. — In the hill jungles of Western Java along the torrents and 
in swampy places: Zippelius, Sfc. Singapore and Penaug: Wall. 
3538 ; Ceylon : Thwaites. 

Native names : Harassas in Sunda. 

Rhizoma crassum, obliquum, lignescens. Folia coriacea, trifarie 
equitantia, lato-linearia, acuminatissima, 6 — 9 ped. longa, pollicem 
lata et latiora, trinervia, lateribus rectangulariter deviis, margine 
costaque a medio spinuloso-serrulata. Culmi 1- — 1^ ped. longi, 
trigoni v. triquetri, glabri v. in angulis scabeirimi, aphylli, basi 
squamati. Panicula compacta, terminalis, pauci-ramea, ramis brevibus 
crassis simplicibus, inferioribus 3 — 4 phyllis singulis sustentis in- 
volucrantibus. Involucri phylla longissima, 7—2 ped. longa, foliis 
subconformia. Spicae sessiles v. sub-sessiles, compositae, basi bractea 
magna chartacea e basi lata oblonga acuta concava sustentae. Squa- 
mae oblongae, obtusiusculae, carinatae v. subcarinatae, striatae, mem- 
branaceae, inferiores saepe spiculas tres, .sequentes spiculam unicam 
squama propria breviorem tegentes. Flosculus centralis nudus femin- 
eus. Squamulae laterales lato-carinato-naviculares, carina ciliolatae. 
Antherae exserta?. Ovarium sublagenaeforme ; stylus longus, billdus, 
ramis brevibus. Achaenia drupacea, magnitudine pisi majoris, in 
sicco sulcato — 6 — costata > rugosa ; pericarpium in sicco corticusum ; 
nucleus obovatus, obsolete 6 — costatus, apiculatus, lapideus. 

I am in doubt whether Dr. Thwaites' Pemdanophyllum costatum is 
identical with this plant, as his short description does not well coincide 
with the above characteristic. According to that author the achenes 
are 6 — 12 ribbed, but the Malayan species which I have examined, 
have them all G-ribbed only. 



86 [No. 2, 



The Malacology of Loioer Bengal and the adjoining provinces ; by 
Feed. Stoliczka, Esq., Ph. D., F. Gr. S., &c, Paleontologist of the 
Geological Survey of India. 

[Received and read 4th November 1868.] 

Under the above title I propose to record a series of papers, the 
special object of which is the exposition of the Molluscous fauna of 
Lower Bengal and of the adjoining provinces. It is not my intention 
to follow in these papers any systematic arrangement, but simply to 
bring the materials, as they are collected, to the notice of Conchologists. 
At first sight it may seem that there is hardly a necessity for a 
series of such papers, as the Molluscous fauna of Bengal is pretty well 
known through the valuable researches of H. Benson, "W. T. Blanford, 
and others. With regard to our knowledge of the shells, or the solid 
parts of Molluscs, this statement would deserve a fair consideration, 
but it is marvellous how very ignorant we are of the soft parts of the 
respective animals. The course of study pursued in Conchology 
during the last twenty years, has shewn that no systematic arrange- 
ment can be attempted without the due knowledge of the animals, 
even generic and specific determinations are sometimes impossible to 
be carried out without them. Comparative anatomy and morphology 
of our Molluscs are equally deficient as the principal elements. 

Strictly speaking it is by no means surprising that the anatomy 
of our Indian Molluscs is as yet so little known. The shells are easily 
preserved and more or less commonly found at all times of the year. 
The animals on the contrary are met with only at certain seasons 
characterized by a large proportion of moisture in the atmosphere, 
which combined with the tropical heat often rapidly decomposes the 
animal substance, while under the knife and the needle. Besides few 
of our able conchologists had had the opportunity of observing many 
live animals, and the examination of specimens, preserved in spirit, 
glycerine, &c, are very easily misleading, so as to give various organs 
a different interpretation from that to which they are actually destined. 
During the course of my papers I shall, therefore, endeavour to pay 
special attention to the soft parts of the animals, to the anatomical 



1869.] The Malacology of Lower Bengal 87 

and morphological details. Only the shells of newly discovered 
species will be separately figured, but of all species, as far as they can 
be procured, representations of the animals, of the dentition, &c, will be 
given. I shall feel amply rewarded, if I can see that any of my con- 
chological friends appreciate this course of inquiry ; and I will feel 
greatly obliged if they would favour me with live specimens of Mol- 
luscs. During the rains and in the cold weather most of the land 
shells will survive for 9 and 10 days in a box with a little moistened 
moss, a fevv holes being made in the box for the purpose of ventila- 
tion. If not procurable alive, specimens in spirit or glycerine* will be 
also thankfully received. 

I do not wish to give my papers a more extensive title, than the 
one quoted above, because I as yet have only the hopes to procure 
those specimens which are within my own reach and that of my 
collectors, but I trust that the area of my research and examination 
will gradually obtain a wider range. The first paper will be devoted to 
the examination of some remarkable Molluscs, for a species of which 
Dr. F. Euchannan 70 years ago proposed the name Onchidium. f These 
animals may be in a certain point regarded as the tropical represent- 
ants of the slugs, or Limaces, which are generally found only in tem- 
perate climates. Although I have numerous materials on other groups 
of Molluscs collected, I have given preference to this one, because the 
characteristics given of the genus are very deficiently known, and par- 
tially incorrectly recorded in the present leading works on Conchology. 
Dr. Buchannan's description of the type species, Onchidium typlice, 
is not very clear, neither is it sufficient, and the general belief was, 
that the species has been lost sight altogether. Nevertheless I find 
that it was very well known for many years to several of our Indian 
Conchologists, and it is actually during the rainy season a very common 
species about Calcutta. 



# Glycerine does admirably for these purposes. It is occasionally advantage- 
ous to put the animal first in hot water for a few minutes, and after its death in 
glycerine or spirit, the animal does not shrink afterwards so much as it would 
when put in glycerine alive. 

f An account of the Onchidium, a new genus of the class of Vermes, found in 
Bengal, by F. Buchannan, M. D., A. L. S. j— read June 5th, 1798 ; Transactions 
Linn. Society, Vol. V., 1800, p. 132. 



88 On the genus Onchidium. [No. 2, 

No. I. On the genus Onchidium, with descriptions of several new 
species ; (with plates XIV and XV.) 
Order. — Pulmonata. 
Family. — Onchidiid^:. 
Genus. — Onchidium, Buchannan, 1800. 

Char. Body oblong, entirely covered by a coriaceous, more or less 
tuberculated mantle, projecting at the sides and internally ileshy ; foot 
long, narrower and little shorter than the mantle ; head large, distinct ; 
the mouth situated below, forming a longitudinal slit surrounded by 
thickened lips, and two, more or less, prolonged and thickened buccal 
appendages, to the upper edge of which are, so to say, the tentacles 
soldered on, being represented merely by thickened rims ; superior to 
these are the long, retractile pedicles bearing on their tips the eyes. 
Two cartilaginous plates in the oesophagus are covered with a broad 
radula furnished with very numerous, small equally formed teeth, the 
central tooth being pointed and equilateral, the laterals usually 
somewhat smaller, almost all of equal size, slightly hooked, claw-shaped ; 
no special upper jaw is present. Anus situated at the upper basal end 
of the foot ; pulmonary orifice posterior to it in the mantle. The sexes 
are united, the common sexual opening being placed more or less close 
to the right of the anus, in the fold between the inner side of the 
mantle and the foot ; a special male organ is besides situated under the 
right eyepedicle ; it is thick, long, provided with a short flagellum ; 
the propagation is effected by mutual reciprocal impregnation. Shell 
none. Habit similar to that of the Limaces, or rather more to that of 
sea slugs, as I shall endeavour to prove hereafter. 

Before entering upon a description of the various species, it will be 
necessary to give a detailed statement of the most important and charac- 
teristic anatomical and morphological points. I select for this purpose 
the type species of the genus ; any differences in the other species from 
this type can be afterwards much easier recorded, without giving a 
repetition of those details. In conclusion I shall allude to the genera 
Onchidella and Peronia, which have been considered as distinct from 
Onchidium. 

The upper part of the body of all the Onchidia is, as stated above, 
always entirely covered by a more or less coriaceous mantle, the epi- 
dermis of which chiefly consists of a chitinous or horny substance, and 



,1869.] On the genus Onchidium. 89 

can be removed from it without producing a change in the colour of the 
animal. The surface of the mantle is generally finely granulated, but in 
all our species some larger tubercles are besides found, more or less 
numerous, and irregularly distributed bn it. These larger tubercles 
can be protruded or retracted at will. When the animal is in a healthy 
state, they are generally very distinct, each of them bearing one 
to four jet black dots, the functions of which in the economy of the 
animal it is difficult to understand, but most likely the pigment which 
they contain, when added to the mucus secreted by the entire body, 
acts as a kind of defensive fluid against other animals. The mantle is 
amply supplied with nerves issuing from the central ganglion, but to 
the touch, the tubercles do not appear to be much more or less sensitive 
than the rest of the body ; they are always retracted when they come in 
contact with a solid object, but soon protruded again. Sickly animals 
not only change colour, but the body often shrinks to less than 
half the original size, and all the tubercles of the surface are smoothed 
down, and assimilated to the mass of the mantle. The mesial portions 
of the mantle are usually thin, but the sides are very consistent and 
fleshy, the muscular tissue being solid, very tough in some of the species 
(0. tigrinum), soft, almost pulpy, in others, (0. tenerum). The inter- 
nal fleshy part of the mantle is pure white, but the external parts, to 
a smaller or greater thickness, blackened, and filled with pigment cells, 
producing the various colours of the animal. Near the edge of the 
mantle, there are usually some larger cavities in the tissue, as shewn 
in the section of the portion of the mantle (fig. 3, plate xiv), evidently 
allowing for an easier motion of these extreme edges. 

The foot is composed of numerous transverse muscles and is always 
shorter and narrower than the mantle ; this varies, however, in the 
different species. In some the foot is only one-third, or one-fourth, of 
the width of the mantle, in others almost four-fifths of the same, setting 
aside, however, those variations which merely depend upon the position 
of the body. When the animal is at rest, — in a sort of contracted 
position, — the width of the foot is in proportion smaller, than when the 
animal moves about, in which case the mantle stretches out longitu- 
dinally, while the narrowness of the foot appears to be more limited by 
the transverse muscles. 

No generic importance can, strictly speaking, be attached either to 

12 



90 On the genus Oncliidiwm. [No. 2, 

the number and size of the pustules on the mantle, nor to the relative 
narrowness, or width, of the foot. This is a very important statement 
as regards the classification of the animals, and I shall endeavour to 
prove its correctness by some observations which I shall subsequently 
put upon record. 

The head is posteriorly on either side connected with the foot by 
a thin membrane. 

Anatomy of Onchidiwn typlicd. 

The respective places which the digestive and generative organs 
occupy divide, so to say, the entire cavity of the body into two parts. 
Figure 2 on plate xiv represents a specimen, opened along the entire 
length of the centre of the mantle, the portions of which are removed 
a little on the sides. The albuminous string of the penis is also a 
little lifted up, and placed from the right to the left side, so as to allow 
the ganglion and the penis to become visible. All the other internal 
organs are in their original position ; the head with the oesophagus (oe), 
salivary glands, (sg) ; alimentary canal (ac), &c. The signification of 
the principal other letters is as follows ; pe. = pedicle \p = penis with 
the vas deferens twisted round it ; and (ps) the supplementary albumin- 
ous string ; ng == principal nervous ganglion ; the digestive organs with 
the liver (1) and the anterior portion of the stomach (st), rectum (r), 
&c, are visible ; the generative organs with the ovarium (o), testis (t), 
large albuminous gland (ag), receptaculum seminis (rs), &c. ; lit — 
heart;? — lungs ; g and v = the hermaphrodite genital opening, a = 
anus ; ol = pulmonary orifice. The digestive organs, thus roughly 
estimated, occupy the greater portion of the front part, and the 
generative organs that of the hinder part of the body. 

In order to understand more clearly the anatomical details, I must 
direct the attention to figure 5 of plate xiv. This figure represents a 
very large specimen of Onchidiwn, typlice ; the foot has been along its 
anterior and posterior, and the entire left basal margin detached from 
the body and folded over to the left side, then the mantle has been 
cut in two halves and the left half (d) also removed laterally, so as 
to join the other half only at the pulmonary orifice. The digestive 
organs have been exposed in the figure on the right and the generative 
organs on the left side. 



, 1809.] On the genus Onchidium. !)J 

Digestive organs and their appendages. 

The food first enters through the mouth which, as already stated, 
is surrounded by thickened, soft and grooved lips, with the oesophagus 
(oe), a large muscular sack of an oval shape, closed posteriorly. 
This sack encloses two cartilaginous plates, which are situated in a 
strongly muscular mass, attached to the posterior and inferior sides of 
the oesophagus. Sometimes, as in this particular species, these plates 
resemble a bivalve shell, being convex externally and concave inter- 
nally ; they are white, connected by a membrane below and open 
above. Their microspcopical structure distinctly shews the formation 
of a cartilaginous tissue, many of the cells being of irregular shape, 
others granular and hardened. Externally they are covered by the 
tongue membrane, or radula, which is provided in its entire extent 
with very numerous teeth. 

This radula is thus very differently formed from the narrow and long 
lingual ribbon of the Prosobranchia. Fig. 4 on plate xiv, represents 
the relative position of these organs. The cartilaginous plates (cp) ac- 
tually only give support to the radula (ra), which is by the muscular 
action of the former pushed out of the mouth, scraping the organic 
substance in the usual way from below upwards; the food then 
passes in the cavity behind the plates where the salivary glands 
(sg) enter. At the beginning of the alimentary canal, immediately 
behind the catilaginous plates, there is a small fleshy tubercle (to) 
which appears to act as a tongue, pressing the food down the canal every 
time that the oesophagus contracts. Each of the salivary glands (sg) 
is represented by a small, whitish, dendritic organ, connected with 
each other by a thin string, and by numerous threads with the 
hepatic mass, enveloping the anterior part of the intestines. The 
alimentary canal issues at the upper part of the oesophagus, lying 
in a special muscular cavity of the tissue of the body, it bends down- 
wards, then passes through the hole of the principal central ganglion 
ring (ng) to the stomach. This consists of two, almost quite se- 
parate divisions. The first portion (pst) has the form of a double com', 
pointed on either end and widened in the middle ; it is soft and com 
posed of numerous folds or partitions. On this anterior portion follows a 
second one, which is more elongated, consisting of three sub-divisions, 
being in the middle surrounded and partially divided by a very strong 
muscular tissue (mst). The extreme end (m) is capped by a separate 



92 On the genus Onchidium. [No. 2, 

portion of the liver (1). The intestines (i) issue somewhere at the 
muscular bridge which connects the two portions of the stomach, 
being from here in their entire length enveloped in the liver 
which is readily recognised by the greenish colour of the hepatic cells. 
The length of the intestines is from 4 — 5 inches, the rectum (r) being 
much wider, and passing almost in a straight direction to the anus. 
Near its termination it is accompanied by two whitish, dendritic organs, 
(gp and pa), each of which at their posterior ends is connected with a 
small yellowish brown gland. The latter may represent the kidneys, 
and the former are probably only albuminous glands, or they may be 
an equivalent organ of some of the pyloric appendages or the coecss. 
The anus is situated at the end of the upper base of the foot, it is sur- 
rounded by ring muscles, but externally very slightly thickened. 

Onchidium tgphce, and probably most of the other species live, on 
decaying wood and earth, impregnated with organic matter. I have 
never seen them feeding on fresh grasses. With the solid excrements 
always a large portion of watery liquid is given out. 

Generative organs. 

All the species of Onchidia which I have examined are hermaphro- 
dites, not as Buchannan stated in the case of O. typhce, supposing the 
sexes to be distinct. The generative organ occupies the posterior half 
of the internal cavity of the body (see fig. 2, pi. xiv), sometimes even 
a little more. The hermaphrodite genital pore (g and v in fig. 5) lies 
very close to tlie right of the anus ; in this pore a very strong, 
almost cartilaginous tube, the oviduct, (or here the uterus, ov) termi- 
nates, and a short distance upwards gives off a short branch, ending in a 
flattened large vesicle, which usually is interpreted as the receptaculum 
seminis (rs). The contents of this organ in numerous specimens 
which I examined was a dark yellowish brown, rather watery sub- 
stance, containing some solid bodies, resembling the spicula3 of Spongia, 
or those peculiar arrows connected with the copulation of Helices. The 
uterus which is only a continuation of the oviduct is, as stated above 
a thick, white, doubly twisted string, near the middle it is partially 
enveloped in a mucus secreting, foliated, pale orange gland (as in 
fig. 2, pi. xiv.)* The contents of this gland is a simple granular 

* In figure 5 this gland lies to the right of the testis (t) and to the left of 
the receptaculum seminis (rs). 



1869.] On the genus Onmidium. 93 

substance. It is not clear to what purpose it exists, but probably it is 
in some way connected with the ovarium or the testis. 

The ovarium (as, in fig. 5, or in fig. 2) is of a deep yellowish colour and 
contains eggs only ; these being of an oval form and of various sizes, 
according to their stages of development ; the whole is attached to the 
uterus by a short string. — It is generally stated that in the Pulmonata, 
the hermaphrodite gland secretes ova and spermatozoa, but in this case I 
am certain that they are secreted in two different glands, the ovarium 
containing, as I stated, merely eggs. The testis (t) is a distinct 
foliated, or more or less dendritic, purely white gland, which is readily 
distinguished by its viscous, jelly-like substance. Under the microscope, 
the contents of the gland had a granular appearance, mingled with a few 
fat cells,and numerous long thread-like bodies, — spermatozoa. From the 
testis a very thin hollow string issues, accompanying the oviduct in its 
entire length and terminating by a special minute pore (g) in the 
same cavity as the oviduct. This string is evidently the beginning 
of the vas deferens, which continues externally in a grove between 
the foot and the mantle. 

The largest portion of the generative organs are occupied by the 
albuminous gland (ag) which is of a soft purplish colour, consisting 
of very numerous folicles attached to short prolongations of the 
uterus. The albuminous substance has a finely granular appearance 
under the microscope and is very viscous, adhering to everything that 
comes in contact with it. It absorbs water to a large proportion 
swelling up readily in it. 

The male copulative organ is at the front end of the body, situated 
more or less closely to and under the right eye-pedicle. The semen 
issues, as stated above, first from the genital pore (g), is then con- 
ducted in an open canal along the right side between the foot and the 
mantle, enters the body through a very fine pore (vdo in fig. 5), below, 
or on the side of, the right buccal appendage, close to the penis opening ; 
then passes through a thin long tube (vd) which is variously twist- 
ed round the penis (p) lying on the right side of the body. This 
tube, the continuation of the vas deferens is about 5 inches long, 
the last inch, or so, forming the penis, which is considerably 
hardened and straight, situated in a somewhat wider tube and 
provided at its termination with a short flagellum. In many 



94 On the genus Onchidium. [No. 2, 

specimens the vas deferens was in the terminal half of its length filled 
with a similar colouring fluid which I have noticed in the receptaculunt 
seminis ; thus it is not likely that this suhstance is secreted in the 
latter organ, but more likely is formed in the internal portion of the 
vas deferens. Close to the opening of the male genital pore, terminates 
the supplementary albuminous string (ps), varying from 9 to 10 
inches in length. It is much thicker than the vas deferens and the 
contents is a purely white granular, moderately viscous substance. 
In some other species, this albuminous string is still longer and more 
developed. 

I have only once (on the 22nd September,) observed two speci- 
mens of Onchidium typhce in copulation, they were seated one behind 
the other, the penis enclosed in the vagina for about the length of one 
inch. Reciprocal impregnation at the same time, as known in Limaces, 
does apparently not take place. Buchannan's statement on this point 
is not clear ; the error as to his believing the sexes to be divided in 
two animals is thus readily explained, and would have then been easily 
corrected, had he examined the internal organisation. But although 
he states that " during copulation the distinction of sexes is very 
evident, the penis protruding to a great length," it would appear from 
his previous statement to the effect that tl in both, the anus and sexual 
organs are placed in a perforation in the under part of the tail" as 
if he had observed that the copulative organ were also situated 
posteriorly. This is undoubtedly an error, and can only be explained 
by the fact that the anterior and posterior end were mistaken one for 
the other, they being actually undistinguishable in a dorsal view 
when the animal is resting quietly, and has the pedicles and the head re- 
tracted, which position it actually assumes during copulation. I men- 
tion this point in particular, because it appears to have been accepted 
by several authors in its integrity, as recorded by Buchannan, though 
its correctness was rightly questioned by others. Undue importance 
has been attached to it, so as to support the presumed generic distinc- 
tions of Onchidium, Onehidella and Petonia. 

The Onchidia in general are to all appearance oviparous, laying 
their eggs in damp places, either under stones or in holes near the 
surface of the ground, where I found in large numbers very young 
specimens, resembling in all external characters the full grown 



i860.] On the genus Onckidium. 95 

animals. Direct observations as to the development of the embryos, 
etc. remain, however, as yet a desideratum. 

Organs of respiration and circulation. (See fig. 5, pi. xiv). 

All the Onchidia are pulmoniferous, the respiratory cavity occupy- 
ing about one-fourth of the posterior length of the body. This cavity 
is situated dorsally immediately under the mantle, its internal walls 
being folded and fitted out with a soft whitish largely cellular and 
cavernous epithelium, the lungs ; it is anteriorly closed on the left 
and open en the right side, and the former half is somewhat smaller 
than the latter, The respiratory opening is a round hole, situated 
on the lower side at, or near, the end of the mantle ; it is surrounded 
by strong concentric muscles and has occasionally a swollen margin, 
which can he expanded or contracted at will, sometimes also forming a 
retractile tube. 

The cardial cavity lies on the right side about two-fifths dis- 
tant from the posterior end, and in front of the respective larger half 
of the lungs. It is very muscular and encloses the heart, which is 
represented by a small, reddish, oval capsule, thicker posteriorly than 
anterioily. The arterial blood enters the heart from behind in which 
point, — save that they have lungs, — the Onchidid^: perfectly agree 
with the Nudibranchiata of the Opisthobranchia, with which they 
have so much common in the general form of the body. From the 
heart issues in front only one thick artery, being at the beginning 
attached to the wall of the mantle by numerous very thin muscles-. 
A short distance from its issue, it divides in two branches, one supply- 
ing the reproductive organs and the other the digestive system. The 
latter branch again divides before entering that system, one portion 
being reserved for the digestive organs, and the other supplying the 
head ; this portion of the artery, accompanying the alimentary canal, 
passes through the large ganglion. From all the internal organs, 
numerous very thin threads issue, connecting them with the mantle 
and the foot ; some of these threads are no doubt blood-vessels, and others- 
of a muscular and nervous character. The venous blood appears to be 
conducted to the lungs by an open capillary system, at least I did not 
observe special vessels for that purpose. A very large number of capil- 
lary tubes, connects the upper frontal portion of the pulmonary cavity 



96 On the genus Onchidium. [No. 2, 

with the intestinal and the generative organs. The arterial blood 
is white, and the corpuscles very minute and of an oval shape. 

Nervous system and organs of sensation. (See fig. 5, pi. xiv.) 
The principal ganglion which is a thick white ring, lies immediately 
behind the head j a portion of the aorta and the alimentary canal 
passing through it. This ganglion gives up numerous branches 
laterally to the base of the eye-pedicles, the tentacular rims and buccal 
appendages. One thick branch, subsequently dividing, issues below 
and supplies the head, some of its small nervous threads uniting into 
a small ganglion between the oral appendages. Another very thick 
branch also issues from the central ganglion below, and is directed 
backwards, accompanying the alimentary canal. It divides at the 
digestive organs in two branches, one supplying these and the other 
the generative organs. Besides these, there issue from the central 
ganglion five long threads on each side, two giving the requisite 
number of nerves to the foot and four (or 8 altogether) to the mantle. 
They appear, however, to be connected with the other nervous 
branches of the intestines by numerous very fine threads. 

From the generic characteristic which I have previously given, 
it will be seen that I have made the distinction between eye- 
pedicles and tentacles. This verbal distinction is, I believe, in 
most of the Gastropods, an essential one and it is, for instance, 
not correct to speak in the HelicidxE of four tentacles, for they do not 
all serve the same purposes. Strictly speaking, there is only one pair 
of each, two tentacles and two pedicles. The presence of only one 
pair of tentacles, — actually the eye-pedicles, — has been pronounced as 
a peculiarity of the Onchidia and was used as an important distinc- 
tion from the genus Vaginulus. The Oncliidia possess, however, 
beside the pair of prolonged pedicles, a pair of true tentacles, which 
appear as thickened rims on the upper surface of the buccal append- 
ages. Thus the distinction from Vaginulus, which has the tenta- 
cles free and bilobed, is in this point only a gradual one of develop- 
ment. 

When the mantle of an Onchidium is dorsally cut open, and the . 
internal organs exposed, the dark pedicles are seen to be attached 
laterally to the mantle, reaching with their bases beyond the li^ad 



1869.] On the genus Onchidium. 1)7 

(seepe in fig. 5, pi. xiv ; and the figure between 1 and 1 a). The base 
of each is flattened, white, cartilaginous, intimately connected with the 
muscular tissue of the mantle in this place ; above the base numerous 
nerves enter to it, and the trunk of the pedicle becomes hollow, 
more cylindrical and soft. The small, black eye is situated eccentri- 
cally near the tip, which is pointed, angularly bent and attached by 
a strong muscle to the internal side of the outer skin (tp } in fig. 5) 
of each pedicle. The muscle then bends backward, and joins the trunk 
of the pedicle about one-third or one-fourth of the length distant from 
the tip. The external cover of the pedicle, is formed by the soft skin, 
in the fold between the head and the mantle. 

This organisation of the pedicles fully agrees with that of the 
Helicidje in general, and makes it perfectly clear that the idea 
as to the non-retractibility of the pedicles in Onchidium cannot 
be retained. In all the species of Onchidium, of which I have 
observed live animals, I found the pedicles to be almost entirely 
retractile, but it is not usual that an animal, unless strongly 
irritated, does retract them fully, because the mantle which covers 
the head gives, as a rule, sufficient protection to them. Whenever 
specimens are, however, put in spirit, it is a common case that the 
strongly muscular mantle and the disc of the foot shrink more ra- 
pidly than the soft skin between them, and the head with its pedicles, 
and tentacles and buccal appendages is consequently easily pressed 
out. Thus the examination of specimens in spirit, evidently seems 
to have given ground to the idea, that the pedicles in Onchidium 
are not retractile. This observation appears to have been sup- 
ported by the existence of two indentations, which are formed in 
the edge of the mantle above the pedicles, when the animal moves 
about. Occasionally these indentations, or grooves, are traceable 
for some time even after the death of the animal, but they are 
by no means permanent, and constantly change in live specimens. 
Whenever the animal retracts its head, and covers it from above with 
the mantle, and from below with the front edge of the foot, the in- 
dentations perfectly disappear in each such case. 

The true tentacles are, as already noticed, in their entire length 

grown to the upper surface of the buccal appendages, and generally 

| are with their external terminations connected with the extreme 

13 



98 On the genus Onchidium. [No. 2, 

outer edges of these. Both the tentacles and the front edges of the 
appendages are, as a rule, of a yellowish green colour and somewhat 
thickened ; the former more so, heing provided with numerous nerves, 
which issue directly from the anterior edge of the central ganglion, 
lying at the base of the head, and are a portion of those nerves which 
supply the lips. During the motion of the animal the tentacles 
are always moved in front of the edges of the buccal appendages, and 
when each of them are successively touched with a solid object, it will 
be observed, that the animal much easier responds to the former than 
to the latter ; the first being the more sensitive organ. 

Habits. 
Dr. Buchannan says that he found Onchidium typlw always on 
Typha elephantina. This plant is at present not nearly so common 
as the allied species, Typha angustifolia. However, that is no proof 
that both the species were formerly not more common than they are at 
present. No doubt, seventy years ago, swampy grounds, over- 
grown with vegetation, were more extensive about Calcutta, than they 
are now when our worthy municipality takes such good care to clear 
everything away ! In places, however, (along the Eastern Bengal 
and the South Eastern and Calcutta railway lines, and in Alipore) 
where both species of Typha grow abundantly I have not been suc- 
cessful in procuring any Onchidia on the plants themselves. As a rule, 
these animals live, like Limaces, in damp places, generally close 
to tanks or ditches, especially those which are supplied during high 
tide with brackish water. They also seem to be common on the 
sea-shore, preferring the damp insular climate to that of large con- 
tinents. Sometimes they are found in places which come under the 
influence of high tides. They either crawl about on the high ground 
between the vegetation, or on old wood and stones, etc. During the 
rainy season, they are naturally most numerous. "When kept in a 
vessel with water, they often go voluntarily into it and remain for 
some time there, (as I have observed in Onchidium tigrinum and 
pallidum) until they are obliged to appear on the surface for the sake 
of breathing. In this point they fully agree with the species of 
Scarabus, and other estuary shells. Onchidium tigrinum sometimes 
voluntarily remained for 24 hours in brackish water, a small air- 
bubble being visible near its pulmonary orifice ; Onchidium typha 



1869.] On the genus Onchidium. 99 

does, however, not stand along immersion in tank water, and in brack- 
ish water it dies much sooner. Onchidium tenerum burrows in soft 
mud, and appears on the surface only in warm weather after the rain. 
Lesson says of Ochidium ferrugineum, that it is a truly marine spe- 
cies, living as a rule, several feet below the surface of the water. 

Relations and 'probable identity of Onchidium ivith Onchidella and 
Peronia. 

I have given the anatomy of the type species, Onchidium typhis, 
in detail, because it must form the basis of further comparison with 
other species, which have been believed to belong to distinct generic 
types. Cuvier, in his admirable " Memoires, p. serv. l'histoire et 
l'anatomie des Mollusques," 1817, gave a very good account* of the 
anatomy of Onchidium Peronii from Mauritius, and drew attention 
to the existence of a small British species, Onch. celticwn. Lesson, 
described several species in the u Voyage de la Coquille ;" O. granido- 
sum, marmoratum, ater et ferrugineum. A very good general figure and 
correct drawings of the different external organs are given by Savigny 
of the so-called Peronia verruciblata, from the red sea, in the French 
Scientific Expedition to Egypt, (Moll. PI. III). Qaoy and Gaimard, 
in the " Voyage de l'Astrolabe" (Moll. PL XV) figure five species, 
but in none of them the position of the genital pores has been noticed. 
No details of the anatomy are given. Gray refers the largely tuber- 
culated species, like O. punctatum and Tongensis to Peronia, the 
granular ones, like O. patelloide and incisum to Onchidella. Several 
other species of the same group of Molluscs were described by other 
authors from Mauritius, the Phillipines, etc. Keferstein lately (Zeit 
schrift fur wiss. Zoologie, Bd. XV, 1864, p. 76-85) published some 
notes on Janella, Aneitea, and allied forms, but unfortunately I have 
not as yet been able to procure this paper. However, as far as the 
forms which interest us here specially are concerned there is sufficient 
for our purpose extracted in Bronn's " Klassen and Ordnungen des 
Thierreiches," Vol. III. On plate 105 a good side view is given 
of Peronia verruculata, shewing the correct position of the pulmonary, 

* The figures are reversely drawn, for instance in figures 2 and 5 tha 
external vas deferens appears on the left side, and equally so the heart in 
figure 5, which represents an upper view. 



100 On the genus Oncliidium. [No. 2, 

anal and genital openings. Figure 2 on the same plate represents 
the genital organs, but does not seem to be very correct ; in any 
case it is not sufficiently clear. 

The reason, — that forms which appeared to such exact observers, as 
Cuvier, Lesson, Quoy and Gaimard, in all external characters to be 
generically identical with Buchannan's Oncliidium, but which were by 
others separated as distinct genera, — evidently lies in the insufficient, 
and partially incorrect account which the last named author gave of 
his newly proposed genus, though very probably the desire of man, to 
discover new forms, had also something to do with it. The consequence, 
in short, was that the name Oncliidium was reserved for the type species 
Oncliidium tyjplicd, and other forms which were better known, than this, 
were separated into distinct genera. Now, when all the anatomical 
details of the type species are before us, we shall be able to draw a 
more accurate comparison between the same and other species. 

Cuvier, as I have already stated, gave an excellent account of the 
anatomy of a Mauritian species which he called O. Peronii. Blainville 
in the 32nd vol. of the Diet, de scienc. nat. p. 280, proposed for this 
species the name Peronia Mauritiana* as the type of a new genus. 
When we compare externally the position of the anus, the hermaphro- 
dite and male genital pores, and the pulmonary orifice, then the form of 
the head and the eye-pedicles &c, of Cuvier's original drawings, with 
those given of Oncliidium tgplice, it will be readily seen that no 
essential distinction between them can be recorded. Even the granu- 
lation of the mantle is not much stronger, but it is said that the 
tubercles form (probably during life) short tufts. Referring to the 
other anatomical drawings, it must be admitted that they shew a 
perfect identity with those of Oncliidium typlice, if we set aside some 
minute details which are not perfectly clear in Cuvier's figure, and which 
are easily explained, when we consider that Cuvier had only specimens 
preserved in spirit for examination, and that many of those minute 
organs may consequently not have been preserved. Keferstein's and 
Savigny's figures of O. Peronii or verruculatum also fully agree with 
the typical Oncliidium, as far as internal characters are concerned ; the 
only difference being again the presence of tufts in place of simple 

* The rule, that specific names, unless pre-occupied, must not be changed, 
ought always to be observed. 



1869.] On the genus Oncliidium. 101 

granules. I had myself no opportunity of examining any of the 
forms called Peronia, but from the numerous variations in the external 
appearance of the tubercles, which I have observed in our species (as 
for instance in 0. tenerum) I cannot perceive how this character 
could be considered as of any generic value. Besides that, the authors 
who acknowledge, upon this ground, the generic distinction of Teronia, 
are far from consistent in dealing with the question, for they refer 
to Onchidella species which are either smooth or granular, some of them 
being very coarsely granular, and even spinous above. Surely, the dis- 
tinction between a smooth and granular or tubercular surface is greater 
than that between the latter and one in which the tubercles bear two or 
three points in place of only one. The presence of two or three 
black dots on some of the large tubercles of Oncliidium typlice appears 
to me to be fully equivalent to some of the tufts observed in Oncliidium 
Peronii, and very likely in very old specimens these black dots may 
become pediculated, for I have myself observed them each raised in- 
dependently from the other. I must here specially call attention to 
some of the variations in the mantle surface of Onch. tenerum, 
described towards the end of this paper. 

Gray proposed for Lesson's species, Onch. granulosum, the name 
Onchidella, and referred to this presumed genus all the granular or 
smooth species, except Oncliidium typhcd. In what the distinction of 
Onchidium and Onchidella ought to consist, I entirely fail to perceive. 
H. and A. Adams in their " Genera of Shells," II. p. 232, state that 
the latter differs from the former in having the buccal appendages 
lobate, but then they say exactly the same of Oncliidium. I am not 
quite certain about the meaning of the word lohate with regard to the 
buccal appendages, but I think it can only refer to the thickened rims, 
which I explained as the tentacles and which, with reference to the 
front edges of the appendages, may be called lobes. Wherefrom H. 
and A. Adams derived the statement regarding the position of the 
pulmonary orifice " at the right side under the mantle," does not 
appear evident. 

Lesson's figures of the ventral views of Onch. granulosum and 
marmoratum do not in the least support any generic distinction 
among the species described as Onchidium. In the former the 
anal and the respiratory orifices are marked in their proper 



102 On the genus Oncltidium. [No. 2, 

places, and the correct position of the sexual opening is indicated 
by the first portion of the external vas deferens. In the view of O. 
marmoratum, the vas deferens begins at the place where the pul- 
monary orifice is situated, which is no doubt a small error. None 
of the other figured species which have been referred to Onchidella, 
appear to me to add anything in support of a generic distinction, and 
thus I think that a very strong reason exists to withdraw both the 
generic names, JPeronia and Onchidella, and refer the respective species 
to Oncliidium. 

The only other closely allied genus which belongs to the family 
Onchidiid^; is Vaginulns (Veronicella apud H. and A. Adams). Mr. 
W. Theobald, Junr., described one species from Burma, V. Birmanicus, 
and my friend, Mr. Gr. Nevill, lately obtained near Calcutta two 
specimens which appear to belong to the same species. I hope to 
return to this subject as soon as I am able to procure better live 
specimens of our own and the Burmese forms. 

Description of Bengal species. 

1. Onchidium typhse, Buch., 1800. Pi. xiv, Figs. 1—5. 

Body during the motion of the animal much elongated and 
narrow, rather convex, anteriorly and posteriorly obtusely round- 
ed ; mantle above greenish, of various shades, covered with very 
numerous smaller and larger tubercles, which are nearly equally 
distributed over the whole upper surface. The smaller tubercles vary 
a little in their size, but the larger ones have pretty nearly the same 
dimensions, those about the centre of the back being slightly higher 
than others. These tubercles are at their bases and at the sides some- 
what darker than the body, the top being, however, usually paler and 
provided with from 1 — 4 jet-black dots. None of the tubercles are 
permanent, they can be, in the live animal, always retracted in the skin 
which is rather tough. 

The head is of considerable size, dark greyish, in front covered with 
numerous, rather large whitish warts ; the buccal appendages are 
blackish, with their front edges and the tentacles yellowish green ; 
the pedicles are thick, concentrically roughly wrinkled, slightly bluish, 
transparent at their base, greenish for the greater part of their length, 
pale near the tips, where the small black eyes are situated. The 



1869.] On the genus Onchiduim. 103 

mantle is below blackish, with a grey or brown tint, pale at the 
margins ; the foot is greenish yellow, the dark colour of the digestive 
and the pale reddish colour of the generative organs shining through 
the skin. The width of the foot, which is little shorter than the 
mantle, amounts to about -|ths of the width of the latter, but when 
the animal creeps about, it may be estimated at f th of that width ; it is 
truncate in front and rounded posteriorly. The anus lies at the upper 
basal end of the foot, the opening being small and not distinct, cover- 
ed by the terminal free edge of the foot. The pulmonary orifice is 
situated immediately beyond the anus, its internal margin is smooth. 
The hermaphrodite genital pore is a longitudinal slit, surrounded by 
swollen lips, situated about y^th of an inch distant to the right of the 
anus. The external vas deferens, in the fold between the foot and the 
mantle, is marked as a white groove, and terminates in a minute pore 
below the right buccal appendage. The male genital pore lies in front, 
below the right pedicle. The dentition has been described previously (see 
p. 91, pi. xiv, fig. 6a). 

The length of large specimens is about 2|- inches, and the width 
varies from one-third to one-fourth of it, when the animal moves about 
in its ordinary way. The usual length of pedicles is about half an inch. 
Old specimens, when fresh caught, very often secrete from the smooth 
lower portion of the mantle, a deep carmine red, gelatinous substance, 
of a distinct alkaline character. The substance coagulates in spirit, 
but is partially dissolved by, or is at least made thinner in, glycerine. 

I have already mentioned, that this species is the commonest, and 
as yet the only one which was found near Calcutta. It is seen crawling 
about on old bricks, in ditches on the maidan, about the fort, along the 
Tollis-nullah (canal), and locally also on the banks of the Hooghly. 

2.— Onchidium pallidum, Stol, Pi. xv, Fig. l. 

Body elongated, moderately elevated, rounded anteriorly and pos- 
teriorly, generally covered with copious mucus. The mantle above 
is pale yellowish white, with a central, blackish, longitudinal stripe, 
commencing above the head, and extending posteriorly to about jth of 
the length of the body. It is accompanied on either side by a pale 
yellowish or greyish stripe, and the interspaces between these and the 
central stripe, are somewhat darker than the general colour of the 



104 On the genus Onchidium. [No. 2, 

body. The entire surface is almost equally granular, with a small 
number of more or less regularly distributed larger tubercles, each 
provided with one, seldom two black dots. The larger tubercles were 
in one specimen arranged in two longitudinal rows on either side of 
the dorsal stripe, but in other specimens, they were irregularly placed. 
The black central stripe is widest in the middle, with a pale spot in 
the centre in which are situated three black dots ; these being only 
observable in large specimens. The edges of the mantle are slightly 
thickened ; its colour below being of the same, uniform, pale yellowish 
white hue, as above. The foot is obtusely pointed posteriorly and 
truncate in front ; it is greyish yellow, varying in tints according 
to its expansion and consequent transparency ; the colour of the internal 
organs is traceable through it. 

The head and eye-pedicles are dark, with a distinct greenish tinge ; 
the mantle and the buccal appendages paler ; the front edges of the 
latter and the tentacles pale yellowish green. The length of the 
pedicles is generally less than half an inch, and they are somewhat 
thinner than in the previous species ; the eyes are black. 

The anus lies at the end of the foot ; the pulmonary orifice just 
behind it, being rather small and surrounded by thickened margins. 
The hermaphrodite genital pore lies to the right, quite close to the 
anus ; the external vas deferens enters the body on the side below 
the right buccal appendage, and the penis opening is situated in front, 
below the right pedicle. Young specimens are paler in colour than 
old ones, and the dorsal stripe becomes occasionally rather indistinct. 

The disposition of the internal' organs entirely agrees with the 
type species, Oncliidium typlice. The internal vas deferens is fully 
four inches long ; the supplementary albuminous string, near the 
penis, is about 5 inches long, much shorter than in the previous 
species, but thicker in front ; the liver at the end of the stomach 
is a large, dendritic gland ; the receptaculum seminis is very large 
and folded ; uterus thick and twisted, and like the small albu- 
minous gland and the testis pure white ; the large albuminous gland 
is purple or rose-coloured, the folicles being filled with a granular 
substance, which has the appearance of undeveloped eggs. The ova- 
rium is deep yellow, containing large oval eggs. The cardial cavity 
extends to nearly half the length of the body, but the heart itself 



1869.] On the genus Onchidium. 105 

is only about f th of the length, distant from the posterior end. The 
penis is about T 8 oth of an inch long, thick and strongly constricted 
near the end, the flagellum being very short. 

The dentition (fig. Id) is similar to that of the last species, the 
lateral teeth are rounded at the base with one large and one small in- 
curved denticle. I counted about 150 cross series and about 500 
teeth in each the formula thus being 250-1-250. 

The finely granular mantle with few scattered larger tubercles readily 
distinguish this species from the previous, and the large quantity of 
mucus which it secretes, has not been observed in any of the other 
forms. The narrower form and greater convexity of the body are 
equally characteristic distinctions between the present species and 
O. tif/r inum, n sp. 

The species was found at Port Canning, and appears to be rare. 
I first obtained two large specimens through my friend Q-. Nevill. 
Both had in front on the right side a small portion of the edge of the 
foot detached (see fig. la), just on the place where the external vas de- 
ferens turns towards the buccal appendages. This detached portion had 
exactly the same structure as the rest of the foot disc, but whether it is 
an accidental formation, or a normal one, assisting during the act of 
copulation, I am not in a position to ascertain at the present. In 
several small specimens which I subsequently obtained myself on the 
banks of the Mutlah river, that particular detached piece was entirely 



3.— Onchidium tigriimm, Stol, Pi. xv, Fig. 2 

Body large, ovate, depressed ; mantle strongly coriaceous, hardened, 
provided with sharp edges. The upper surface is entirely covered with 
small granules, between which more or less numerous large elongated 
tubercles are interspersed. Specimens of different sizes vary in this 
point a great deal ; when young the tubercles are equally distributed 
between the granules, being three or four times as large, and each 
bearing a black dot at the tip, but being pale at the base. Old speci- 
mens have either two or three irregular rows of large elongated tuber- 
cles on each side of the back, or the larger tubercles are mure numer- 
ous, more equally distributed and spinulose, so as to give the surface 
a very rough appearance. The latter stage is met with only in quite 

14 



106 On the genus Onchidium. [No. 2, 

fresh and very large specimens ; when they are kept for only a short 
time, all the fine spines are retracted in the mantle. 

The colour is above pale green with numerous blackish, irregular 
spots, which are generally more numerous about the centre of the back 
and at the edges of the mantle, than between both. Young specimens 
are more uniformly coloured. In the old ones, the green colour is some- 
times rather dark, so as to make the spots less conspicuous ; in others 
there is a distinct blackish green irregular stripe along the centre of the 
back, of about the same length as the foot ; two similar blackish stripes 
originate one behind each of the pedicles, running a short distance from 
it more or less paraRel to the dorsal stripe, till all three join near the 
posterior end. Both the central and the lateral stripes are not con- 
tinuous, they are moreover formed by the spots becoming more or 
less confluent. Young specimens have the mantle below uniform, 
light bluish with very numerous and minute white dots ; large ones 
have occasionally a number of dark green or rusty, more or less con- 
fluent spots along the lateral margins, and the general colour is paler. 
The foot is comparatively narrow, about one-third of the width of the 
body and when contracted about one-fourth only ; it is of a uniform 
dark bluish grey colour, sub-truncate anteriorly and rounded or 
obtusely pointed posteriorly, with the edges free and sharpened all 
round. 

The head and the pedicles are dark green, the latter far apart, 
thick at the base, very thin in the middle, with slightly thickened 
tips which bear the black eyes at their upper surface. The buc- 
cal appendages are of moderate size, blackish, with greenish grey 
front edges, and the tentacular rims yellowish green. The male 
genital pore is very distinct, situated in front at the base of the right 
pedicle ; the anus and the pulmonary orifice are normal, the herma- 
phrodite opening about Jth of an inch distant to the right of the 
anus, elongated, and surrounded with swollen lips ; the external vas 
deferens enters the body below the right buccal appendage, but very 
close to the lips of the mouth, passing obliquely through the tissue 
towards the male genital pore. 

All the internal organs agree with the type species. Thel 
ovarium is small, orange yellow ; the testis, and its supplemen- 
tary gland, white, the albuminous gland and the uterus pale 



1869.] On the genus Onchidium. 107 

yellowish white. The receptaculum serainis is a comparatively very 
small globular capsule, the oviduct being, however, very strong, almost 
horny ; the portion of the liver covering the end of the stomach is 
cup-shaped and small ; the intestines and the rest of the liver normal ; 
the penis above an inch long, with a setous flagellum ; the internal vas 
deferens is about 5 inches, and its supplementary albuminous string 
about 8 inches long, almost equally thin throughout. The pulmonary 
cavity is large with numerous cross-folds, the lungs yellowish. The 
heart is small, white, the aorta at the beginning not much narrower, 
the thicker branch going to the digestive organs. 

The radula is particularly narrow in this species, but the teeth are 
very similar to those of Oncli. typhce, the laterals being only a little 
larger. 

This species is rather common along the banks of the Mutlah at Port 
Canning, it is generally seen creeping about on old wood. It survives 
a long immersion in brackish water, but shrinks and soon dies in sweet 
water. I often found it in holes or at the roots of bushes on the bank 
of the river during low water ; when the water rose the specimens must 
have been fully for 8 hours submerged. The largest specimen, measured, 
was two inches long, and about the middle 1 t 2 q- of an inch broad. 

The broad, depressed form of the body, the narrow foot, thin eye- 
pedicles and the solid coriaceous structure of the mantle, readily 
distinguish this species from others. 

4.— Onchidium tenerum, Stol, Pi. xv, Fig. 3. 

The general form of the body is oval, more or less elongated, but 
very high, it is remarkably soft, almost pulpy in fresh caught speci- 
mens, always enveloped in a thin layer of secreted mucus. The 
ground colour of the upper surface of the mantle is greenish grey, 
; irregularly mottled and spotted with dark. Two obtusely elevated, 
somewhat undulating and pale coloured, ridges run from the edges 
of the mantle above the eye-pedicles posteriorly near to the end, en- 
i closing a central area of the back, in which a number of very large 
i oval tubercles are situated. These are of a greenish colour, covered 
" with smaller warts, their tips being yellowish, and each of them provid- 
i ed with from 1 — 3 black dots. Full grown specimens have besides a row 
j of similar large tubercles running externally and parallel to the ridges 



108 On the genus Onchidium. [No. 2, 

which enclose the central dorsal area. The entire mantle is more or 
less finely granular. All the tubercles are much less developed in young 
specimens, and even in old ones their form constantly changes, on 
account of the softness of the body, in which they can be entirely 
retracted, making the mantle to appear uniformly convex. Young 
and half grown specimens generally have on the external side of the 
dorsal ridges, two or three of the blackish spots larger, separated by 
oval pale orange spots which sometimes are partially confluent, form- 
ing longitudinal stripes, the orange colour also partially extending 
on the ridges themselves. 

The mantle below is uniform pale greenish grey, with very minute 
and numerous white dots, the same being also traceable on the sides 
of the foot. The latter is blackish green, little shorter than the mantle, 
obtuse or slightly rounded in front, pointed at the posterior termi- 
nation when free, but when the animal moves about on a flat surface, 
it appears rounded. The width of the foot is on an average f- th of 
that of the body, occasionally somewhat less. The head is very large, 
greenish, covered in front with numerous ashy warts : the buccal 
appendages laterally widely expanded, with the front edges slightly 
swollen, the tentacular rims above them being very thin, and of an 
ashy grey colour. The eye -pedicles are stout at the base, when 
extended about half an inch long, slightly warty, concentrically wrin- 
kled, with the tips distinctly swollen, globular, pale yellowish or 
reddish, bearing the black eyes almost centrally situated in a lighter 
transverse fold. The lips of the mouth are whitish, strongly thicken- 
ed and folded. The anus is as usually placed at the upper terminal 
base of the foot ; the pulmonary orifice is removed from it and close 
to the posterior end of the mantle ; it is large, surrounded by a strong 
swollen margin, internally white, with 8 — 10 small tubercles, which 
continue interiorly as short ridges. The hermaphrodite pore is also 
somewhat removed from the anus, about half an inch distant from it 
to the right, but situated as in all other Oncliidia in the fold between 
the mantle and the foot. The external vas deferens is a distinct narrow 
groove, entering the body at the outer base of the right oral append- 
age, although it seems to continue below the mouth, issuing internally 
quite close to the penis opening. The penis pore itself is large, 
placed laterally below the right eye-pedicle. 



.] On the genus Oncliidium. 109 

The internal organisation does not essentially differ from the type. 
The oesophagus is comparatively small, the alimentary canal rather 
long and thick ; the liver extensive and deep greenish ; stomach 
very muscular and large. The internal vas deferens is very thin, 
yellow, about three inches long, and twisted round the penis which 
is about T 8 oth of an inch long, very thick, but otherwise not offering 
any distinctions. Its supplementary albuminous string is thick, 
white, and at least 12 inches long, it almost occupies one-third of the 
body cavity just behind the head. The hermaphrodite organ is not very 
extensive, the large albuminous gland of a purplish colour ; ovarium 
deep, yellow ; testis white, small albuminous gland yellowish white ; 
the vas deferens, issuing from the testis, is very thin, accompaning 
the strong and thick oviduct ; the receptaculum seminis is represented 
by a small, oval, dark coloured gland, closely attached to the oviduct. 

The nervous ganglion behind the oesophagus is particularly large, 
sending numerous branches in all directions. The dentition is also 
similar to the other species, the centrals have a very small point, and 
the laterals form distinct hooks with an upright point at the end. 

The softness of the body, its great height, the peculiarly formed 
tubercles of the mantle, and the situation of the pulmonary, herma- 
phrodite and male genital openings, are the characteristic distinctions 
of this species. 

It has been found, at the end of the rainy season, — in September 
and October, — on the banks of the Mutlah river at Port Cunning, 
but appears to be rare. Its habits are peculiar ; it burrows in 
mud, sometimes several inches deep, and appears on the surface 
merely after, or during, the rain of a Warm day. This evidently 
accounts for the softness of the body. A few specimens which I kept 
in a glass instantly burrowed in the soft earth, lying in holes in an 
oblique or perpendicular position with the posterior tip of the mantle, 
where the pulmonary orifice is situated, exposed so as to permit lice 
access of air. They sometimes did not appear on the surface for many 
days, except when covered up and then placed in the sun. 



110 On the genus Onchidium. [No. 2, 

Explanation of letters in Plates XIV and XV. 

oe. — oesophagus. 
ac. — alimentary canal. 

ps. — supplementary albuminous gland of the penis. 
I. — liver. 
r.— rectum. 
t. (or ts) testis. 
o. (or as in fig. 5) ovarium, 
p. — penis, 
pp. — penis opening, 
sg.— salivary glands. 
pe. — eye-pedicle. 

tt. — tentacle, except in fig. la, of PI. XIV, being = buccal 
appendage. 
i. — intestine. 

pst. — first portion of the stomach. 
st. — middle portion of the stomach. 
mst. — muscular, middle part of the same. 
on. — terminal part of the same. 
ag. — albuminous gland of the generative organs. 
as. — in fig. 2, albuminous gland of the testis. 
lit. — heart. 

rs.~ receptaculum seminis. 

gp. and pa. — supplementary glands (kidneys, &c. ?) of the rectum. 
go. or g v. — hermaphrodite genital opening. 
a. — (in figs. 2 and 5) anus. 
ol.— pulmonary orifice. 
I. — lungs. 

rm. — retractile muscle. 
n. — nerves. 
ng. — chief ganglion. 
dn. — nerve of the digestive organs. 
hs. — base. 

cp. — cartilaginous plates supporting the radula. 
to. — tongue. 
ra. — radula. 



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1869.] On the genus Onchidium. Ill 

go. (in fig. 1. c) middle genital pore. 

/.—foot. 

d. — dorsal part of the mantle. 

vd.— vas deferens. 

vdo. — opening by which the external vas deferens enters the body. 

ba, in fig. 5. — buccal appendage. 

tp. — external covering of the eye-pedicle. 

ov. — oviduct. 

PL XIY. 

Fig. 1, 1 a, 1 b, 1 c, dorsal, ventral, side and front views of Onch. 
typhce ; the figure between 1 and 1 a, represents the eye-pedicle, iso- 
lated and enlarged. 

Fig. 2. A large specimen of Onch. typhce, cut open along the centre 
of the back, the internal organs being exposed. 

Fig. 3. A small portion of the edge of the mantle showing the 
internal cavities. 

Fig. 4. (Esophagus, cut open, with the radula, salivary glands, (fee. 

Fig. 5. Internal organisation of Onch. typhce. 

Fig. 6, radula, 6 a, central and a few lateral teeth, 6 b, side view 
of the central, and 6 c side view of the lateral tooth ; all greatly 
enlarged. 

PL XV. 

Fig. 1, and 1 a, dorsal, and ventral, views of 0. pallidum ; 1 b, 
radula, 1 d, central and lateral teeth, 1 e, side view of a lateral tooth ;. 

Fig. 2, 2 », 2 b, dorsal, side, and ventral, views of 0. tigrinum ; 
2 c, radula ; 2 d, central and lateral teeth ; 2 e, side view of a central, 
2/, side view of a lateral tooth. 

Fig. 3, 3 a, 3 b, 3 g, dorsal, ventral, side, and front, views of O. 
tenerum ; 3 c, radula, 3 d, central and lateral teeth, 3 e, side view 
of a central, 3 f, side and front views of a lateral tooth. 

N. B. — The figures of the teeth are in all cases enlarged. 



112 [No. 2, 

Notes on the Flora of Manbhum ; by V. Ball, Esq., B. A., Geological 

Survey of India. 

[Read 4th Nov., 1868 ; received 5th Nov., 1868.] 

The district of Manbhum which, until comparatively recent times, 
formed a portion of those terra incognitce, the jungle mehals, has not 
been altogether neglected by naturalists. The fauna, first examined 
by Col. (then Lieut.) Tickell, and more recently by Captain Beavan, 
is now pretty well known. 

The flora of the northern portion of the district in the vicinity of 
the grand trunk road, received the attention of several distinguished 
botanists, but in the southern portion plants never have before been 
collected. 

Dr. Hooker, in his introductory essay to the Flora Indica, after no- 
ting the character of the flora of the humid Eastern ghats of Orissa, 
which, owing to circumstances which he describes, are during both 
monsoons, daily affected by moist sea breezes, states that the vegeta- 
tion of the interior of the province (which includes the greater portion 
of Manbhum) is quite unknown, except from a few notices in Major 
Kittoe's journey to the Sumbulpur valley. 

Dr. T. Anderson's paper in the journal* is devoted to an account 
of the flora of northern Manbhum, (in the vicinity of the trunk road), 
Behar and Parisnath hill, upon which latter, temperate forms, all of 
Himalayan species, are found. His list contains most of the species 
which I have met with in the lower portions of Manbhum ; there 
are, however, some important additions. 

As it is often equally important in botanical examinations to trace 
a resemblance as well as a difference between the floras of adjoining 
areas, I have ventured to give the following account of the portions 
of the district which have been visited by me during my geological 
Survey. 

As on a previous occasion, I must again acknowledge the assistance 
which I have ever readily received from Mr. Kurz, who has examined 
all my collections, and who also paid me a short visit when I was 
encamped near Beharinath hill. Such assistance is invaluable in 
Calcutta where, in order to consult the Herbarium and the Botanical 

* J. A. S. B. 



1 869.] Notes on the Flora of Manbh urn . 113 

library, it is necessary to undergo so much trouble and expenditure 
of time, as is involved in a trip to Seebpiir. 

The district of Manbhum forms portions of three of Dr. Hooker's 
provinces, Behar, Bengal and Orissa, the larger portion being included 
in Orissa. As I expect to have further opportunity of examining that 
province throughout, I shall for the present confine myself to a 
description of the more salient features of the flora ; reserving the 
detailed list of plants to some future time. The physical characters of 
the district of Manbhum may be most clearly comprehended by divi- 
ding it up into a series of six zones as follows : 

1st. A zone in which metamorphic rocks alone prevail, and of 
which the general altitude is probably about 4 to 500 feet, and which 
is studded with small hills rising 3 to 400 feet higher. 

2nd. The Damuda valley in which the two coal fields of Ranigunj 
and Jherria are situated. This zone includes the hills of Pachete 
and Beharinath, formed of the youngest sedimentary rocks and rising 
to the heights, respectively, of 1,600 and 1,480 feet. 

3rd. A zone similar to the first, in which metamorphic rocks only 
occur, and which is studded with many hills of which Susinia (1400'), 
Rugonathpur and Sindurpur are the principal. It includes the 
valleys of the Selye, Dulkissur and Cossye rivers. 

4th. A zone upwards of two-thirds of which are in no respect 
different from the preceding one, but of which the remaining portion, 
the western, is occupied by the Bhaghmuri plateau, one of the most 
important spurs running from the highlands of Chota-Nagpur. It is 
formed of granitic gneiss which weathers into huge and magnificent 
monoliths. The general level of the plateau is probably about 1,500 
feet above the sea, that of the plain at the base being 720 feet. 

bth. A zone similar to No. 3, in which a few unimportant hills 
occur. The rocks belong to two formations the metamorphic, or gneiss 
series, and the sub-metamorphic, or slate and quartzite series. 

6th. Finally Manbhum is separated from Dhalbhum and Singhbhuni 
on the south by a series of ranges of hills formed of the harder rocks 
belonging to the sub-metamorphic series : quartzites, tough schists, 
slates, and trap. Between these ranges which rise to various heights 
from 1,000 to 3,000 feet, are deep valleys in which the vegetation, 

15 



114 Notes on the Flora of ManhJuim. [No. 2, 

owing to the greater amount of moisture, is different from that of the 
open plains. 

At first sight, there is much in the general aspect presented by the 
flora of Manbhiim and the adjoining districts, which is most dis- 
appointing ; instead of meeting with a realization of one's ideal of a 
tropical jungle, the effect produced by the vegetation is, in many 
places, not strikingly different to what we have been accustomed to 
in the British Isles. 

Dr. Hooker first drew attention to the park-like aspect which pre- 
vailes in the drier and clearer portions of these districts. 

Bassia, the tamarind, the several species of Ficus, JBatea and the 
Sal, representing, without any great stretch of the imagination being 
necessary, the Oaks, Fines, Sycamores, Maples and Poplars of 
temperate climes. 

It is only on the hills, and in the valleys of the sixth zone, that one 
meets with anything like typical tropical jungle ; even in these com- 
paratively favourable localities there are no tree-ferns, nor palms, and 
but few mosses, orchids or herbaceous ferns. 

Contrasting the flora in detail with that of the British Isles, one 
is struck by the absence of plants belonging to such common orders 
as Rosacea, Cruciferce, Geraniacece, Violacem and the rareness of 
species belonging to Ranunculacece, Umbelliferae and Scrophularinece. 

On the other hand, many of the pond-weeds, Chara, Nymphcea, Poto- 
mogeton, Alisma, &c, as well as grasses, Cyperus, ferns, Drosera, 
Arums, Oralis, Mistletoe, some of the smaller Labiatce, and both her- 
barceous and arboreal forms of Leguminosce, together with a Salix, 
vividly recall their European congeners. Lichens might be added to 
this list. It is interesting to observe that these are seldom to be 
found, except on the northern or sheltered faces of the trees, and rocks 
upon which they grow. 

Throughout the jungles both of the plains and hills, the deep glossy 
green of the Sal, Shorea robusta, Roxb., gives a marked character 
to the foliage. In the early part of the year, the white floral leaves 
of Combretum Roxburghii, and other species, produce a pleasing con- 
trast in the sea of green which meets the eye in every direction. At 
the commencement of the hot weather, the greater number of the 
trees lose their leaves which, in some species, are immediately re- 



1869.] Notes on the Flora of Manbhum. 115 

placed, when lovely contrasts are produced by such varied hues as the 
deep purple of the young leaves of Schleichera trijuga, Willd., with an 
infinitude of shades of red, white and green on the surrounding trees. 

While the trees remain leafless, the aspect of the jungle is bleak 
and wintry, this is intensified by the action of the jungle fires, which 
scorch up all the herbage, so that there is often little shade to be 
found, when most wanted from the hot sun of April. 

The inflorescence, as a general rule, is of a dull and subdued charac- 
ter. That of the Sal produces a peculiar hazy appearance over the 
green foliage. The most brilliant flowers are those of Bombax Mala- 
baricum, Butea frondosa and B. superba ; perhaps the most beautiful 
are the white and delicately-violet tinted blossoms of a species of 
Bauliinia. In the flat portions of the district which constitute the 
1st, 2nd, 3rd, part of 4th and 5th zones, a four-fold division according 
to the character of the vegetation may be made. 

First. Original jungle land in which trees are of large size. 

Second. Stunted jungle land from which timber is regularly cut, 
and where the trees are never allowed to attain respectable dimensions. 

Third. Dry, gravelly and raviny or rocky ground incapable of sup- 
porting a tree jungle. 

Fourth. Land under cultivation, or which has at some former time 
been under cultivation. 

In tha first division the characteristic trees are the following : 
Shorea robusta, Roxb. 
Terminal ia glabra, Roxb. 
Buchanania latifolia, Roxb. 
Semecarpus anacardium, L. 
Grislea tomentosa, Roxb. 
Croton oblongifolium, Roxb. 
Phyllanthus emblica, L. 
Lagerstrcemia parviflora, Roxb. 
Symplocos racemosa? 
Conocarpus latifolia, Roxb. 
Holarrhama antidysenterica, Wall. 
Randia dumetorum, Lain. 
R — longispina, DC. 
Eugenia jambolana, Lam. 



116 Notes on the Flora of Manhhum. [No. 2 



Gardenia latifolia Ait. 
G— sp. (lucida ?) 
Pavetta Indica, Linn. 
P — parviflora, Roxb. 
Wendlandia tinctoria, DC. 
Cassia fistula, Linn. 
Calosanthes Indica, Blunie. 
Stereospermnm suaveolens, DC 
JEigle Marmelos, Corr. 
Carissa Carandas, L 
Zizyphus cenoplia, Mill. 
Combretum Roxbarghii, DC. 
Casearia tomentosa, Roxb. 
Giochidron Sp. 
Nauclea parvifolia, Roxb. 
N — cordifolia, Roxb, 

Herbaceous plants are scarce in jungle of the above character, doubt- 
less they are more abundant during the rains. 

The large scandent creepers are more commonly met with on the 
hills, but they also occur in the older jungles, the principal species 
are Bauhinia Vahlii and Butea superba. 

Parasites and epiphytes are represented by two species of Loranthus, 
two of Viscum and a few orchids. 

It is often to be observed that some one of the trees, mentioned in 
the preceding list, occurs in such abundance throughout a limited 
area, as almost to exclude all other species ; some circumstances, which 
it is impossible to detect, giving it pre-eminence in the struggle for 
life. The species so occurring are : 

Shorea robusta, Roxb. 
Terminalia glabra, W. and A. 
Holarrhaena antidysenterica, Wall. 
Conocarpus latifolia, Roxb. 
Eugenia Jambolana, Lam. 
Casearia tomentosa, Roxb. 

Modification of the character in the vegetation can, however, in 
two instances at least be traced to its prime causes, viz. the vicinity 



1869.] Notes on the Flora of Manhh urn . 117 

either of hills or of rivers. The species which are most frequently 
found at the foot of the hills are : 

Combretum Roxburghii, D'C. 
Lebidieropsis orbiculata, Mull. 
Nyctanthes arbor tristis, L. 
Schleichera trijuga, Willd. 
Flacourtia sapida, Roxb. 
Terminalia chebula, Retz. 
Antidesma bunias, Spreng. 
A — diandrum, Tul. 
Feronia elephantum, Corr. 
Ichnocarpus frutescens, R. Br. 
Bauhinia variegata, Lin. 
B — purpurea, Lin. 
Ventilago calyculata, Tul. 
Bivea ornata, Choisy. 
Hoya viridiflora, B,. Br. 
The species occurring on river banks are : 
Terminalia arjuna, W. and A. 
Eugenia sp. 

Melanthesa rhamnoides, Bl. 
Salix tetrasperma, Boxb. 
Hyptianthera stricta, W. and A . 
Erycibe paniculata, Roxb. 
Briedelia tomentosa. 
Barringtonia acutangula, Gaertn. 
Butea parvirlora, Roxb. 
Olax scandens, Roxb. 
Ca3salpinia dig-yna, Rottl. 
Millettia fruticosa ? 
Zizyphus cenoplia, Mill. 
Vitis sp. 

The second division, the stunted jungle, can hardly be said to 
possess any characteristic vegetation of its own, rather, it may be said 
that in it the types of the three others meet. The vegetation of the 



118 Notes on the Flora of Manbhum. [No. 2, 

original jungle is encroached upon by that which accompanies cultiva- 
tion, and the absence of large trees and shelter tends to produce the 
dry raviny, ground, of the third division which can only support its 
own spare vegetation, consisting chiefly of — 

Phoenix acaulis, Buch. 
Calotropis gigantea, R. Br. 
Vitex trifolia, L. 
Barleria cristata, L. 
Lepidagathis cristata, Willd , 
with grasses and dwarfed bushes of Zizyphus, Sal and Diospyros. 

In the fourth division the influence which clearing and cultivation 
exercise upon the flora, is marked and irradicable, and though deserted 
village lands often relapse into jungle, such jungle always contains 
trees which, never occurring in the primitive forests, proclaim, by 
their presence, the antecedents of that particular spot. 

The trees most commonly occurring in cleared or cultivated areas 
are : 

Bassia latifolia, Roxb. 

Butea frondosa, Roxb. 

Diospyros exsculpta, Ham. ? 

Zizyphus jujuba, Lam. 

Ficus Indica, L. 

F — religiosa, L. 

Alangium deca-petalum, Lam. 

Trophis aspera, Retz. 

Mimusops elengi, L. 

Alstonia scholaris, R. Br. 

Terminalia bellerica, Roxb. 

Bombax Malabaricum, DC. 

Spondias mangifera, Pers. 

Odina wodier, Roxb. 

Other trees occur, but more sparingly, and they may possibly have 
been introduced. 

Of herbaceous plants, a long list might be quoted, the rice-fields 
alone furnishing a large number. The most common forms met with 
in the hedge rows and groves are : 



1869.] Notes on tie Flora of Manbhum. 119 

Clerodendron infortunatum, L. 

Argemone Mexicana, L. 

Hygrophila spinosa, T. Anders. 

Aerva lanata, Juss. 

Solarium xanthocarpum, Schrad. 

Cordia Myxa, L. 

Trichodesma Indica, R. Br. 

Sida Asiatica, L. 

S — cordifolia, L. 

S - humilis, Willd. 

Jatroplia gossypifolia, 

J — Curcas, L. 

Abrus precatorius, L. 

Cavdiospermum Halicacabum, L. 

Bryophyllum calycinum. 

Tlie bushes of Zizyplius jujuba are generally covered with a beauti- 
ful net-work of dodders, both species Cassytha filiformis and Cuscuta 
reflexa (?) occurring abundantly. 

Besides the above, some of which though not indigenous are per- 
fectly naturalised, there are a number of trees which are regularly 
cultivated ; they are — 

Mangifera Indica, L. 
Moringa pterygospermum, Graertn 
Punica granatum, L. 
Psidium Guava, L. 
Anona squamosa, L. 
Tamarindus Indica, L. 
Ricinus communis, L. 
Azadirachta Indica, Ad. Juss. 
Zizyphus jujuba, Lam (var.) 

On the bunds of tanks, the following trees are generally planted. 

Acacia Arabica, Willd. 
farnesiana, Willd. 



Borassus fiabelliformis, L. 
Terminalia Arjuna, W. and A. 



1*20 Notes on the Flora of Manbhum. [No. 2,. 

Plumieria alba, Jacq. 
Nerium odorum, Ait. 

A very beautiful effect is often produced by the so-called matri- 
mony of the species of Ficus with other trees, more especially with the 
Tal, Borassusflaoelliformis : the seeds of Peepul, dropped by birds into 
the angle formed by the leaf stalk of the Tal, produce trees which 
ultimately envelope with their roots and stem the whole of their 
foster parent. 

The flora of the tanks and jheels is interesting, as it approaches 
in character that of the ponds and lakes of Europe. The principal 
species are : 

Nymph sea lotus, L. 

jST— stellata, Willd. 

Hydrilla verticillata ? 

Ottelia alismoides, DC. 

Nelumbium speciosum, Willd. 

Limnanthemum cristatum, Griseb. 

Potamogeton natans, Linn. 

Azolla pinnata, R. Br. 

Marsilea quadrifoliata, L. 
At the edges : 

Exacum sulcatum. 

Drosera Burmanni, Vahl. 

Scirpus mucronatus. 

Fuirena ciliaris. 
A number of species of Ci/perus and grasses. 

On all the smaller hills up to 1,000 feet, the greater number 
of species occurring on the plains are to be met with, and in addition 
to them many species of both trees and herbaceous plants, which are 
never found below ; on the highest hills the jungle consists almost 
exclusively of Bambusa stricta, with an undergrowth in which the 
blue flowers of Strobilanthes auriculatus and D&dalacanthm pur- 
purascens are the most prominent forms. 

The following is a list of the most characteristic trees occurring on 
the hills : 

Kydia calycina, Roxb. 



1869.] Notes on the Flora of Manblwm. 121 

Cochlospermum gossypium, D'C. 
Dillenia pentagyna, Roxb. 
Sterculia urens, Roxb. 
Chickrassia tabularis, A. Juss. 
Zizyphus rngosa, Lam ? 
Nauclea parvifolia, Koxb. 
Hymenodictyon thyrsiflorum, Wall. 
Flacourtia cataphracta, Roxb. 
Spermodictyon azurea. 
Nyctantlies arbor tristis L. 
Celastrus paniculatus, Willd. 
Dalbergia latifolia, Roxb. 
Albizzia procera, Bth. 
Acacia tomentosa, Willd. 
Ficus parasitica, Koen. 
Hibiscus vitrifolius, L. 
Helicteres Isora, L. 
Butea superba, Roxb. 
Grrewia hirsuta, Vhl. 
G — elastica, Royle. 
Flemingia strobilifera, R. Br. 
nana, Roxb. 



Desmodium latifolium, D'O. 

Tbe useful plants of Manblium may be classified into those yielding : 
Food, Drugs, Fibres, Byes, Lac, Oil, and Timber. 

Food. I have in a previous communication to the Society* shewn 
what a large number of jungle products are used as articles of food ; 
and that a considerable portion of the poorer natives derive from them 
their principal subsistence during several months of the year. 

Brtjgs. A large number of the well-known drugs of India occur 
in Manbhum ; of others, some of which are possibly peculiar to that 
part of the country, I have made a small collection, but am unable 
to say whether they really are equal to their reputed virtues. 

In making enquiries on these subjects, I have often been struck 
with the curious contrasts of the deep knowledge possessed of the 
specific virtues of certain plants, and the dense ignorance and supersti- 
* J. A. S. B. 1867, Vol. XXXVI; Ft. II. No. II. p. 73. 

16 



122 Notes on the Flora of Manbhum. [No. 2, 

tion which attributes fantastical virtues to others. The same man 
who may bring you the roots of one plant, which are of known medi- 
cinal value, will shew you the seeds of another which he asserts are 
of infallible efficacy in certain diseases, when tied round the neck 
on a string. I have seen a man going about, with a small parcel of 
medicine suspended from one of his ears, which he complacently 
told me, was for the purpose of killing, what he fancied was a worm 
in his tooth. 

Fibres. The fibres of many of the large scandent creepers are used 
in the manufacture of coarse ropes. I have never been able to ascer- 
tain that the fibre of the Mudar, Calotrojns girjantca, is collected, 
though it is one of the most valuable in India. 

Dyes. Coloured clothing is scarcely ever worn by the natives of 
Manbhum, so that there are very few dyes in use. On special occasions 
when gaudy clothing is required, yellow, which is produced by tur- 
meric, seems to be the favourite colour. Non-permanent dyes are 
sometimes made out of some of the brilliant coloured blossoms of 
Butea superba, Grislea tomentosa, &c. 

Lac. The principal lac yielding trees are Plus, Butca frondosa 
and Khusiim, Scldcichera trijurja : the lac is purchased at a very low 
rate by the Mahajuns, and yields them a considerable profit when they 
bring it to markets attended by the regular dealers. 

Oil. There are a number of trees yielding a variety of oils, for 
some of which medicinal virtues are claimed, others produce inferior 
oils, which are used either in their food, by the very poorest elasse*, 
or for burning. It is unnecessary to detail the plants here, as they are 
all well-known to yield oil. Were it not that crops of oil-yielding 
plants such as Mustard, Guizotia, Sesamum, Castor Oil, &c, are 
extensively grown throughout the district, more importance would 
attach to the jungle oils than does at present. 

Timber. The useful timber to be found in Manbhum, is very 
limited in quantity, the forests covering but a small portion of the 
area. Already contractors, and their agents, have reached the 
hills on the Dhalbhum frontier, and at the rate at which Sal 
is now being cut for Railway sleepers the supply cannot last for many 
years. 

Although Sal is the only timber cut for exportation, about 30 



1869.] 



Notes on the Flora of Manhhum. 



123 



species of trees, yielding either ornamental, or strong and durable 
woods, occur in tolerable abundance. 

In the report of the Jury in Section IV, Class IV, of the Madras 
Exhibition, 1855, there is a list given of woods with their respective 
properties. Many of the species mentioned, are to be found in Man- 
bhum. From the information contained in this list, from personal 
observation, and other sources, I have drawn up the following emi- 
meration of timber trees with their local names and special properties : 



Names. 


Local names 
Bengali. 


Character of timber. 


Acacia Arabica, 


Babul. 


Hard and tough, but small 
sized, used for wheels. 


A — catechu, 


Koir. 


Small, produces hut. 


iEgle marmelos, 


Bael. 


Wood, strong. 


Alangium decapetalum, ... 


Ankara. 


Wood, beautiful. 


A rtocarpus integrif olia, . . . 


Kantal. 


Excellent, used for furni- 
ture. 


Azadirachta Inclica, 


Neem. 


Beautiful, suitable for orna- 
mental work. 


Bassia latifolia, 


Mhowa. 


Strong, but tree is too valu- 
able to be cut down. 


Barringtonia acutangula, . 




Useless. 


Bauhinia variegata, 


Katchna. 


Little use. 


B — malabarica, 




Said to be hard. 


Borassus flabellif ormis, . . . 


Tal.'" 


Used for rafters, &c. 


Buchanania latifolia, 


Pial. 


Useless. 


Butea fronclosa, 


Plas. 


53 


Casearia tomentosa, 


Moun. 


?j 


Calosanthes Indica, 


Sona. 


Soft, useless. 


Cochlospermum gossypium, 


Gol-gol. 


Useless. 


Conocarpus latifolius, 


Dow. 


Very strong and useful, 
light-coloured. 


Croton oblongifolius, 


Putha. 


Reddish, cracks. 


Dillenia pentagyna, 


Kurkotta. 


Strong and durable wood, 
splits easily. 


Feronia elephantum, 


Kuth-Bael. 


Hard, strong, heavy wood. 


Ficus Indica, 


Bur. 


Branch stems, heavy, 
hard, suitable for tent 
poles. 


„ religiosa, 


Pipul. 


Useless. 


Flacourtia sapida, 


Benchi Katai. 


Hard, does not warp. 



124 



Notes on the Flora of Manhhum. 



[No. 2, 



Names, 


Local names 
Bengali. 


Character of timber. 


Grardenia latifolia, 


Pepero. 


Close-grained. 


Holarrhama antidysenterica 


Kurchi. 


Useless. 


Lagerstrcemia parviflora, . . . 


Seed or See- 
clhar. 


Wood said to be good. 


Mangif era Indica, 


Am. 


Durable, used for making 
packing-cases. 


Melia azadirach, 


Bukum ? 


Durable and handsome. 


Nauclea cadamba, 


Kadam. 


Used for furniture. 


N — cordif olia, 


Petpuria. 


Yellow, used for common 
purposes, easily worked. 


Nyctanthes arbor tristis, . . . 


Seolee. 


Hard, but small. 


Odina Wodier, 


Aniara. 


Central wood useful. 


Pavetta Indica, 




Timber small. 


,, tomentosa, 




Hard, but small. 


Phyllanthus emblica, 


Aura. 


Hard, valuable. 


Rottlera tinctoria, 




Wood soft and inferior. 


Scbleichera trijuga, 


Khusiim. 


Strong, suitable for spokes, 

&c. 
Useless. 


Semecarpus Anacardium, . 


Bela. 


Shorea robusta, 


Sal. 


Extensively used in India 
for rafters, sleepers, (fee. 


Sterculia urens, 


Keonge. 


Soft and useless. 


Stereospernium suaveolens, 


Paral. 


Strong and elastic. 


Strychnos mix vomica, ... 


Kuchila. 


Hard, used for plough- 
shares. 


Eugenia Jambolana, 


Jam. 


Not attacked by white 
ants. 


Tamarindus Indica, 


Ernie. 


Hard, durable. 


Tropins aspera, 


Soura, 


Only used for fuel. 


Terminalia glabra, 


Asun. 


General work,durable under 
water. 


T — chebula, 


Hurtoki. 


Coarse, but sound and dur- 
able. 


T — bellerica, 


Bhora. 


White and soft. 


Zizyphus jujuba, 


Bier. . 


Hard and useful, but of 
small size. 



1869.] 125 



Contributions to Indian Malacology, JVo. X. Descriptions of new species 
of Cyclophorida?, o/'Ennea and Streptaxisjfrom the hills of Southern 
and South-western India; by William T. Blanford, A. It. S. M., 
F. G. S., Sfc. 

[Kead 3rd February,— received 18th February, 1869.*] 

The shells described in the following pages are some very interest- 
ing forms discovered by Major Beddome and Mr. Fairbank in South 
Canara, the Pulney hills, and the ranges on the frontier of Travancore. 
All belong to the Malabar province, a remarkable zoological " out- 
lier" of the Malay fauna. 

The first three species, all of which have been discovered by Major 
Beddome in the hills of Travancore and the neighbourhood, differ 
from any previously described, so much, as to constitute a section or 
sub-genus by themselves. Instead of the colouring so generally 
characteristic of Cyclophorus and its allies, these species have a pecu- 
liar olivaceous epidermis, highly polished in two of the species, much 
as in Pupina and the allied genera, while in the third form the shell 
has a silky appearance, due to minute striation. Another peculiar 
character is the constant occurrence of two keels, one just at the 
periphery, the other at or near the base of the shell, the two being 
separated by a smooth space. Other spiral sculpture is found in two 
of the species, but these two keels are the most conspicuous ; less so, 
however, in Cyclophorus Beddomei, than in the other forms. The 
operculum in all three species, closely resembles that in the Burmese 
type of Pterocyclos. It it horny and double, with the edges of the 
whorls composing it free, and is surrounded by a marginal groove 
between the free edge of the outermost whorl, and that of the inner 
membranaceous lining of the operculum. It differs from the Ptero- 
cyclos opercula in being concave externally, instead of flat or convex. 
Too much importance, however, must not be assigned to these minute 
characters of the operculum. 

The new section appears to me quite as distinct from Cyclophorus, 
as Cyclotus and Leptopoma are, and not quite so well distinguished 
as Pterocyclos ; I, therefore, class it as a subgenus of Cyclophorus. 

* Printed in this number of the Journal by special order of the Council. 



126 Contributions to Indian Malacology. [No. 2, 

Ditropis.* Subg. nov. 

Testa translucens, subvitrea, epidermide ollvaced nitidd instruct a, 
carinis duabus, vel pluribus, una ad peripheriam, alterd subtus ab 
ilia interspatio discretd cireumdata. Operculum comeitm, arctispirum, 
duplex, lamina interna membranaced, externa crassiusculd, margin ibus 
anfractuum liberis, ambabus sulco marginali disjunct is. Animal ig- 
notum. 

Shell translucent, almost vitreous, covered with a smooth olivaceous 
epidermis, with two or more spiral ribs, one of which is always at 
the periphery of the last whorl, and a second below, separated by an 
interval from the other. Operculum horny closely wound, composed 
of two lamina?, separated by a marginal groove, the inner membrana- 
ceous, the outer rather thick, and with the edges of the whorls free. 
Animal unknown. Type, Gyclophorus planorbis, n. sp. 

I have examined the lingual ribbon of one species. It only differs 
from that of Gyclophorus in the form of the lateral teeth, and in their 
denticulations being shorter and more numerous. In G. (Ditropis) 
convexus, the species examined, the central tooth has 7 denticulations, 
that in the middle being the largest : all the lateral teeth apparently 
had 5 denticulations, but it was very difficult to count those in the 
outermost laterals correctly. 

1.— Cyclopliorus (Ditropis) planorbis, n. sp. 
PL XVI, fig. 1. 
Testa latissime umbilicata, depressa, discoidea, vitrea, tenuis, olioa- 
cea, glabra, obsolete striatula, polita. Spira plana, nucleonon exserto, 
scepe eroso, sutura impressa, ad anfractum idtimum et supra et in um- 
bllico costd sublatd intus marginata. Anfr. 4 — 4J-, convexi ; ultimus 
antice vix descendens sub-auadrangularis, supra atque subtus convexus, 
carinis duabus validis circumdatus, una ad peripheriam, alterd juxta 
basin ad latus externum. Umbilicus perspectivus, omnes anfractus 
exhibens. Apertura obliqua, sub-quadrata intus albido-labiata ; peri- 
stoma incrassatum, rectum, non-expansum. Operculum intus convexum, 
extus concavum, marginibus anfractuum externorum laciniatim clongatis. 
Exempli majoris diam. maj. 8J, min. 7, alt. 2, ap. dlam. 1 j, millem, 
» ™inoris „ 7 „ 5| „ 1J „ „ (fere) U „ 

Sab. " Galcad hills" adjines provincial Travancore in India meri- 
* Etym. Sis, twice ; Tpoirts, a keel. 



1869.] Contributions to Indian Malacology. 127 

dionali, haud procul a promontorio meridionali Lidice u Cape Comorin" 
dicto. 

Shell very broadly umbillicated, depressed, discoidal, thin, glassy, 
smooth and polished, with obsolete striation. Spire perfectly flat ; the 
apex not rising above the surface ; suture impressed ; the nucleus is 
generally wanting, being apparently remarkably liable to erosion. 
Whorls 4 to 4|, slightly convex above, the last descending but slightly 
near the mouth, and nearly square, with two keels, the one rather high 
up, forming the periphery of the shell, the other at the outer side of the 
base ; these keels can be traced upon the penultimate and part of the 
ante-penultiinate whorl, both on the spire and within the umbilicus, 
forming a distinct rib inside the suture. Aperture oblique, nearly 
square, with a white internal lip ; peristome thickened, all in one 
plane and not expanded. Operculum convex and smooth inside, the 
margins of the whorls externally much elongated and torn, especially 
towards the margin. 

Major diameter, from the edge of the peristome to the opposite 
margin 0.34 inch, minor diam., at right angles to the other, 0.28 
height 0.08. A smaller specimen measures 0.27 and 0.2 in the two 
diameters and 0.5 in height. 

Although this shell resembles some Cyclopliori in form, it differs 
from all species hitherto known in several characters and certainly 
forms the type of a distinct section. 

2.— Cyclophorus (Ditropis) Beddomei, n, sp. 

PI. XVI, fig. 2. 
Testa latissime umbilicata, depressa, discoidea, tenuis, olivacea, con- 
fertissime striata, parum nitida, spiraliter costata. Spira plana, sutura 
valde impressa. Anfr. circa 4, (primo in exemplo imico deficienti) 
convexi, primi fere glair i ; penultimus costis2 — 3, supra una, infra in 
umbilico juxta suturam omatus, ultimus antice descendens, teres, jitxta 
suturam et subter periplieriam cjlaber, 7 —costatus, costis 4 superioribus, 
quarum extera ad pcriplieriam, 3 basalibus ab supcris intervallo <lis- 
jimctis. Umbilicus perspectivus. Apertura diagonalis, rotunda ; 
peristoma simplex, rectum, breviter adnatum, nigrescens, intus tenuiler 
albido-labiatum. Opercidum fusco-corneum, intus concexum, limbo 
tenuissimo circumdatum, exlus concaviasculum, marginibm anfr act a am, 
parum elevatis. 



128 Contributions to Indian Malacology, [No. 2, 

Diam. maj. 8, Min. 6£, axis 2J millem., ap. diam. intus 2. 

Hob. Travancore. 

Shell very widely umbilicated, depressed, discoidal, thin., olive- 
coloured, very closely and minutely striated, less polished than the other 
species, and covered with spiral ribbing. The spire is flat, or nearly so, 
but the innermost whorls being deficient in the only specimen sent 
for description by Major Bedclome, it is impossible to say whether the 
apex is slightly exserted or not. The suture is much impressed. 
Whorls about 4 in number, convex ; the last one descending near the 
mouth, smooth near the suture, both above and below, with 7 spiral 
ribs ; 4 above, the outermost forming the periphery of the shell, and 3 
below, separated from the others by a smooth space ; 3 of the upper 
and 1 of the lower can be traced on the penultimate whorl near the 
suture, but become obsolete on the inner whorls. The umbilicus 
exposes all the whorls below. Aperture diagonal, round, peristome 
only joined for a very short distance to the penultimate whorl, 
thickened, all in one plane and not expanded, faintly edged with white 
inside, blackish externally. 

The operculum differs from that of Cyclophorus planorbis by the 
edges of the whorls being less produced externally, and by its being 
in consequence less concave. Major diameter 0.31 inch, minor 0.27, 
axis 0.9. 

This species recently found by Major Beddome in the Travancore 
hills, is easily distinguished from the last species by its numerous spiral 
ridges, and by the absence of the glassy surface, so characteristic of both 
the other species. But two specimens have been found, of which I 
have only seen one. 

3. -Cyclophorus (Ditropis) convexus, n. sp. 
PI. XVI, fig. 3. 
Testa aperte umbilicata, depresso-co?ivexa, tenuis, nitida, vitrea, 
glabra, olivacea, minnutissime et obsolete decussato-striatula. Spira 
convexa ; apice obtuso ; sutura impressa intus marginata. Anfr. 4, 
convexi ; ultimios versus aperturam paullum descendens, teres, juxta 
suturam fascia lata fused pictus, extus pallidior, carina una validd ad 
peripheriam, altera ad basin circumdatus ; umbilico perspectivo, omnes 
anfractics exhibens, confertim spiraliter liratus. Apertura obliqua 
rotunda ; peristoma rectum simplex, incrassatum atque continuum. Oper- 



1869.] Contributions to Indian Malacology. 129 

culum fusco-cornewn, per-simile Mi Cyclophori planorbis, marginibus 
externis anfractuum laciniatim productis. 

Diam. maj. 6J, min. 5J, axis 3J millem. ap, diam, intus 2J. 

Hal. Cum C. planorbo in montibus Calcad Hills dictis. 

Shell openly umbilicated, depressly convex, thin, smooth, shining, 
glassy, of an olive colour, with minute sub-obsolete decussating strise, 
only visible beneath a powerful lens. Spire convex, apex obtuse, 
suture impressed and with an internal margination, due to the pro- 
longation on the inner whorls of the keel surrounding the shell. 
Whorls 4, convex ; the last descending slightly near the aperture, and 
becoming paler in colour in front on the outer half of the surface 
only, so that a band of darker colour surrounds the shell close to the 
suture. Of the two keels one is at the periphery, and rather lower 
in position than usual, owing partly to the raised spire, the other is 
at the base, rather towards the umbilicus, which exhibits all the 
whorls, and is closely spirally ribbed inside. Aperture round, oblique, 
peristome in one plane, simple, thickened. Operculum very similar 
to that of Cyclophorus planorbis, with the external edges of the whorls 
lengthened, ragged and split up into a fringe-like edge. Major dia- 
meter 0.26, minor 0.22, axis 0.14 inch. 

This very beautiful little species has much more of the character of 
C. (Ditropis) planorbis than of C. Beddomei, having the same glassy 
structure and high lustre. The convex form is peculiar and very 
unusual amongst the Cyclophoridce. 






The next two species are at least equally peculiar with the last 
three, and I was for some time much puzzled as to their position 
amongst the Cyclophoridce, until more close examination of the oper- 
culum, revealed its peculiar structure and its resemblance to that of 
Opisthoporus. Mr. Benson, some years ago, proposed that should other 
species be found, resembling Opisthoporus in the characters of the 
operculum, but wanting the sutural tube, they should be classed with 
the typical forms under the name Ccelopoma* This remark, how- 
ever, was especially intended to apply to Cyclotus variegatus and its 
allies, with which the types of Opisthoporus had been classed by 
By, Pfeiffer. In point of fact, the sutural tube of Opisthoporus is 
* Ann. and Mag Nat. Hist, for 1855, Ser. 2, Vol. XV. p. 15. 

17 



130 Contributions to Indian Malacology. [No. 2, 

a generic character of higher importance than the structure of the 
operculum, so much so, that I believe, as I pointed out in 1864,''' 
that Opisthoporus can only rank as a sub-genus of Spiraculum, 
Pearson, which has a totally different operculum but a similar sutural 
tube. The similar structure of the operculum in the species lately dis- 
covered in the hills of Southern India, by no means serves to prove 
any very close affinity to Opisthoporus, since the characters of the 
shell are totally distinct. With the exception of the absence of the 
sutural tube, this is not the case with Cyclotus variegatus and its 
allies. I do not think the present forms would have been classed by 
Mr. Benson in the same genus as Opisthoporus, and as I am in- 
clined, after a good deal of study of the Cyclophoridce, to consider the 
opercula alone as quite insufficient for the foundation of generic 
groups, and to attach far less importance to their characters than has 
hitherto been done by Mr. Benson and Dr. Pfeiffer, I am even less 
disposed to class together dissimilar shells solely on account of the 
opercular structure than those naturalists are. 

The operculum of the new genus appears to me, despite its resem- 
blance to that of Opisthoporus, to be a modification of a slightly differ- 
ent type. That of Opisthoporus is produced by variation of the 
typical Cyclotus operculum, but with less closely connected whorls. 
That of the genus now proposed, I consider a modification of the 
Cyathopoma operculum, in which the calcareous outer edges of the 
whorls, instead of being merely slightly curved towards the centre 
and free, are so much more curved that the outer edge of each joins 
the next interior one. Another modification of the same occurs in 
Jerdonia, in which the same outer edges are lamelliform and flat, 
each overlapping the inner one. 

Undoubtedly all these numerous forms of Cyclopihoridce are very 
puzzling. The types of land Mollusca are after all few compared 
with those of most other forms of terrestrial animal life, and the 
tendency to variation amongst them is excessive, and in the Cyclo- 
phoridce especially, the operculum has evidently become a very variable 
portion of the organism. It is very difficult to determine, in a case 
like the present, whether it is wise to found a new group or not. 
Still the two shells now to be described differ so much from all other 
* Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. Ser. 3, Vol. XIII. p. 451. 



1869.] 



Contributions to Indian Malacology. 



131 



known forms in the combination of characters presented, that such 
appears the only course open, and as will be seen presently, the 
characters of the lingual dentition fully bear out the separation. 




Cyclophorus (Ditropis) convexus. Mychopoma limbiferum. 

Mychopoma* gen. nov. 

Testa in speciebus notis turbinata epidermide fused, crassd hirsutd 
induta. Apertura intus corrugata. Operculum simile ei generis 
Opisthopori, e duobis diseis multispiris, parallelis, interno membranceo 
externo calcareo compositum ; lamina spirali erectd interpositd inter- 
sjpatiis vacuis. 

Shell, in the two species hitherto known, turbinate, cover- 
ed with a thick dark-coloured epidermis, more or less hairy. 
Aperture crenulated within. Operculum very similar to that of Opis- 
thoporus in structure, composed of an external calcareous and an 
internal membranaceous layer, both multispiral and united by a spiral 
lamina at right angles to them, the spaces between the whorls of 
which are vacant. The operculum is flat or nearly so, rather thick, 
and with a marginal sulcation. 

Of this type also I have examined the lingual dentition of one 
species, 31. limbiferum. The central tooth much resembles that of 
Cyclophorus in form, but it has 7 nearly equal denticulations. The 
inner lateral teeth are much broader, and differently placed from those 
in any other Cyclophoridce which have been, so far as I know, ex- 
amined. They also have 7 denticulations, and the same appears to be 
the case in the outermost laterals, on which, however, it is difficult to 
count the exact number. These outermost teeth differ greatly in form 
and position from the usual type amongst the Cyclophoridce, and rather 
resemble those of Paludina or Valvata. 

* Typus M. hirsutum, Beddome, MS. Etym. jxv\os a « i»aor chamber, Tr^a 
operoulum. 



132 Contributions to Indian Malacologij . [No. 2, 

4 e — Mychopoma hirsutum, Beddome, MS. PI. XVI, fig. 5. 

Testa mediocriter umbilicata, depresso-turbinata, solidiuscula, epi- 
dermide cr asset, fused, liris spiralibus sub-confertis et lineis elevatis 
confer tissimis obliquis decussatim ornatd ; intra suturam, ad peri- 
pheriam, atque circa umbilicum pilis longiusculis confertim fimbriata 
induta ; sub epidermide albida, decussato-costulata, liris spiralibus 
plus obliquis, minus validis quam extra epidermidem. Spira convexo- 
conoidea; apiceprominulo,papillari; sutura profunda, pilis fere obtecta, 
Anfr. 5 — 5| convexi, ultimus teres, antice pa-rum descendens. Um- 
bilicus per spectivus, omnes anfr •actus exhibens, fimbria hirsutd parti m 
celatus, intus spiraliter liratus. Apertura diagonalis, rotunda, intus 
sublactea atque lineis horizontalibusfuscis signata ; peristoma sinuatum, 
duplex, extus expansiusculum crispatam, intus corrugatum, manjine 
columellari repando, solo, glabro et simplice. Operculum multispirum, 
crassum, extus concaviusculum, calcareum, albidum, intus planum mem- 
branaceum. Diam. maj. 8^, min. 7, axis 5h, ap. diam. intus 3J millem. 

Hob. In montibus Calcad atque Myhendra dictis, in regione Tra- 
vancorica Indies meridionalis. 

Shell umbilicated, depressly turbinate, rather solid, covered with 
a thick dark coloured epidermis, which has strong raised decussated 
sculpture of spiral ridges and very close oblique costulation : at the 
periphery and around the umbilicus there is a fringe of close, rather 
long hairs, and the outer series continued on the inner whorls forms 
a sutural fringe also. Beneath the epidermis the shell is white with 
decussating lines, the spiral sculpture being more pronounced and the 
ribbing corresponding to the lines of growth less so than outside the 
epidermis. Spii'e convexly conoid, the apex prominent and papillar, 
suture deep, nearly concealed by the hairy fringe within. Whorls 
5 — 5^, convex, the last cylindrical, descending but very little in 
front. Umbilicus pervious, exhibiting all the whorls, spirally ribbed, 
partly covered by the surrounding hairy fringe. Aperture diagonal, 
round, rather milky inside, with dark horizontal lines corresponding 
to the spiral ribs on the shell ; the peristome is thick and double, 
curved backwards near the umbilicus, the internal portion with 
minute pearly white denticulations, largest on the outer (dextral) 
margin and gradually decreasing slightly in size on the upper and basal 
edges, vanishing entirely near the umbilicus ; the external peristome 



1869.1 Contributions to Indian Malacology. 133 

is slightly expanded, the edge cut into minute teeth like those of 
a saw except on the inner or columellar margin. Operculum externally 
slightly concave, white, calcareous ; the spiral sculpture obsolete near 
the centre in old specimens ; internally membranaceous. Major diameter 
0.34, minor 0.28, axis 0.22, diameter of the aperture 0.14 inch. 

This is a very curious and interesting species which, while differing 
in many respects from any known form, has marked affinities with 
shells belonging to distinct groups. Had the shell been discovered 
without the operculum, there could have been very little hesitation 
in considering it a large form of Cyatliopoma ; the sculpture and 
general shape are precisely those of the types of that genus, and in some 
species, as Cyatliopoma jilocinctum, there is a thick epidermis, and 
also the very singular internal crenulation of the mouth, which is 
more marked in the present shell than in any allied species. The 
operculum, however, is totally different : instead of the whorls having 
the curious raised and incurved edges so characteristic of Cyatliopoma 
they are flat and almost obsolete near the centre, on the outer surface, 
being far less distinct than in typical species of Cyclotus. 

The hairy fringe around both the periphery and the umbilicus so 
closely resembles that in Cyclophorus (Craspedotropis) cuspidatus, 
Bens., that there can be no question of a certain affinity between the 
two species, and there is considerable resemblance in their general 
form. The apertures, however, differ greatly, and there are marked 
distinctions in the operculum. 

On the whole, I think it highly probable, that the present generic 
type, and perhaps Craspedotropis also, will finally have to be consider- 
ed as sub-genera of Cyatliopoma. 

5.— Mychopoma limbiferum, n. sp. Pi. XVI, fig. 4. 

Testa anguste umbilicata, turbinata i tenuis, epidermide decidud } fulvd, 
striyisfuscis, obliquis spiralibusque notatd, vel unicolori fused, Jimbriam 
pilorum brevium circa umbilicumferente, induta ; sub epidermide albida, 
liris confertis spiralibus ornata. Spira conica ; sutura valde impressa. 
Anfr. 5J convexi, ultimus teres, antice sub-descendens. Apertura obliqua, 
fere circularis : peristoma duplex ; externum limbo sub-late expanso 
circumdatum, ad anyulum apertures antice por rectum ; internum vix dis- 
cretum intus sub-distanter corruqatum ; margine columellari amborum 
valde repando, glabro, vix expansiusculo. Operculum minus crassum 



134 Contributions to Indian Malacology. [No. 2, 

quant in M. hirsuto, exttis concaviusculum, lamina calcared ad centrum 
carente, intus planum. 

Exempli majoris diam. niaj. 7, min. 6, axis 5-|, ap. diam. intus 2f, millem. 
„ minoris „ 5|- ,, 4| „ 4^ „ . intus 2 „ 

Sab. In summis montibus Pulney dictis ; detexit S. Fairbank. 

Shell narrowly unibilicated, turbinate, thin, covered with a thick 
deciduous, yellowish brown epidermis, with dark spiral and oblique 
stripes, or more frequently perhaps altogether dark brown, with a 
fringe of short hairs round the umbilicus : beneath the epidermis, the 
shell is white with close spiral sculpture. In some specimens, as in 
M. hirsutum, there are oblique raised lines outside the epidermis, but 
they are not always conspicuous. Spire conical, suture deep. Whorls 
5^ convex, the last cylindrical, scarcely descending towards the aper- 
ture which is oblique and nearly circular. The peristome is much 
curved back, near the umbilicus, where it is almost simple and scarcely 
expanded : elsewhere the outer portion is sharply reversed, forming 
a broad rim at right angles to the axis of the whorl on the outer and 
basal margins, while near the penultimate whorl, it is produced in 
front. The inner portion of the peristome scarcely projects beyond 
the outer ; it is corrugated within, but not nearly so closely or strongly 
as in M. hirsutum, and the corrugation is very faint towards the base, 
and entirely wanting at the angle of the aperture and on the collumellar 
margin. Operculum thinner than in the last species, and the calcareous 
external portion less developed, and entirely wanting at the centre. 

Major diameter in a large specimen (X.28 inch, minor diameter 
0.25, axis 0.22, diameter of the aperture inside 0.11. Of a small 
specimen, the respective measurements are 0.21, 0.165, 0.16 and 0.08. 

This is a very different shell from the last, being much higher in 
the spire with a broader edge to the mouth. The name is taken from 
the last peculiarity. Only a few specimens were found by Mr. Fair- 
bank. It appears to inhabit the tops of the Pulneys at a height of 
about 7,000 feet. 

6.— Pterocyclos ? tristis, n. sp. PL XVI, fig. 9. 

Testa late umbilicata, depressa, tenuis, epidermide crassajulvescenti- 
brunned induta ; sub epidermide albida, striatula. Spira convexa. 
Apice parum exserto, per-obtuso, sutur a profunda. Anfr. 5 rotund oil; 
ultimus teres, longe sensim descendens. Apertura obliqua, rotunda ; 



1869.] Contributions to Indian Malacology. 135 

peristoma brevissime adnatum, duplex ; internum parum porrectwn, 
superne juxta suturam vice sinuatum ; externum leviter expansum, 
continimm, a peristomate interno sulco discretion, supra ejus sinum 
in alam verticalem parvam, instar tubuli imperfectly antice spectantem 
anfr actum penultimum non attingentem, breviter cucullatim produc- 
tum. Operc ? Diam. maj. 19^, min. 16, axis 9 J, mill. Ap. diam. 
intus 6|~. 

Sab. In provincial South Canara ; detexit H. Beddome. 

Shell widely umbilicated, depressed, thin, covered with a thick, oli- 
vaceous brown epidermis; beneath the epidermis white, faintly striated. 
The epidermis is closely rugately striated near. the suture. Spire 
convex ; apex scarcely exserted, obtuse ; suture deep. Whorls 5, round- 
ed, the last cylindrical, descending very gradually for a considerable 
distance behind the aperture. Mouth oblique, circular ; peristome 
double, the two portions divided by a groove ; the inner slightly 
projecting, with a very small, almost obsolete sinus above, close to 
the suture ; the outer a little expanded, and produced above into 
a short vertical wing, opening in front, and forming an imperfect 
tube ; it is just above the imperfect sinus in the inner peristome, 
and does not touch the penultimate whorl. Operculum unknown. 
Major diameter 0.8, minor 0.62, axis 0.36; diameter of the aperture 
0.26 inch. 

In the absence of the operculum, it is not easy to say if this shell 
should be classed as Cyclophorus or Pterocyclos. It might even be 
a Bhiosto?na, and would in that case be another instance of the occur- 
rence on the Malabar coast of Burmese and Malay forms, unknown 
elsewhere throughout the Indian Peninsula. In the extremely small 
wing not touching the penultimate whorl, the absence of a deep 
incision in the interior peristome beneath the wing, the large mouth, 
and uniform colouring, the species differs from all Indian forms of 
Pterocyclos. There can be no question of its being dintinct also from 
all known forms of Cyclophorus, but, except for the wing, it approaches 
very nearly to C. ravidus, Bens., and C. annulatus, Trosch., both of 
which, however, are natter. 

7.— Spiraculum Pairbanki, n. sp. 

Testa late umbilicata, depressa, sub-discoidea } decussatim striata, 
griseo-albida, irregulariter castaneo-strigata et mac ulata, fascia inter- 



136 Contributions to Indian Malacology. [No. 2, 

ruptd sub-peripherid alidaue lata in umbilico castaneis. Spirafere 
plana ; apice prominulo papillari ; sutura valde impressa. Anfr. 5 
rotundati ; ultimus teres, antice sensim descendois, spiraculo brevi 
sub-verticali truncate-conico, cum anfractu penultimo conjuncto, 4 
mill, pone aperturamsito munitus. Apertura diagonalis, circularis ; 
peristoma duplex ; internum breviter porrectum obtusum, ad suturam 
angulatim sinuatum ; externum continuum expansum, supra sinum 
instar alee cuculliformis , anfractui penultimo appressce exstans, versus 
basin columella processum linguiformem emittens. Operculum corneum, 
intus valde concavum, extus convexum, apice planulato, marginibus 
anfractuum lanielliferis. Diam. maj. 14^, min. 11-^, axis 6, ap. 
diam. intus 4 mill. 

Hab. In montibus Pulney dictis, India? meridionalis. S. Fairbanh. 

Shell broadly umbilicated, depressed, nearly discoidal, greyish 
white with irregular streaks and spots of chesnut and two bands of 
the same colour ; one, somewhat interrupted, below the periphery, the 
other, broader, within the umbilicus. Spire almost flat, the apex 
prominent and papillar, the suture deeply impressed. Whorls 5 
rounded, the last cylindrical, gradually descending in front and fur- 
nished, (0.16 inch behind the aperture), with a short nearly vertical 
spiracle, in the form of a truncated cone, and joined to the penulti- 
mate whorl. Aperture diagonal, circular, the peristome double, the 
internal portion projecting slightly and obtuse, with a rather shallow 
angular sinus near the suture : the external peristome is continuous, 
expanded, dilated above into a projecting wing which runs forwards 
for some distance along the last whorl in front of the aperture, and is 
bent downwards at the end. Near the base of the columellar margin 
there is a small gutter-shaped projection. The operculum is very 
concave within, externally convex, flattened at the apex, with free 
lamellar edges to the whorls as in the typical species of Pterocyclos. 
Major diameter 0.58, minor 0.47, axis 0.23, diameter of the aperture 
within 0.16 inch. A rather smaller specimen measures 0.64 by 0.52 
in its two diameters. 

This species has not been figured as I hope to be able to give illus- 
trations of all the known forms of Spiraculum on one plate. 

The genus Spiraculum, previously to Mr. Fairbank's discovery, 
was not known to occur in Southern India. Its detection serves to 



1869.] Contributions to Indian Malacology, 137 

add another to the Burmese and Malay forms represented in the hill 
groups of that region. In 1866, I described another species, Sp. 
Beddomei* from the Eastern hills near Vizagapatam (J. A. S. B. 
Vol. XXXV. PI. II. p. 31). The present form differs from Sp. 
Beddomei in several characters, the principal being the prominent 
apex, the form of the sutural tube and the presence of a small lingui- 
form process at the left side of the peristome near its base. The last 
character indeed is quite peculiar, and serves alone to distinguish the 
present species. In size, and somewhat in form, there is a decided 
resemblance to the Burmese Sp. Avanum, in which, however, there 
are not only important distinctions in the form of the peristome, the 
recurved sutural tube, <fcc, but the operculum is also very different, 
being flat precisely as in the Burmese forms of Pterocyclos, while in 
Spiraculum Fairbanki, it is as convex as in Ptercyclos rupestris, or 
Ft. bilabiatus. 

Mr. Fairbank only obtained 11 specimens of this interesting form. 
They were found in a Shola at some distance from Kodai Kanal, the 
hill station on the Pulneys, on the road to the Kukal Shola. 

8 -Cataulus Calcadensis, Bedd. MS. Pi. XVI, fig. 8. 

Testa sub-perforata, fusiformi-turrita, solida, confertim sub-sinuate 
costulata. Spira ovato-turrita ; apice acutiusculo ; sutura valde im- 
pressa. Anfr. 8^-, convexi, ultimus parum angustior, demum breviter 
solutus, antice porrectus vix descendens, carina basali validd, compressd, 
costulata, antice dilatatd munitus ; periomphalo mediocri, costulato. 
Apertura sub -circular is, fere verticalis, canali ad latus sinistrum 
marginis basalis patente, ore subtus dextrorsumque spectante ; peristoma 
incrassato-expansum, sub-duplex vel duplex, internum obtusum, exter- 
num expansum, revolutum, postice et ad canalem basalem productum, 
margine columellari insuper angustiori, cum anfractu penultimo haud 
juncto. Operc ? 

Long. 21, diam. 7, apert. diam. intus 3^ millem. Apertura cum 
peristomate incluso canali 6J millem. longa. Exempli minoris long. 
16, diam. cum perist. 5j, diam. minor 5, apert. intus 3 millem. 

Hub. ' Calcad Hills' extra fines provincice Travancore. 

Shell sub-perforate, fusiformly turrited, solid, closely and rather 

* In the habitat of this shell, there is a misprint. Kimery hills should be 
Kimety hills. 

18 



138 Contributions to Indian Malacology. [No. 2, 

sinuously costulated. Spire ovately turrited, apex rather acute, suture 
much impressed. Whorls 8^, convex, the last a little smaller, quite 
free from the other whorls for a short distance behind the mouth, 
but not descending much, not nearly so far as O. tortuosus is repre- 
sented as doing. The basal keel is strong, compressed, transversely 
ribbed, and becoming larger in front ; the space inside the keel around 
the umbilicus is of moderate size and ribbed. Aperture nearly 
circular, and almost vertical, the opening of the basal canal being 
at the left side and not in the same plane as the aperture, but turned 
a little downwards and to the right. Peristome thickened double, 
the inner portion obtuse, the outer expanded, turned back, produced 
below the canal and above near the suture, narrower on the inner 
margin and not touching the penultimate whorl. Operculum un- 
known. Measurements of 3 specimens in decimals of an inch. 

Length, Major diameter, minor diameter, width of 

peristome included, aperture inside, 

0.84 0.28 * 0.14 

0.76 0.26 0.23 0.14 

0.64 0.23 0.2 0.12. 

Length of the aperture and outer peristome in the larger specimen 
from the base of the canal to the end of the projection above 0.26 
inch. 

At first sight, this shell bears a most striking resemblance to C. 
tortuosus, Chem., but the last whorl is much less produced, and there 
appear, judging from the description and figures of Chemnitz's species, 
to be several slight but not unimportant distinctions in sculpture and 
form. Amongst the Ceylonese species, the nearest approach to the 
present is made by C. decorus, Bens., and O. JBIanfordi, Dohrn, but 
no Ceylonese kind is known with the last whorl free. The previously 
described Cataulus from the base of the Anamullay hills resembles 
C. Calcadensis in the sinistral position of the keel, a character not 
noticed by Pfeiffer in his description. 

Since finding the present species I learn from Captain Beddome 
that he has met with a third Indian Cataulus in Travancore. 

So far as I am aware, the Nicobar locality of Cataulus tortuosus has 
not been confirmed. The discovery of so closely allied a form as that 
now described, in Southern India tends to make it probable that the 



1869.] Contributions to Indian Malacology. 139 

species described by Chemnitz may prove' to be Indian. Two other 
shells attributed by Chemnitz to the Nicobar Islands, Helix hamar- 
toma, L., and H. Nicobarica, Chem., have not since been brought thence. 
It is just possible that the former may occur, though I cannot help 
thinking it improbable, but as the locality for Helix Nicobarica is 
now distinctly ascertained to be the neighbourhood of Cuddapah, far 
inland and amidst a fauna and flora which resembles that of the Cape 
of Grood Hope nearly as much as it does that of the Nicobar Islands, 
I utterly disbelieve in the occurrence of the species in the latter 
locality. The fact that both Helix Nicobarica and H. hcemastoma 
are Indian or Ceylonese, tends to increase the probability of Cataulus 
tortuosus being also an Indian shell. 

9— Opisthostoma macrostoma, Beddome, MS. 
PL XVI, fig. 7. 

Testa perforata, conoideo-ovata, albida vel pallide rubella, sub- 
distanter oblique filiformi-costidata, sub lente spiraliter miniUissime 
et confertissime striata. Spira elevato-conoidea, lateribus convexis ; 
apice acutiusculo ; sutura valde impressa. Anfr. 5£, convexi, apicalcs 
normales non-diviantes, penultimus vix major, ultimus confertius 
costulatus, brevissime constrictus, antice sigmoideo-dejlexus. Umbili- 
cus ah anfractu ultimo non-occultus, Apertura retrorsa sub-rotunda, 
fere verticalis ; peristoma brevissime ad anfractos duos, penultimum 
et ante-penultimum, adnatum, duplex, internum continuum expansius- 
culum, externum, expansum breviter interruptum. Long. 3, diam. 
major 3, min. 2 millem. Ap. diam. cum perist. 1^- millem. 

Hab. In montibus Bramagiri dictis, in regione "Wynaad, haud 
procul a littore Malabarica Indiee. H. Beddome detexit. 

Shell perforated, conoidly ovate, white or pale reddish in colour 
with sub-distant oblique filiform costulation, which becomes closer 
on the last whorl : beneath a microscope there is very fine close spiral 
striation, very difficult to detect in general, as in other species of 
Opisthostoma and many Diplommatinte* Spire elongately conoid 
with convex sides, the apex rather acute, suture deep. Whorls 5£ 
convex, the apical ones not excentric as in the other Indian species ; 
the penultimate whorl very little larger than those above it. The 
last whorl is constricted as usual. In front of the constriction it is 
* In a good light it may easily de detected in 0. Crespigni, H. Ad. 



140 Contributions to Indian Malacology. [No. 2, 

deflected inwards, but less sharply so than in O. Fairbanki, and it 
does not conceal the umbilicus, the curve being more as in 0. Nilgiri- 
cum. Aperture reversed, nearly circular, almost vertical, having 
scarcely any inclination upwards. Peristome attached for a short 
distance only, touching both the penultimate and ante-penultimate 
whorls, double, both portions expanded, the outer more broadly re- 
flexed, and interrupted for a short distance where attached, inner 
peristome continuous. Length 0.12, breadth measured across the 
peristome 0.12, shorter diameter 0.8, breadth of the aperture includ- 
ing the peristome 0.6 inch. 

This is the largest form of the genus yet met with, exceeding even 
the Labuan species O. Crespigni, H. Ad. It is much more pupa- 
shaped than that kind is, but much less so than the two previously 
described Indian forms, from both of which it may easily be distin- 
guished by the apical whorls not being excentric, as well as by its 
much greater size. 

As the figure of O. Fairbanki in the Proceedings of the Zoological 
Society for 1866, PL XXXVIII, is rather too small to give a good 
idea of the form, and the sculpture had been omitted, two figures are 
given in the plate belonging to this paper, figs. 6, 6 a. For the 
drawings I am indebted to the kindness of Captain Godwin Austen. 
In fig. 6 a, representing the shell from below, the view is a little from 
the side ; when seen from beneath in the line of the axis, the umbili- 
cus is completely concealed by the last whorl, a character peculiar 
to O. Fairbanki. 

From the figure just referred to in the Proceedings Zoological Society, 
the idea is conveyed that Opisthostoma Fairbanki is a much smoother 
species than O. Nilgiricam. This is due to the accident that the 
draughtsman had only the former species before him, and copied the 
figure of the other. In reality, the sculpture is about equally strong 
on both forms, the only difference being, that it is a little closer in 
O. Nilgiricum. 

In the 3rd supplement to Br. Pfeiffer's monograph of the Helicida 
just published, I see with some surprise that he retains H. Adams' 
genus Plectostoma. The author of that genus admitted in the Pro- 
ceedings of the Zoological Society for 1865, p. 755, that it was identi- 
cal with Opisthostoma, and subsequently in the Proceedings Zoological 



1869.] Contributions to Indian Malacology. 141 

Society for 1866, p. 447, announced the discovery of the operculum, 
as I had anticipated. 

10 — Ennea sculpta, n. sp. Pi. XVI, fig. 10. 

Testa profunde et jiexuose rimata, sub-cglindrica, solidula, cerea^ 
diaphana, nitida, costis verticalibus sub-Jiexuosis ornata. Spira turritay 
sursum vix attenuata; apice obtuso ; sutura impressa. Anfr. 8, primi 
2 Icevigati, cceteri sub-confertim costulati, ultimus J longitudinis fere 
tequans, antice sub-ascendens, basi compressus. Apertura verticalis, 
truncato-ovata, lamella una parietali intrante juxta angulum, aliis 
profundis 4 palatalibus, seeunda minor i, una columellari valida torta, 
in apertura vix conspicua, coarctata. Peristoma undique expanswti, 
albidum, ad basin late repandum, marginibus callo lamelliferi junctis. 
Long. 8 J, diam. 2%, millem. Ap. cum perist. 2 mill, longa. 

Hab. In montibus Pulney, Indice meridionalis, detexit S. Fairbank. 
Shell deeply and flexuously rimate, sub-cylindrical, rather solid, 
translucent with a low glossy lustre and of the colour of wax. Spire 
turrited and elongate, becoming very little smaller above and bluntly 
terminated at the apex ; suture impressed, whorls 8, the first two 
smooth, the others with strong vertical sub-flexuous ribs, the last 
whorl ascending slightly in front, compressed at the base. Aperture 
vertical, truncately oval, with a re-entering parietal plait close to the 
angle, a very deep columellar fold, scarcely perceptible from the 
aperture, but strong and twisted within, running up till it nearly 
joins the parietal plait, and 4 palatal lamellee, the second of which 
from above is very small. These, like the columellar fold, are situ- 
ated so far back, that they are with difficulty to be made out from 
the aperture. Peristome white, expanded, curved back slightly near 
the base, margins united by a rather thick callus on which is the 
parietal lamella. Length 0.34, diameter 0.1, length of aperture, 
peristome included, 0.08 inch. 

This form has some slight resemblance to E. Pirriei, Pfr., but has 
very much stronger sculpture, and the lamellae around the aperture, 
are very different. 

I have another Ennea from the Nilgiris which I have hitherto 
considered a small variety of E. Firriei, but it appears to differ in 
the possession of a strong transverse basal plica. In both forms, 
young specimens appear to have the lamellae of the aperture quite 



142 Contributions to Indian Malacology. [No. 2, 

as well developed as adults, so that they must be formed and re- 
absorbed, as I have shewn to be the case in the Plectopylis section 
of Helix: Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist, Ser. 3, Vol. VII. p. 244. 
Pfeiffer — Mon. Vol. IV. p. 342, — describes the occurrence of the colu- 
mellar plicse in the young of E. JPirriei. 

11.— Streptaxis Canarica, Beddome, MS. Pi. XVI, fig. 11. 

Testa umbilicata, depressa, ovata, cerea, nitidula undique Jiexuose 
capillaeeo striata. Spira convexa ; apice obtuso; sutura vix impressa 
sub-mar ginata. Anfr. 5|, parum convexi, penultimus postice acute 
carinatus, ultimus valde antrorsum devians, post aperturam fossiculis 
brevibus tribus constrictus, subtus convexus, ad basin circa umbilicum 
compressus. Apertura obliqua, irregulariter semiovata, lamina una 
parietali torta valida et dentibus sex in peristomate fere cequidistantibus 
coarctata. Peristoma albidum, undique sub-late expansum, ad unguium 
sinuatum, marginibus callo lamelliferi junctis. Diam. maj. vix 8, 
min. 5 J, alt. 3 \ mill ; apert. cum per ist fere 3 mill, longa, 2| lata. 

Hab. In Provincia South Canara, hand procul a littore occi- 
dentali India. 

Shell umbilicated, depressed, ovate with considerable lustre and 
the colour of wax, with close rather irregular and flexuous hair-like 
striation both above and below. Spire convex, apex obtuse, suture 
scarcely impressed, sub-marginate. Whorls 5£, very little convex, 
the penultimate sharply keeled on the side opposite to the aperture, 
last whorl very excentric, with three distinct depressions behind the 
peristome ; compressed beneath, especially near the mouth. Aperture 
oblique, irregularly semi ovate, with 7 teeth ; 1 lamelliform doubly 
curved and re-entering for a short distance on the callus, uniting the 
margins of the peristome, and 6 in the peristome itself nearly equi- 
distant from each other : of these two are on the outer margin, one 
at the curve where the peristome bends round towards the umbilicus, 
and 3 along the inner, or columellar, margin. The two lowest of the 
latter are the closest together of any. Peristome white, expanded, 
curved back considerably close to the junction with the last whorl. 
Major diameter 0.32, minor 0.22, height 0.14 inch, aperture 0.12 
inch long, 0.11 broad. 

This is the first strongly keeled species which has been met with in 
India. In form it much resembles the Molmain S. Sankeyi, Bens. 



■T&urrveCL JLsicuL Soe. Bengal, VoVfQCXVIII, Pi.- II. 






PL. XVI, 














!■ Cyclop-hor-uss (iHhropU)-planjor'b 
2. C. (Dibrop-usj Beddcmez,. 

S.C.fDUropT^j corvrexvus. 

4. Myckopoma, UmhvFerwrv. 

9- M. hxrsvLburrv 



6. O-pisttwsbonvcu TaxrbarvkA,. 
7- mxtcrosiomu, 
8. CaiciulLLS Calcculeriei*. 
9.Tterocyclos trvsLLs 
lO.EnrveuL sruiptc,,. 
11. Streptajci-s Ccurvcurtca, 



1869. J Contributions to Indian Malacology. 143 

The sculpture is peculiar. But a single specimen has been obtained 
by Major Beddome. 



Oyclophorus ravidus, Bens., has been found by Major Beddome 
on the Anamullay hills, and in the Wynaad. In both localities it 
attains a considerably larger size than the type. The Annamullay form 
is 27 mellimeters by 22, that from the Wynaad, 24 mill, by 191. 
The operculum, when in good condition, has raised margins to the 
whorls. I am inclined to consider the species identical with the 
Ceylon C. annulatus, Troschel. 

Auricula nitidula, described in No. VIII of these contributions, 
J. A. S. B. Vol. XXXYI, Part II, p. 64, proves to be a variety of 
A. Gangetica of Benson, with a thicker and darker coloured epider- 
mis, but not otherwise differing. The dark coloured variety occurs 
also in the Ganges delta, where it has been found by Dr. Stoliczka. 



Explanation of Plate XVI. 
Fig. 1, 1 a, 1 b, Cyclophorus (Ditropis) planorbis, W. Blanf., magni- 
fied 2 diameters. 

„ 2, 2 a, 2 b, G. (Ditropis) Beddomei, W. Blanf., ditto. 

,, 2 c, Operculum of ditto ditto. 

,, 3, 3 a, 3 b, C. (Ditropis) convexus, W. Blanf., ditto. 

„ 4, 4 a, 4 b, Mychopoma limbiferum, W. Blanf., ditto. 

„ 4 c, 4 d, Operculum of ditto ditto. 

,, 5, 5 a, 5 b, M. hirsutum, Beddome, ditto. 

,, 5 c, 5 d, Operculum of ditto ditto. 

j, 6, 6 a, Opisthostoma Fairbanks, W. Blanf., magnified 10 dia- 
meters. 

7, O. macrostoma Beddome, magnified 4 diameters. 

8, Gataulus Calcadensis, Beddome, natural size. 

9, 9 a, Pteroryclos tristis, W. Blanf., natural size. 

10, Ennea sculpta, W. Blanf., magnified 2 diameters. 

11, 11 a, 11 b, Streptaxis Canarica, Beddome, ditto. 



5J 



JOURNAL 



OF THE 



ASIATIC SOCIETY 

Part II— PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 
No. Ill— 1869. 



Remarks on the species of Pandanus ; by S. Kurz, Esq., Curator of 

the Calcutta Herbarium. 

[Received and read, 4th November, 1868.] 

Since the publication of my revision* of Indian screw-pines, and 
their allies, in Seemann's Journal of Botany, Vol. V. p. 93 etc., I had 
the opportunity of consulting G-audichaud's work, " Voyage autour 
du monde sur la Eonite," and this gives me an opportunity for a few 
additional remarks. 

Although I am at present unable to recognize several of G-audi- 
chaud's species, the study of the carefully executed plates of this 
work have considerably added to my knowledge of screw-pines. From 
the analyses of Freycinetia and Sussea it appears quite clear, that the 
Pandanem and Freycinetiece cannot be separated from each other, as 

* In this paper some errors and omissions have crept in, which I now take 
the opportunity of correcting. 

Typha elephantina p. 95, read: folia... basi triquetra lateribus concavis, 
supra plana ; instead " excavato-trigona." 

II. Pandaneae, p. 94, add : Ovarium superum. 

III. Cyclantheae, p. 94, add : Ovarium inferum. The Freycinetieae are to 
be transferred to II, Pandaneae. 

Pandanus furcatus, var. Indica, p. 102, read : drupae valde convexae, for 
" concavae." 

Pandanus laevis, p. 127, read : spadix masc. etc., sed hae laevissimae, in- 
stead " brevissimae." 

19 



146 Remarks on the species of Pandanus. [No. 3, 

I Lave formerly believed, having lain too much stress upon the num- 
ber and the position of the ovules. Graudichaud's genus Sassea, and 
especially Souleyetia Freycinetioides make it now even difficult, to re- 
tain Pandanus and Freycinetia as distinct geneva. The only differences 
of some value, to distinguish them, seem to rest in the general habit, 
and the more or less regular superposition of the pendulous ovules 
along the marginal placenta. The ripe seeds in Freycinetia seem all 
to be furnished with a black and hard testa, while in Pandanus, they 
are only covered by a white membrane. 

In revising Graudichaud's species, I am now able to rectify my 
sections, formerly proposed, and I do this in recapitulating at the 
same time all the legitimate species, but omitting all those dubious 
ones, which have been already enumerated in my above quoted 
paper. It is impossible to form a correct idea, how far several 
of Graudichaud's species of Pandaneca are really identifications with 
Bory St. Vincent's Mascarhen species, bearing homonymous specific 
names, as the plates are accompanied only by an incomplete explana- 
tion of the figures. My own idea is, that they are most probably 
respective identifications ; Gaudichaud's Ponssinia Indica, 1. c. t. 21, 
at least, is a copy of Rheede's figures of Perin Kaida (Pandanus 
unipapillatus, Dennst.) 

Dr. F. von Miiiler has recently published some notes on Australian 
Pandanecd, mentioning therein two additional species of Pandanus, 
P. aquaticus, and P. monticola, F. Muell. {Fragment. Phyt., V, p. 40). 
Unfortunately the names of these species are not accompanied by 
a description. 

PANDANUS, Bumph. 

Sect. I. Acrostigma. Drupae simplices ; stigmata stricta, sim- 
plicia, spinescentia, extrorsum vergentes ; filamenta libera ; antheiae 
acuminata; ovula solitaria. (Fisqiietia, Gaud., ex parte.) 

* Stigmata persistentia (i. e. non nisi cum toto pericarpio separanda.) 

1. P. caricOSUS, Rumph. ; Kurz, in Seem. Jour, of Bot. y V, 
p. 100. 

2. P. affinis, Kurz, loc. c, p. 101, 

3. P. foeticLllS, Rxb., Kurz, loc. c, p. 101. Fisquetia macro- 
carpa, Gaud., Bot., Voy. Bonite, t. 4, figs. 2-8. 



1869.] Remarks on the species of Pandanus. 147 

P. ovatus (Fisquetia ovata, Gaud., loc. c, t. 4, Jig. 1,) seems to 
belong to this section. 

** Stigmata secedentia, (i. e. imd basi fragilia.) 

4. P. ornatUS, (Fisquetia ornata, Gaud., loc. c, t. 5, Jig. 1, 8 et 
9 ; et F. militarise Grand., ib. f. 2-7.) 

I would have united this species with my P. helicopus, but Gaudi- 
chaud's plant has the peduncle below the syncarpe straight, while 
P. lielicopus, in a young stage has it always spirally twisted, becom- 
ing afterwards lengthened and pendulous ; also the serrature of the 
leaves are in Gaudichaud's figure much sharper. 

5. S. helicopus. Kurz, loc, c, p. 101. 

Of this species the male flowers are still unknown, and it is doubt- 
ful, therefore, whether it should be placed in Acrostigma, or rather 
form a distinct subsection of Rijchia. 

Sect. II. Ryckia. Drupae simplices ; stigmata introrsum vergen- 
tes, secedentia, spinescentia, saepissime furcata, strictiuscula, v. a 
dorso depressa ; filamenta racemosa, v. palmatim connata ; antherae 
aristatae, v. apiculatae ; ovula solitaria. (Barrotia, Gaud, ex parte.) 

* Stigmata brevia, a dorso piano depressa, spinescentia, bi- rarius 
tri- furcata v. simplicia, ossea. 

6. P. furcatUS, Rxb., Kurz, loc. c, p. 102. 

Barrotia diodon, Gaud., loc. c, t. 8, fig. 9-14, apparently belongs to 
this species, but Barrotia monodon, ejusd., loc. c, Jig. 14-25, can with 
equal probability represent very young drupes of P. furcatus, or full 
grown ones of the two following species. 

7. P. labyrintMcus, Kurz, loc. c, p. 103. 

8. P. IlitiduS, Kurz, loc. c, p. 103. 

** Stigmata brevissima, a dorso oblique depressa, marginibus rotun- 
datis v. crenulatis. 

9. P. gramillifQliuS, Kurz, loc. c. 104. 

10. P. CeramicuS, Rumph., Kurz, loc. c. 104. 

Sect. III. Keura. Drupae in phalanges connatae, raro una 
alterave simplice intermixtae ; stigmata sessilia, v. sub-sessilia, peltata, 
v. reniformia ; filamenta connata ; antherae aristatae ; ovula solitaria, 
(Kurz loc. c, cum syn. ; Tacheija, Gaud. ; Yiusoma, Gaud. ; Barrotia, 



148 Remarks on the species of Pandanus. [No. 8, 

Gaud., ex parte ; Uombronia, Gaud. ; Eudouxia, Gaud. ? ; Dory stigma, 
Gaud. ?) 

11. P. Leram, Jones (non Kurz), P. Leram /?. macrocarpa, 
Kurz loc. c. 106. 

Pandanus Leram, as represented by Fontana in Asiatic Researches, 
is my var. /?. macrocarpa of my supposed P. Leram. The same 
variety agrees apparently very well with Eudouxia macrocarpa, Gaud., 
loc. c, t. XVIII, and perhaps also with E. ? Delessertii, ejusd. loc. c, f. 
7-8, notwithstanding an apparent slight difference between the stigma- 
ta. Both forms, P. Leram, Jones, and P. Andamanensium, as I now 
shall call the form, described by me erroneously as P. Leram of 
Jones, occur on the Andaman islands, but I only could obtain of the 
former very old fruits, an account of which the recognition of the real 
form of stigmata was very difficult. In the Bot. Gardens, Calcutta, 
drupes of true P. Leram (coming from a plant in the gardens, said to 
be introduced from the Nicobars) are preserved, but also in a state 
unfit for a correct decision. The young plant (the old one having 
been destroyed by the Cyclone in 1864,) would also differ from 
P. Andamanensium, by the form of the leaves which are almost cuspi- 
dato-acuminate, and not simply acuminate. This appears to be one 
more reason for retaining the two forms as distinct species, until a re- 
examination of more complete specimens may enable me to give a 
more satisfactory explanation of the point in question. 

12. P. Andamanensium, Kurz. P. Leram, Kurz loc. c. 
105, excl. var. ft. (non Jones). 

13. P. dubius, Spreng., Kurz loc. c. 127. 

Uombronia edulis, Gaud., loc. c. t. XXII, of 17, is not likely distinct 
from P. dubius, and Barrotia tetrodon, Gaud., loc. c, t. XIII, f. 1 — 8, 
has all the appearance of being only a young syncarpe of the same 
plant. 

14. P. Kaida, Kurz. P. Candelabrum ? Kurz loc. c. 27, excl, 
syn. omnibus, excepta citat Bheediana. 

15. P. Candelabrum, P. d. B., Fl. d'Oware I. 37, t. 21-22 ; 
Kth. Exum. III. 97, (non Kurz) from Western Africa. 

I have little doubt that Gaudichaud's Tuckeya Candelabrum (loc. c. 
t. XXVI, /. 10 — 12) represents the true P. Candelabrum, and have, 
therefore, changed the specific name of the previous species which is 
restricted to Inda. 



1869.] Remarks on the species of Pandanus. 149 

16. P. verilS, Rumph., Kurz he. c. 125. 

I believe that all the Pandani veri of Gaudichaud have to be re- 
garded as identical with the present species, as Pandanus Linnaei, Gaud, 
loc. cit t. XXII, f. 1 — 8 ; P. Chamissonis, ejusd. he. cit., f. 9 ; P. 
fragraus, Rumphii, Rheedei, Loureiri, Menziesii, JBoryi and Douglasii, 
figured loc. cit. plate XXII. The two latter look somewhat similar to 
forms of P. An daman ensium, but such elongate drupes are found also 
occasionally in Indian forms of P. verus. 

17. P. laevis, Rph., Kurz. loc. cit. 126. 

18. P. utilis, Bory, Kurz. loc. cit. 131. 

Here, as in the case of the former, I cannot agree at all with the 
view taken by Mr. Gaudichaud, as regards the definition of species, 
and I have good reason to believe that all the following of his pro- 
posed species have to be considered as synomyms of P. utilis. 

Vinsonia utilis, Gaud. loc. cit., t. XVII. /. 1 — 5 et t. XXIII, f. 1 — 6 
et 9 — 18 (germinatio) ; Vins. stephanocarpa, ejusd. loc. c. t. XVII, /. 
2 — Qet 7-8 ; Vins. purpurascens, ejusd. loc. c. t. XVII, /. 6 — 9 ; Vins. 
liwnilis, ejusd. loc. c, f. 10-11 ; and Vins. elegans, ejusd. loc. c, /. 
12-13, all figured on plate XVII. 

The last three forms are Wallich's P. lucidus, and are included 
loc. cit. under my var. ft. lucida. 

The drupes of Vinsonia palustr is, ejusd. loc. cit. t. XVII. /. 18 — 23 
are undistinguishable from those divided forms of P. utilis, of which 
I have given a few characteristic representations in Dr. Seemann's 
Journal v. t. 64. 

19. P. lucidllS, {Vinsonia? lucida, Gaud., loc. c. f. 14-15.) 
This species, although very near to P. utilis, var. lucidus, is ap- 
parently distinct, differing in the form of the stigmata. A very good 
representation of it, exists in the Library of the Bot. Gardens, 
Calcutta, under the name of " Pandanus lucidus," Wall., but it is not 
the species which is now cultivated under that name in the gardens. 

20. P. sylvestris, (Vinsonia sylvestris, Gaud., loc. c. t. XVII, 
/. 16-17). 

21. P. PervilleailUS, (Vinsonia Pervilleana, Gaud., loc. c, t. 
XXXI, /, 1 — 7 ; probably including also Vins. drupacea, ejusd., 1. c. f. 
8—13). 



150 Remarks on the species of Pandanus. [No. 3, 

Besides the above named apparently well-founded species, the fol- 
lowing somewhat dubious forms belong also to the section Keura. 

Dory stigma M adagascariense, Gaud., loc. cit., t. XXXI, f. 12 — 13, 
and D. Mauritianum, ejusd., loc. cit., t. XIII, /. 25 — 27, 

Sect. IV. Microstigma. Drupae simplices ; stigmata sessilia, 
semilunata, reniformia, hippocrepiformia v. bilobata ; filamenta con- 
nata ; antherae truncatae v. apiculatae ; ovula solitaria. (Foullioya, 
Gaud. ; Lussea, Gaud, ex parte ; Jeanneretia, Gaud. ; Heterostigma, 
Gaud.?; Bryantia, Gaud. ?) . 

* Stigmata terminalia, bilobata, lobis integris v. hilobulatis ; fila- 
menta connata ; antherae apiculatae. {Foullioya, Gaud.) 

22. P. raCGHlOSUS. (Foullioya racemosa, Gaud., 1. cit. t. 
XXVI, f. 1 — 9, et Foullioya maritima, ejusd., 1. cit. f. 21 — 24). 

** Stigmata terminalia, reniformia v. hippocrepiformia ; filamenta 
racemose connata ; antherae truncatae. (Jeanneretia, Gaud.) 

23. P. humilis, Rumph., Kurz loc. cit. 105. Sussea microstig- 
ma, Gaud. loc. cit., t. XXV, /. 8—10. 

Gaudichaud's figure represents a polygamous plant, not yet record- 
ed in the genus Pandanus. The form of the anthers agree pretty 
well with those derived from the male spadices. 

23. P. littoralis, (Jeanneretia littoralis, Gaud., loc. c, t. XXV, 

/• i-7). 

Sussea lagenceformis, Gaud., loc. c, t. XXV, /. 11—14, and Hetero- 
stigma Heudelotianum, ejusd., loc. cit., f. 15 — 31, I have not as yet 
been able to discriminate. 

24. P. iatifolkiS, Rpli., Kurz 1. c. 105. 

The position of P. latifolius must still remain undecided, but it is 
certainly a very distinct species. The leaves, when recently dried, 
are scented and used by the Malayan ladies in their toilette cases, like 
the spathes of P. verus and P. laevis. 

25. P. COnoideilS, (Thouars ?), (Sussea conoidea, Gaud., loc. 
cit., t. XXIV). 

This is a very distinct species. 

*** Stigmata lateralia. (Bryantia, Gaud.) 

26. P. butyrophorUS, (Bryantia butyrophora, Gaud., loc. cit. 
t. XX). 



1869.] Notes on the Geology and Physical features Sfc. 151 

This species very much resembles P. Ger amicus in the form of the 
syncarpe and of the drupes. The syncarpe of P. Geramicus, however, 
is drooping when ripe, and the stigmata are also differently formed. 

Sect. V. Souleyetia, G-audichaud. Drupae simplices ; stigmata 
semilunata v. subhippocrepiformia, subsessilia ; ovula 3 placentae 
basilari instructa. 

27. P. freycinetioid.es, (Souleyetia freycinetioides, Gaud., 
loc. c, t. XXIX). 

G-audichaud includes Souleyetia in the Feeycinetieae, but I think 
the respective species is more correctly referred to Pandanus. 

Notes on the Geology and Physical features of the Jaintia hills ; — 
by Captain H. H. Godwin-Austen, F. R. G-. S., Topographical 
Survey of India. 

[Eeceived 16th December, 1868, read 3rd Feb. 1869.] 

The western boundary of the district of the Jaintia hills, is the 
river Mangat, crossed on the direct road from Lailangkot to Jawai ; 
the valley is deep and extremely picturesque ; the hills rising from 
the narrow strip of rice land at the bottom in steep slopes of grass and 
wooded ravines and close under the crest into precipitous scarps. 
Among others the Nongjerong hill presents very conspicuous features. 
The geological formation is here of metamorphic rocks, a well strati- 
fied gneiss, and in the bed of the river the boulders are almost entirely 
of that rock, mixed with quartzitic sandstone, and a few boulders are 
of a dark green trap. 

Ascending from the river to the top of the slopes of the left 
bank, and passing the village of Simunting on the right, a short 
distance, the first patches of a stratified rock are seen, a coarse 
gritty sandstone of light colour, forming the tops of the little 
eminences and never exceeding here perhaps 20 feet in thickness. 
They are lost sight of as soon as the descent into the Mantadu com- 
mences, where the metamorphic rocks, dipping at high angle and with a 
E. N, E'. strike, are seen again : the sandstone series reappearing when 
the opposite ascent is crowned. A strong interbedded conglomerate 
is very noticeable here, always lying at the base of this formation. 



152 Notes on the Geology and Physical t [No. 3, 

Its chief peculiarity now consists in the beds of dark purple hue, in 
others so fine, white or chalky in appearance, that they might almost 
be mistaken for the latter rock. Broken up and mixed with water it 
is used largely as a whitewash for native huts. Sandstone now 
forms the mass of all the elevated points in Jawai, and is conspicuous 
near the dak bungalow, resting horizontally on the highly tilted 
older rocks. On the hill mass of Chirmang, south of Jawai and the 
Mantadu, its thickness has greatly increased, bringing in above the 
conglomerate thinner and finer beds, and less sandy in composition. 
Here we find traces of the carbonaceous shales and in places a dark, 
hard, earthy coal, invariably thin-bedded and altogether very local 
in its distribution. To the east of Latuber the same features may 
be seen all the way to Satunga, the metamorphics appearing on the 
higher parts of the plateaux, where the sandstone only occurs in isola- 
ted thin patches. 

But at Satunga, we are introduced to a new series altogether, 
viz. the limestone (numnmUtic), of which an outlier forms a 
mass with low perpendicular and jagged sides to the right of the 
road, and on the very edge of the southern depression of the level 
of the country. To the south-west one or two wooded isolated 
knolls shew the limits of the northern extension of that rock. It 
rests in this locality on the sandstones also associated with coal beds ; 
and there is no doubt that these last are of secondary age, the proto- 
types of rocks better developed under Cherra Poonjee and thinning 
out at Maobelarkar, on the road to Shillong. There is also an appear- 
ance of a break in the succession between these secondary strata and 
the nummulitics, pointing to a long lapse of time, and to very differ- 
ent conditions of the surface, before the deposition of the limestone 
began. Here we are I think also near the confines of the tertiary 
sea in which those rocks were formed, as shown by the thinning out 
northwards of the limestone beds. 

Proceeding south to the low range of hills of which War Hill Station 
forms the highest point, the limestone has greatly increased in thick- 
ness, and is superimposed at the same time by beds of quite a different 
mineralogical character, being nodular, ferruginous and highly fossi- 
liferous. Above this well marked horizon no limestone with Nwn- 
mulites was seen ; local unconformity of these last is noticeable, and 



1869.] features of the Jainlia hills. 153 

either due to a falling in of the limestone, or, as I am more inclined to 
think, to a prior denudation of the limestone surface. The fossils are 
minute with an occasional G-astropod of larger size. This ridge, on 
the north of which lies Nongkli, well known as one of the last strong- 
holds of the Jaintias during the rebellion of 1861-62, is succeeded 
on the south by the main ridge and the watershed of the hills, the 
stream at Nongkli being a feeder of the Kopili. Crossing a low pass 
at the head of the last mentioned stream, the view that suddenly 
opens out, is almost Himalayan ; below lies the deep valley of the 
Umsnat, backed on the east by the high mass of Marangksi, its 
precipitous cliffs shewing out grandly against the noble forest that 
covers all else. In this great section, everything above the Nummu- 
litics is exposed, this last forming the bottom beds in the valley 
succeeded by the fossiliferous ferruginous strata, and again above by 
an enormous thickness of soft, thick-bedded sandstone of light ochre 
tint ;~-this higher mass is the universal rock of all the higher forest- 
clad hills running thence due east to Asalu. In the bed of the 
Umsnat, the limestone is almost horizontal, but lower down has a very 
slight dip southward. It also thickens in this direction very rapidly 
with interstratified beds of sandstone. 

The whole mass preserves its horizontality, and there is nothing very 
noticeable over a large and broad band, save that with the deepening 
valley lower beds of the limestone are exposed, but in no spot did I see 
sandstone of secondary age, or one that could be mistaken for it. The 
Umsnat joins the Simleng, and the united streams become the Lubah, 
which forms a junction with the Barak near Molagul. The Simleng 
and Lubah form a deep valley with an east and west strike, and the 
mass of the upper nummulitic or tertiary sandstone rises precipitously 
on the south, forming a ridge parallel with it. Upon this line, the first 
bending over to the south commences. The best section for observing 
this peculiar formation is near Katom, where the Lubah turns south in a 
gorge, cutting diagonally right across the whole mountain mass. The 
solid limestone of great thickness, perhaps 1,000 feet, and the higher 
sandstones all have the same great incline, becoming afterwards perpen- 
dicular and being succeeded at this above mentioned point by a thin- 
bedded series of newer rocks, clays and sandstones, of various colours 
and hardness. The angles of dip vary slightly north and south 

20 



154 Notes on the Geology and Physical [No. 3, 

of the perpendicular, they shew a great crushing, perhaps folding of the 
beds. 

As we leave the higher hills for the low eminences (Tilas) the sand- 
stones become coarser, having scattered through them strings of small 
pebbles, as also large lumps of lignite. In one place the whole of the 
roots and part of the trunk of a large tree were seen in the perpendi- 
cular strata of the river bank. These last mentioned rocks evidently 
are of lower Sewalik age, and are capped unconformably further into 
the plains, by masses of irregularly bedded clays and conglomerates, 
which pass under the present alluvial surface. 

Before closing my remarks on the geology of the Jaintia Hills, 
the nummulitic coal should be alluded to. This has long been 
known to exist at Lakadong, and was there, I believe, once work- 
ed. The same formation occurs at many points further east, par- 
ticularly near Narpo, at no great distance from the Lubah river, 
navigable for small boats ; its value has yet to be made known and 
perhaps established. There is no reason why beds of considerable 
extent should not, with proper search, be discovered. Its position, 
high in the nummulitic limestone, is precisely the same as that at 
Cherra Poonjee. This coal is no where met with east of the Lubah 
and Umsnat rivers. 

The most striking feature of this part of the Khasia range of hills, 
is the extremely even height of the central mass. Nowhere is this 
so well seen as from the peaks of the north Cachar range Marangksi, 
&c, the dead level line of the whole mass as far east as Timang 
Hill Station, is from here most noticeable ; even the Shillong peaks 
make hardly any shew in the distance. This central mass or high 
table land is all of gneiss associated with granite, generally at a high 
angle with a W. S. W. to E. N. E. strike, and the denudation it has been 
subjected to must have been enormous prior to the secondary epoch. 
It falls very gradually to the south . for a long distance, with a last 
sudden dip over Jaintiapur. On the north the lower levels are 
successively reached by a series of steps, that can be followed for 
many miles, the last descent being the greatest, corresponding to 
the like sudden depression at Nunklow, &c. Timang and Saranthu 
mark the limit of this table-land on the east, and overlook the far 
lower country of the valley of the Kopili. In the Jaintia district 



1809.] features of the Jaintia hills. 155 

the trap rock comes in with the fall in the country, and the high 
isolated peaks to the south of the Mangkhen are found to he a con- 
tinuation of the quartzitic sandstones of the Shillong peak, &c, almost 
perpendicular, but lying up against an amygdaloid trap, associated 
with a true granite which comes in with an east and west run on 
the north, and forms the remarkable rounded bosses, such as Billu 
Kongor, &c. Granite also occurs contiguous to the gneiss north of 
Nartiang, and thence in an easterly direction immediately north 
of Nongjinghi which is almost the highest point of the Jaintia hills, 
4,563 feet above sea level. The Nongjinghi ridge is gneiss, resting 
against the granite. As at Lailangkote in the Khasia hills, the trap 
is closely associated with the granite, and in such situations the 
titaniferous iron sand is found in great quantity, and smelting fur- 
naces are seen in all the adjacent villages. This dark green trap 
appears to have been injected between the granite and gneiss, or be- 
tween the former and the quartzitic sandstones at or about the period 
of the great disturbance and change in the metamorphic series. The 
parallelism of the drainage lines south-east of Jawai, is very remark- 
able, and with the cross-drainage at right angles breaks the country 
up into irregular parallelograms, which probably display a monster 
jointing of these metamorphic rocks. 

The most remarkable lines taken up in succession by different great 
valleys and ravines are — 1st, a main line, rather irregular, but to which 
all lines to the south conform, commencing on the west at Karpenter 
village on the Mangat ; that river carries it to Jarain, E. N. E., up to 
the junction of the Kawa Manvi with the Mantadu, north-westerly 
by the Keremontha ravine past Wapung into the IJmpa-ai and by the 
Murin into the Kopili near Thelgasi ; this last river continuing on for 
many miles with a north-east course, altogether constituting a great 
physical feature extending from west to east for 55 miles. The 2nd 
line, at an average distance on the south of 6 miles, can be traced 
from Pomtadong, past Thangbuli, to the Mantadu river at the junc- 
tion of the Baliang, on the left bank, following this last named river, 
over the watershed into the Lonnang river, and in succession by the 
Umkorpong to the north of Satunga, where this river turns sharp 
at right angles to the south. Yet the same direction can be carried 
on to Umthnong, and is lost in the sudden W. S. W. bend of the 
Kopili. 



156 Notes on the Geology and Physical features, dx. [No. 3, 

The third line can be taken up at the base of the hills near 
Jaintiapur, by the river Rangpani, into the Umchaliang, S. W. to 
N. E., crossing the Mantadu, on again to the Lama river, past Tham- 
pianai Gr. T. S., into the Pamesken, and by a succession of ravines to 
the north-west of Khleriat, where the last stream, the Shashem, turns 
to the S. S. E. The same run, but with a more east and west course, 
is taken up in succession on the north by the Muntang and Munriang 
rivers, tributaries of the Kopili, and lastly by the Mankhen. 

These great lines of continuous depression are again displayed 
further on the south and east and shew there a decided curvature. 
I may note the Lubah, Simleng and Artan into the head waters of 
the Kopili, north of Sherfaisip, and again further south the deep 
depression marked by the valleys of the Kumra Larang, Kayeng into 
the Jatinga and, taken upon the north of the main watershed at 
Asalu, by the valley of the Dhansiri. To the south of this the strata 
are found tilted high in that direction giving the more pointed shape 
to the peaks of the south-west Burail range. The line is intimately 
connected with the original elevation of the whole mountain mass, and 
the parallel continuous lines, already noticed, are doubtless due to the 
same parallel forces of elevation. As might be expected the geo- 
logical formations all coincide with these great natural flexures, 
carrying the nummulitic series with its limestones, and the cretaceous 
rocks, far north on the Kopili, and thus into the valley of Assam. 

Camp, North Cachar, December, 18G8. 



Journal, A stai l Sec B enaal Vcl. XXKVltt. Pi.-II. 



PI XVZ7. 






1 ;::... 







*r 



i 



™+~ 




L 





,1 > . 



-V^^n 



it a 




J Gibhxxlcu (?) Sub-pUcoLbob 

Z-3.—StjOj^CxJc£UlOy 

*■ PisxiburhCL AdarrLsiarta, 

$. Tallorbi* roseola, 

c. Jtapcunou bellcu 

7. Clfovcxxbtts Ceulanicvus 

S~.&ibbubw DvLpontuvria, 

9 BlarvfoT'cbioaru^ 

lO.Euchdus SeyeKeUcururrv 





11. Solar-wrrv vmpresswm, 
\JZ. JErrvarginuLou -paptlvonouceoe 

13. Tusurella. coLnaZtiera, 

14. JtfouzrocJv.scu/z/brrniAS 

16. FissvureUou(?) scrcbbculajbcb 
26. capuZouZea, 

17. Sub-errvarg. OldharruaruiL 

18. JtecelUtrbO/ corebvforrrvie 



157 



Descriptions of marine Gastropoda from Ceylon, Sfc. ; — 

by Messrs. G-. and H. Nevill. 

[Received and read 3rd February, 1869.] 

This paper is a continuation of the one we had the honour of 
placing before the Society at the August meeting of last year (18G8). 
These new species, as likewise those previously described, were, with 
one exception, collected in the Southern Province of Ceylon, mostly 
near Balapiti ; the Rapana, one of us had previously also found at La 
Reunion (Bourbon). We have also seen several of the small species 
of TitocHiDiE from Bombay and Arakan, probably all of them are to 
be met with along our coasts, though the small and interesting 
little species, we have here named Muchelus Seychellarum, we have 
never met with anywhere in these seas, except at the Island of Mahe, 
one of the Seychelle group. 

Clanculus Ceylonicus-N. S., Pi. XVII, Fig. 7. 

T. parva, turbinata ; anfractibus senis, convexiusctdis, albescentibus, 
prope suturam posteriorem maculis fuscis transversaliter prolomjath 
notatis, ad suturam anterior em puncturatis ; costulis spiralibus quinis 
in quoque anfractu granulosis ; sutura subprofunda ; ultimo anfractu ad 
peripheriam subrotundato ; basi leviter convexiuscida, granulato-costu- 
lata, umbilicata : umbilico margine incrassato ac denticulato circum- 
scripto ; apertura qiiadr angular i, labro intus crasse costulato, labio 
calloso, recto, ad medium obsolete, antice crasse dentato. 

Alt. 7 Mil.—Diam. maj. 7 Mil. 

Abundant. — S. Prov. Ceylon ;— also occurs at Bombay. 

Euchelus Seychellarum— N. S. } Pi. XVII, Fig. 10. 

T. parva, depresso-conica, sub-globulosa, alba, solidida ; anfractihm 
quaternis, convexiusctdis, sutura impressd junctis, costulis spiralibus 
minute sed confertim granulatis ornatis ; ultimo anfractu ad peripheriam 
rotundato ; basi convexd, spiraliter (jranulato-costulata, anguste 
umbilicata ; apertura subrotundata : labro uniforme arcuato, ad mar- 
ginem obtusiusculo, intus sulcato ; labio recto, oblique decurrente, antice 
denticulo parvo instructo. s 

Alt. 2J Mil.—JDiam. maj. 3 Mil. 

Scarce.— Island of Mahe (one of the Seychelle group). 



158 Descriptions of marine Gastropoda from Ceylon, Sfc. [No. 3, 

Gibbula Dupontiana— N. S., PL XVII, Fig. 8. 

T. parva, trochiformis, pallida, transversaliter ma cutis irregulari- 
bus ftiscis notata ; anfractibus costulis senis spiralibus, crassis 
circumdatis,prope suturam angustioribus, transversaliter lineis subtilis- 
simis obliquis ornatis ; ultimo anfractu ad peripheriam angulato, ad 
basin applanato, profunde umbilicato ; aperturd sub- quadr angular i, 
labro ad marginem acuto, intus sub-incrassato ; labio tenui, simplici, 
leviter arcuato. 

Alt. 7 Mil. — Diam. maj. 6 Mil. 

Common on sea-weed at low water, S. Prov. Ceylon. 

This species is named after M. Dupont, of Mauritius, whose in- 
defatigable zeal has so greatly increased our knowledge of the interesting 
fauna of that Island. The nearest shell, I know of, to the above is 
one described by Reeve as Ziziphinus vexillum (Gr. Nevill). 

Gibbula Blanfordiana— N. S., PL XVII, Fig. 9. 

T.parva, turbinata,depresso-globulosa, solida, alba, r abide variegata 
et niarmorata ; spira ad apicem sub-obtusa ; anfractibus quinis, postice 
sensim angustioribus, ad medium sub-angulatis, spiraliter costulatis : 
costulis senis, crassiusculis tenuioribus altcrnanlibus ; ultimo anfractu 
ad peripheriam rotundato ; basi convexiuscula, umb-ilicata : umbilico 
callositate albida, paulo incrassata, circumscripto ; apertura mb-rotwi- 
data, labro crass iusculo, intus striato, ad marginem cleganter crenulato, 
postice paulo defiexo ; labio prope recto, oblique decurrente, led, ad 
medium paidulum incrassato. 

Alt. 5h Mil. — Diam. maj. 6£ Mil. 

Not uncommon ; — S. Prov. Ceylon ; found on sea-weed at low water. 

A somewhat allied species to the above was described by Deshayes 
in his work on the shells of Bourbon, as Turbo (!) f lifer, the differ- 
ences in the umbilicus, the columellar margin, &c. t however, distin- 
guish it at the first glance. I have, also seen this species from Arakan, 
in Mr. H. F. Blanford's fine collection ; like the following, it probably 
has some considerable range in these seas. (Gr. Nevill). 

Gibbula Stoliczkana— N. s., PL XVII, Figs. 2-3. 

T. conoidea, parva, solidula, olivacea seu rufescens, macidis trans- 
versalibus pallidis notata, aut minute variegata, epidermide falvescente 
induia ; anfractibus senis, sub-planis, suturd impressd sejunctis, spira- 






1869.] Descriptions of marine Gastropoda from Ceylon, Sfc. 159 

liter minute sulcatis : sulcis liris depressis latioribus, aqui-distantibus 
separatis ; ultimo anfractu maximo, ad periplieriam angulato ; hasi 
leviter convexa, spiraliter striata, profunde et anguste umbilicata, in 
excavatione umbilici albida ; apertura oblique quadr angular i, intus 
callositate moderata ac Icevi instructa ; labro ad marginem sub-obtuso, 
labio prope recto, albido, antice truncatim desinente. 

Alt. 6J Mil. — Diam. maj. 5 Mil. 

Not uncommon, in the same places as the preceding. 

This pretty little species varies immensely, not only in colour and 
size, but also as regards the convexity of the whorls and the angle of 
the spire. There are specimens from Arakan and from the Anda- 
mans, in the collection of Dr. Stoliczka, after whom the species is 
named, and who kindly assisted us in drawing up the descriptions of 
the species noticed in this paper. 

Gibbula ? sub-plicata-N. s., Pi. xvn, Fig. l. 

T. turbinata, tenuis, semipellucida, alba ; anfractibus quinis, tubulo- 
sis, ad suturam applanatis, spiraliter costulatis : costulis in anfractu 
penidtimo tribus, omnibus valde prominentibus, interstiis profundis, 
distantioribus separatis, in anfractibus super ioribus transversaliter 
cancellatis seu scrobiculatis, in ultimo spiraliter sicbtilissime striatis ; 
anfractibus omninis ad suturam transversaliter plicatis ; basi sub- 
convexa, anguste umbilicata, quatuor costulis spiralibus ornata, interstiis 
duobus, prope umbilicum sitis, transversaliter costulatis ; apertura fere 
circulari, margine simplici circumdata, labio moderate insinuato ; 
superjicie interna paululum margaritacea. 

Alt. 5 Mil.— Diam. maj. 4 Mil. 

Rare ; — S. Prov. Ceylon. 

There is some difficulty in determining in what genus, or sub-genus 
to place this curious little species, the thinness of shell and the peculiar 
sculpture of the body-whorl, as well as the slightness of the internal 
pearly layer, make its position, as long as the animal and operculum 
are unknown, somewhat doubtful. 

Tallorbis— N. Sub-GL 

T. sub-orbiculata, subconica, columella solidd, antice applanatd, 
transversaliter plicata et abruple termiata instructa ; liabilu generi, 
Thalotia dicto, affinis. 

We experience some considerable difficulty in determining the exact 



160 Descriptions of marine Gastropoda from Ceylon, Sfc. [No. 3, 

position of the above sub-genus. Thalotia appears to be the one to 
which it is next allied, though the general form, sculpture and sub- 
stance are very far removed from any species of that genus with which 
we are acquainted. 

Tallorbis roseola-N. S., Pi., XVII, Fig. 5. 

T. depresso-conica ; anfractibus quinis, in latitudine rapide crescen- 
tibus, suturis profundis sejunctis, spiraliter distanter costulatis : costulis 
in anfractu penultimo tribus ; omninis distantibus, tuberculis numerosis, 
roseis eleganter omatis, inter stiis latis } una stria spirali in medio divisis, 
transversaliter cancellatis ; basi convexa, similariter ornata ; apertura 
ampla, subrotundata, margaritacea, intus in adultis speciminibus Icevi, 
in junioribus sulcata : labro haud incrassato, ad marginem crenulato, 
labio tenui ; columella antice incrassata, subrejlexa, plicis tribus, iorlis 
instructa. 

Alt. 11 J Mil.—Diam. maj. 11 Mil, 

Very rare ; — S. Prov. Ceylon. 

Pisulina— N. G. 

T. crassiuscula, polita, semi-globosa, neritiformis, spird brevi, apertura 
sub-orbicuJari, Integra, haud umbilicatd instructa ; labio columdlari 
applanato, calloso, in medio dentiforme dilatato, labro simplici. 

This genus approximates so closely to Galceolina of A. Adams, that 
we entertained doubts, as to whether it was desirable to separate it, the 
remarkable protuberance of the inner columellar lip, however, decided 
us on doing so, though, until the animals and opercula (if any ?) 
have been carefully examined, we shall feel some doubts, as to whether 
both of them are not mere sections of Teinostoma. 

Pisulina Adamsiana— N. s., Pi. XVII, Fig. 4. 

T. parva, alba, Ice vis, sol Ida ; spira obtusa ; anfractibus quatemis, 
superis interne, sicut in speciminibus Neritarum, evanidis ; sutura 
indistincta ; labio columellari calloso, polito, Icevi, denticulo lato, 
depresso ad medium munito ; labro intus paululum incrassato, polito, 
ad marginem acuto. 

Alt. 4 J Mil. — Diam. maj. 4 Mil. 

Dead, on the sands ; S. Prov. Ceylon. 

We have named the above interesting little species after Mr. Henry 
Adams, who has most kindly given us much valuable assistance and 
aid, besides describing many of our new Mascarene shells. 



1869.] Descriptions of marine Gastropoda from Ceylon, 8{c> 161 

Rapana bella— N. S., Pi. XVII, Fig. 6. 

T. pyriformis, tenuis ; anfractibus quinis, convexis, suturd impressd 
junctis, ultimo anfractu valde inflato ; spira brevi, obtusiuscula ; superjicie 
alba, fasciis ao striis roseolis, transversaliter elongatis notata, ac striis 
spiralibus,postice sub-obsoletis, antiee ad, basin erassis, lamellatis, seu cris- 
pioulatis ornata; apertura lata, arcuata, postice sub-angulata antiee multo 
angustiori ; labro simplici, tenui ad marginem undulato ; labio levi. 
imprimis antiee calloso ; basi producta, antiee eanali brevi recurvato } terr 
minata, umbilicata : umbilico carina, rugatd seu lamellosd circumscripta, 

Alt. 21 Mil.—Diam. maj. 22 Mil. 
Very rare. Bourbon and Ceylon. 

Wood in his " Catalogue of Shells" (pi. 18, fig. 31b) figures a shell 
apparently belonging, to this species, under the name of Bulla rapa, 
Lin., from China. Hanley, however, in his " Ipsa Linnei Conchylia" 
states that Linnams' Bulla rapa is identical with Lamarck's Pyrula 
papyracea, a quite different species from the present one. 

Emarginula papilionacea— N. s., Pi. XVII, Fig. 12. 

T. ovato elongata, subconica, moderate elevata, tenuis, alba ; apice sub- 
centrali postico, acuminato ac incurvo ; superjicie, costulis radiantibus 
quindecimis fortioribus, sub-tuberculatis ae scrobiculatis, lineis alter is 
numerosis tenuioribus, rugulatis interpositis ornata ; fissura antica 
moderate incisa, subangusta, postice elevata ac rugulosa ; superjicie 
interiori nitida, radiatim leviter sulcata, impressione musculari quadri- 
partita, partibus duabus anterioribus multo minoribus quam posteribus, 
omnibus triangularibus convergentibus. 

Long. 12J Mil.—Diam. 9 Mil. 
Very rare, — S. Pro v. Ceylon. 

There is no species at all resembling this handsome shell ; the inter- 
nal impression bears a rather striking resemblance to a butterfly, the 
shell is sufficiently transparent for it to be clearly discernible from 
the exterior. 

Emarginula capuloidea— N. 8., Pi. XVII, Fig. 16. 

T. parva ; regulariter ovata, capuloidea, tenuis, pellucida, apice 
postico, arcutatim incurvato, instructa ; superjicie costulis per -numerosis 
acutis, cequidistantibus, tenuioribus altevnantibus notata, interspatiis 

21 



162 Descriptions of marine Gastropoda from Ceylon, Sfc. [No. 3, 

profunde ae rude scrobiculatis ; apertures marginibus valde crenulatis ; 
jissurd centralis antica, anguste et moderate incisd ; impressione 
palliali postice rotundata, prope apicem lateraliter profunde insinuata, 
antice prolongata ac gradatim latiori, ad terminationem truncata. 

Long. 5i Mil. —Diam. 4 Mil— Alt. 3 Mil. 

Very rare, — S. Prov. Ceylon. 

The nearest allied species to the above, that we know of, is E. crassi- 
costata, Sow., it is, however, smaller, more elevated, not narrowed 
anteriorly and the sculpture is somewhat different. 

Sub-emarginula Oldhamiana— N. S., Pi. XVII, Fig. 17. 

T. oblonga, conico-elevata, solida ; apice acuto, sub-centrali, sinis- 
trorse incurvato ; superjicie externa virescenti, in parte anteriori 5-6 — 
costata : costd media maxima, ad marginem aperturce valde prominentia 
intus profunde canaliculata, in parte posteriori costis senis radiantibus 
instructa; omninis plus minusve rugatis, atque costulis et striis numerosis 
interpositis, versus apicem obsoletis notata ; superjicie interna albida ; 
impressione palliali magna, prope marginem anteriorem profunde 
insinuata. 

Long. 12 Mil— Diam. 7% Mil— Alt. 9 Mil. 

S. Prov. Ceylon, Scarce. 

The shell approaching nearest to the present species is S. Panhiensis, 
Q. and Gr., from which it differs by the peculiar sinistral bend of the 
apex, which is likewise more decidedly central by the greater pro- 
duction of the anterior rib, forming a far more prominent canal, by the 
great inequality of the radiating ribs, &c. 

Solarium impressum— N. S., Pi. XVII, Fig. 11. 

T. late-conica y depressiuscula, solidula, rufuld sen radiatim fusco 
strigatd ; anfractibus quinis, depressis, suturd profunda junctiSj 
spiraliter quatuor seu quin que striis minute granidosis notata, striis in- 
crementi obliquis sub-distincte decussatis ; suturis impressis earumque 
marginibus paulo incrassatis ac granulatis ; ultimo anfractu ad peri- 
pheriam sub-carinato, ad basin convexo, profunde umbilicat.o ; umbilici 
margine incrassato granulatoque : granulis albidis, mediocriter promi- 
nentibus ; apertura oblique quadrangulari marginibus simplicibus in- 
structa. 

Alt. 3 Mil— Diam. 5J Mil 

S. Prov. Ceylon. 



18 G9.] Descriptions of marine Gastropoda from Ceylon, Sfc. 163 

Though possessed of no very distinctive characteristics, there is no 
species, I know of, with which the preceding can be confounded. 

Fissurella (?) Scrobiculata-N. s., PL XVII, Fig. 15. 

T. parva, depressa, fere regulariter ovalis, lateraliter prope medium 
paululicm angustata, antice ac postice rotundata, alba, fasciis radian- 
tibus haud distinctis fulvescentibus notata ; superficie omnina supra 
minute scrobiculata, ac striis radiantibus sicbobsoletis omata ; foramine 
late ovato, sub-postico, margine elevato circumdato ; margine apertures 
attenuato, minute crenulato ; superficie interna alba. 

Long. 9^ Mil.—Diam. 5f Mil— Alt. 2% Mil 

Scarce, S. Prov. Ceylon. 

The sculpture of this interesting shell is very peculiar, the surface 
being covered with rough, diamond-shaped scrobiculations, perhaps 
caused by its being covered by the mantle of the animal, in which 
case, this species will have to be removed to Macrochisma. 

Pissurella canalifera-N. S., Pi. xvil, Fig. 13. 

T. ovato-elongata, antice angustata et ad termination em retrorse 
elevata, solidula, concentrice lamellose rugata et striis incequalibus 
radiantibus omata, rufescente pallida, nonnullis maculis elongatis ob- 
scuris radiantibus notata ; foramine longo, sub-centrali, antice ac postice 
rotundato ; superficie interna albida ; margine apertures obtusiuscido , 
fere simplici, minute crenulato, antice insinuato ; margine for aminis 
paulo incrassato, obtusiusculo. 

Long. 14 Mil.—Diam. 7J Mil.— Alt. 4J Mil. 

S. Prov. Ceylon. 

Easily distinguished from any other species of Fissurella, by the 
curious way in which the shell, at the anterior end is turned up and 
contracted, thus forming interiorly a sort of canal ; the black stripes 
in position, also, seem tolerably constant, there being two broad ones 
radiating from the posterior end of the foramen and the same number, 
but narrower and more indistinct, from the anterior end. 

Macrochisma scutiformis— N. s., Pi. XVII, Fig. 14. 

T. ovato-elongata, lateraliter compressiuscula et paulo insinuata, mo- 
derate elevata, solidida, striis radiantibus ac concentricis minutis ornata, 
sordide albida, fasciis nonnullis radiantibus fuscis notata ; foramine longo i 
excentrico fere tertiam partem diametri longitudinalis occupanti, postice 
angustato ; margine aperturce obtusiusculo, simplici; margine fora mi- 
nis intus incrassato. 



164 Ornithological Notes, chiefly on some birds [No. 3 



Long. 12f Mil.—§\ Mil.— Alt. 2 Mil, 

Rare, — S. Prov. Ceylon. 

We know of no other species of the genus with a similarly formed 
foramen ; it differs from M. hiantula, Swains., not onty in the above 
respect, but also in colour and in being laterally more compressed. 

Rocellaria cordiformis— N. S., Pi. XVII, Fig. 18. 

T. parva, fragilis, longitudinaliter oblonga, albida, antice obtuse 
acuminata, postice producta, sub-rotundata ; umbonibus tumescentibus, 
paulo prominentibus, incurvatis ; hiatu cordiformi, parvo, vix dimidiam 
partem testa occupante ; superjicie striis subtilibus, antice fortioribus, 
undique acutis ac confertis ornata, et sulca Icevi ab umbone utriusque 
valvule oblique ad marginem ventralem medianum decurrente notata. 

Long, 6^ Mil—Diam. 3J Mil. 

S. Prov. Ceylon. In coral. 

The smallness of size and the peculiar heart-shaped form of the 
hiatus, easily distinguish this species from others. 

Ornithological Notes, chiefly on some birds of Central, Western and 

Southern India ; by William T. Blanford, F.G-.S., C.M.Z.S., &c. 

[Read and received 3rd March, 1869.] 

The following are a few notes on collections of birds made 1st, in Nag- 
ptir, Chanda, and on the upper Godavery ; 2nd, at and near Khandalla 
on the Western Ghats near Bombay ; 3rd, on the Nilgiri hills in Sou- 
thern India. The first alone was large, and was made during the cold 
and hot seasons of 1866-67 ; the other two during short visits to the 
places named. By far the greater portion of the ensuing pages refer 
to the first collection alone. Several of the birds observed and collect- 
ed are very rare : one, Salpomis spilonotus, Franklin, had only been 
previously procured by the describer and by Mr. Hodgson, and no 
specimen of the bird was ever seen by Mr. Blyth or by Dr. Jerdon, 
until very recently. Hirundo fluvicola had not, so far as I am 
aware, ever been found again in Central India, since Dr. Jerdon first 
described it, and Cyornis Tickellice, Blyth, has equally escaped observa- 
tion since first collected by the excellent ornithologist after whose 
wife it was named, while the range of several species noted below, was 
not previously known to extend into the countries mentioned. 



1869.] of Central, Western and Southern India. 165 

I have, in every case, given the number of the species in Jerdon's 
work, but I have preferred following a somewhat different classification. 
Although deficient in some respects, as for instance in associating 
Saxicola and Muscicapa in one instance, and JPhylloscopus and Tyran- 
nus in another in the same sub-family. Mr. Blyth's classification in 
the catalogue of the birds, belonging to the Museum of the Asiatic So- 
ciety of Bengal, published as long ago as 1849, is, in many respects, 
more in accordance with our present knowledge of the affinities of 
birds, than that adopted in Gray's and Horsfield's catalogues. The clas- 
sification, I have followed is, in the main, identical with that of Prof. 
A. Newton, as employed in the Zoological Record, but I have followed 
Jerdon in classing together the bulbuls and orioles, and have followed 
neither Jerdon nor Newton with regard to the Sylviidce. 

In the present notes, I have not attempted to mention all the 
birds met with. I have merely noticed those concerning which I 
have observed some interesting particulars connected with their dis- 
tribution, habits, nidification, &c. The natural history of the com- 
mon Indian species is pretty well known, though there is still some- 
thing to be learned very often concerning the range of allied forms, 
as for instance amongst the Motacillce. 

I believe the most interesting part of my observations is, that which 
relates to the relative distribution of some of the migratory birds. It 
has been for some time known that Eastern and Western forms of 
these meet in India in several cases, and in the following pages some 
additional instances will be found. 

Order KAPTORES. 
Tribe Diurn^i. 

Family Vulturid^:. 
Sub-family Neoplironince. 
6. Neophron GinginiailUS, Baud. (N. percnopterm, L. 
apud Jerdon). Jerdon does not mention the breeding season, which 
varies much. I found a nest with two young ones considerably grown 
and probably a month old on April 14th. The nest was on a cliff at 
the side of the river Warda. Later than this, on May 2nd, I found 
another nest containing a single egg, well incubated with a fully 
formed chick inside. This was on a tree. 



166 Ornithological Notes, chiefly on some birds [No. 3, 

The relative ranges of Neophron percnopterus and N. Ginginianus 
require to be ascertained. Specimens from Western India should be 
carefully examined. 

Family Falconid^. 
Sub-family Falconince. 

18 ? TinnunCUlllS CenchriS ? Naum. I shot a female 
Kestril on the Pem G-unga river, west of Chanda, differing from the 
common species in size, being smaller than the male of T. alaudarius, 
and having dull yellow legs instead of the usual pale clear yellow. 
The wing measures 9.75, tail 6.5, tarsus 1.7 inches. The tail is much 
more richly barred than in T. alaudarius, and the bars extend com- 
pletely across the feathers. The back is much browner and less 
rufous. I am inclined to think this possibly a young T. cenchris, a 
bird never before recorded from Central India. It differs, however, in 
having much coarser legs, as coarse as in T. alaudarius, and in the 
colour being much duller and browner than in the specimens in the 
Indian Museum. 

Sub-family Aquilincd. 

29. Aquila fulveSCenS, Gray. The most abundant eagle in 
the NagpvVr and Chanda country. I have lately obtained several 
specimens of the nearly allied A. ncevioides, Cuv., from Abyssinia, 
which fully bear out the distinctions pointed out by Mr. Blyth and 
Dr. Jerdon. The bill and legs are constantly larger in the African 
species. The plumage is very similar. 

The only other Eagles of which I obtained specimens in the neigh- 
bourhood of Chanda were Spilomis cheela and Pandion halicctus. 

Sub-family Buteonince (?) 
50. CirCUS CyaneilS, L. I obtained a fine female and a 
young male of this species near Chanda, on the 1st and 13th of March 
respectively. I do not think there can be any reasonable doubt of 
the identification, as I noted that the birds agreed with the descrip- 
tion of C. cyaneus at the time, and I subsequently compared them 
with European specimens in the Museum at Calcutta. This is the 
first instance, I believe in which the occurrence of this bird so far 
south as the Central Provinces has been noticed, specimens, if seen, 
having not probably been distinguished from C. cineraceus. I see, 



1869.] of Central, Western and Southern India. 167 

however, that Dr. King has obtained it from Goona, — J. A. S. B , 1868, 
Part II, p. 213. Dr. Jcrdon was not aware of its occurrence south 
of the Punjab. 

53. CirCUS melanoleUCOS, G-mel. I certainly did not once 
see this bird in the Central Provinces, and I never remember having 
met with it in Western India. It has been found by Radde breeding 
on the Amoor, and may very possibly be one of those Eastern Asiatic 
species, the range of which only extends partly across Hindustan, like 
Motacilla luzoniensis. It is not included in Sykes's Deccan list. 

Sub-family Milvince. 

MilVTlS Sp. I shot near Woon, North West of Chanda, a kite 
considerably exceeding the common M. Govinda in size, but otherwise 
unclistinguishable. It is- a male, and measures — closed wing 20 
inches, bill from the gape 1.7, tarsus 2.5, tail 13. The bird is evident- 
ly young, but the inner portions of the feathers are rich brown ; for the 
feathers of the head and neck are rich brown with dark centres, not 
whitish as usually in a young Ifilvus Govinda, and the abdomen and 
lower tail coverts are pale rufous. 

I obtained also near Chanda Pemis cristata and Elanus melano- 
pterus, both assigned to the subfamily of the kites by Dr. Jerdon, though 
their position is somewhat doubtful. Blyth makes each the type of a 
distinct subfamily. 

Tribe Nocturnes. 
Family Strigid^:. 
65. Syrnium OCellatum, Less. (S. sinense, Lath., apud Jer- 
don). This bird appears not to be rare south of Nagpur, inhabiting 
mangoe topes. I see also that Dr. King mentions it in his Goona list. 
Owls, and indeed all the larger raptores, require to be watched for, and 
they are not generally obtained by any one passing through a district 
and unacquainted with their local haunts, so easily as the Insessores. 
The only other owls I obtained in the Central Provinces were the 
common species Urrua Bengalensis, Ketupa Ceyloncnsis and Athene 
Brama. 

Order ALTRICES. 
Family Psittacid^;. 
148. PalaeomiS tOrquatUS, Bodd. I have lately shot the 



168 Ornithological Notes chiefly on some birds [No. 3, 

African race (P. cubicularis, Hasselquist) in Northern Abyssinia. The 
only distinction I can detect from the common Indian P. torquatus 
is, that the former bird has a larger bill. 

I thought, I saw P. Alexandri once or twice in the great forests 
south east of Chanda, but I am not sure. It is certainly rare in 
Central India. 



Order INSESSORES. 
Suborder Pice. 
Family Pichle. 

160. PicUS MahrattensiS, Latham. Chanda jungles, local. 
The closely allied race which Mr. Blyth did me the honor to name 
after me, was found, not abundantly, at Thayet Myo, and again above 
Ava. It probably is peculiar to the dry country of upper Burma. 

164. P. (YungipiCUS) Hardwickii, Jerdon ; not rare in 
the Chanda jungles. It usually occurs in small companies of 3 or 4, 
hunting about the upper brandies of trees. My specimens were rather 
smaller than the dimensions given by Dr. Jerdon. 

166. ChrySOCOlapteS festivUS, Bodd. I shot one speci- 
men near Chanda, the wing measures only 6 inches. 

The only other woodpecker killed in the Central provinces was the 
very common Bracliyptemus aurantius. 

Family Cuculid2e. 

199. CuCUlllS canorUS, L. I killed a male on the 24th 
April on the Pranhita river north of Sironcha. On the 4th May, 
near Sironcha, I shot another, and heard others calling then and on 
subsequent days. I did not observe any females, but I had no time 
to look for them. 

212. ConysteS melanoleilCOS, Grmel., shot at Khandalli 
on the western ghats near Bombay. ' I obtained a bird in Abyssinia 
which I cannot distinguish from this species. 

222. TacCOIlia affiniS, Blyth. Two or three specimens from 
the neighbourhood of Nagpiir agree best with this race in dimensions, 
but one of them has rather the colouring of T. LeschenauUii, Lesson. 
I much doubt if these races should be distinguished. T. Sirkec, 
Cray, appears rather more distinct. 



1869.] of Central, Western and Southern India. 169 

Family Capmmulgid^. 
The only species met with in the Nagpiir country were C. asiaticus 
and C. monticolus. In the great forests about Sironcha, in the begin- 
ning of May, the noise made towards morning, just before day-break, 
by the nightjars, was incessant. The cry is most singular, and is well 
described by Jerdon as resembling that made by a stone bounding 
over ice and gradually striking at shorter intervals than at first. I am 
not quite certain which species it was which made the noise, but I 
suspect C. monticolus, which appears to be more common in those 
forests than any other species. 

Family Cypselidjs. 
100. CypseluS AbySSiniCUS, Ehr., of which I obtained 
several specimens in Abyssinia, is unquestionably identical with the 
Indian species, and Ehrenberg's name is said by Tristram to have 
priority. Blyth, Ibis, II. 339, places C. abyssinicus, Streubel, as a 
synonym of C. affinis, but I am inclined to believe Mr. Tristram is 
right. 

104. Dendrochelidon coronata, Tickeli. This fine swift 

is far from rare about Clianda, and I can fully confirm Jerdon's ex- 
cellent account of its habits. Though it has a rapid flight, it is not 
by any means equal in this respect to the Alpine swift, much less to 
the Acanthylis group ; I almost doubt if it equals Cypselus apus. In- 
deed it always appeared to me to afford an easy shot for a swift. 

95. Acanthylis Sylvatica, Tickeli. Although I was on the 
look out for this rare swift, I never had the good fortune to secure a 
specimen, and I doubt if its range extends to Nagpur or Chanda.. I 
once saw a small swift flying past a hill near Ahiri on the Pranhita 
which may have been this species, but it did not come within shot. 

In the Ibis for 1866, Vol. II. p. 78— Mr. Tristram seems to doubt 
Dr. Jerdon's assertion that the flight of Cypselus melba, though ele- 
gant and rapid, is not nearly so powerful as that of the two spine- 
tailed species. " If so," says Mr. Tristram " the speed of the latter 
must be a considerable improvement on the greased lightning of 
American imagination." On the latter point I cannot pronounce an 
opinion, as I never saw any greased lightning, but it is equally cer- 
tain that Mr. Tristram never saw the flight of Acanthylis, It is some 

22 



170 Ornithological Notes, chiefly on some birds [No. 3, 

years now since I made their acquaintance in Pegu. I cannot say to 
which species the birds belonged, for I could never get a gun to my 
shoulder before they were out of shot, but the impression remaining 
upon my mind is, that their speed exceeded that of C. melba, which I 
shot in 1867 at Coimbatore, just as the Alpine swift excels the common 
swallow. 

Suborder Passeres. 
Family Pittid^j. 
345. Pitta BengalensiS. In the forests around Chanda and 
on the Pranhita, I did not once see this species ; near Sironcha I 
seemed to come suddenly into its range, and found it abundant there 
and on the Godavery. One specimen which I shot had been feeding 
partly on the common large black ant of the Indian jungles, but the 
principal food appeared to have been termites with a few coleoptera. 

Family Melliphagid^e. 
631. ZosteropS palpebrOSUS, Temm. Rare in the Central 
Provinces. I only came across 3 or 4 specimens. The Nilgiri race is 
a little larger and appears to be a little darker in colour. I have only 
one specimen to compare, in that the beak is 0.4 in., wing 2.2, tail 1.75 
tarsus 0.7 in. In a specimen from Manbhum, the beak is 0.35, 
wing 2.15, tail 1.55, tarsus 0.6. The bill appears a little variable. 
The black lores appear rather more developed in the Nilgiri bird. I 
doubt whether it is wise to propose a distinctive name upon such 
slight differences, as intermediate forms may be found. 

Family Nectarinid^i. 
234. Arachnechthra Asiatica, Lath. I can quite con- 
firm Jerdon's account of the female of this bird retaining her dull 
colours in the breeding season. 

Family Certhitd^e. 

246. Salpornis spilonota, Franklin. Ibis, 1867, p. 461, 
and Gould's birds of Asia, Part XX. 

This very rare bird appears also to have been noticed lately by other 
observers and ranges as far as Oude. My specimens were obtained in 
the great forests on the Pranhita south of Chanda, where I used to see 
the bird nearly every day. 



1869.] of Central, Western and Southern India. 171 

The following is a complete description taken from a comparison of 
freshly killed specimens. 

Colour above brownish black, spotted with white, feathers of the 
crown with a more or less narrow central white stripe, supercilium 
white and beneath it a dark stripe passing through each eye to the 
nape. The sides of the neck chiefly white, with slight dusky marks, 
while the back of the neck has only very few and small white spots. Two 
central tail feathers dull grey brown in the centre, edged with alter- 
nating dusky and white spots, the former larger ; outer tail feathers 
dusky, each with 4 more or less interrupted white bands and tipped 
with white. Throat white, occasionally with a few dusky marks, 
remainder of lower plumage mixed white and dusky, darker on the 
sides and lighter on the breast. Beak blackish above, flesh-coloured 
below, legs dark horny inclining to plumbeous, hides brown. Sexes 
alike. Measurements, taken before skinning ; — Length 5J to 5f , extent 
9 J, closed wing 3^ to 3£, tail 2|, beak at front f to 1, tarsus f, foot 
lj. The bill in the male is shorter than in the female, in the former 
it is generally f inch, in the latter £ to 1 inch. 

The birds keep to the largest trees, running round the stems in all 
directions, and flying with a steady flight, not unlike that of a wood- 
pecker, but swifter and more elegant. They have a whistling note. 
They evidently breed about the end of April, as birds killed at that 
time had the generative organs greatly enlarged, and I constantly saw 
them in pairs. On one occasion I came upon two pairs together. I 
found Coleoptera in the stomachs of those I examined. 

Family Hirundinid^. 
84. HiriindO ruficepS, Licht. {K.filifera Stephens apud 
Jerdon). In November, December and January these birds are in 
small flocks generally, not exceeding 15 to 20, and have a particular 
fancy for perching on telegraph wires, on which all establish them- 
selves close together, a few flying off and playing about, chasing in- 
sects, &c. I fancy they keep to one spot very much, and do not move 
about greatly. They build in February and March, and perhaps also 
later, always, so far as I have seen, near water, and very frequently on 
the banks of rivers. I found several nests on the Warda river, near 
Chanda, invariably beneath overhanging ledges of rock ; 3 eggs ap- 



172 Ornithological Notes, chiefly on some birds [No. 3, 

pear to be the regular number. There is a peculiarity in all the nests 
I examined which I do not think has been noticed. They all are 
formed of mud and shaped like a saucer, open above. In the centre 
of the bottom there is invariably a small hole left. What is the object 
of this ? Can it be cleanliness ? 

During the breeding season, these birds hunt up and down the 
stream keeping over the water or in its immediate neighbourhood. 

85. H- erythropygia, Sykes. (IT. daurica, L. apud Jer- 
don). On February 23rd, close to Wun, in southeast Berar, I saw an 
immense flock of these swallows flying about one spot on the ground 
and constantly alighting. There was no flight of winged ants or 
termites to attract them, and they might have been preparing to 
migrate or resting during migration. I frequently met with this 
species near Nagpur. 

86. H. fluviCOla, Jerdon. I met with this bird 1st, at the 
marble rocks near Jabalpur, 2nd, on the banks of the Kolar, at 
Saonair, a few miles north-west of Nagpur, 3rd, close to the village 
of Gugus, west of Chanda, on the river Warda. I gave an account of 
the nests, eggs and habits, in the Ibis for 1867, Vol. III. p. 462, and 
as this has since been copied by Mr. Gould in his " Birds of Asia," it 
is scarcely necessary to repeat it. The most curious point is, that the 
birds evidently return to the same spot every year to build, and this 
place is invariably beneath an overhanging bank over deep water. 
Mr, Gould represents them as breeding against a high cliff. This 
may occasionally happen, but is unusual. 

I found in one place on the Pern Gunga a deserted colony. Several 
nests had been half built and abandoned. The cause was evident, the 
place which in former years had been a deep pool had partially silted 
up, and the nests were accessible, and doubtless no longer secure from 
predaceous animals. Nevertheless a pair of Cotyle concolor had bred 
in one of the deserted nests, which" contained two of their young. 

90. Cotyle (Ptionoprogne) concolor, Sykes. I have 

just mentioned this bird breeding in a deserted nest of Hirundo fluvi- 
cola. The shape of the nest was unmistakable, it was only half 
finished and open above. I obtained the eggs on two or three occa- 
sions. They were more oval and more closely spotted than those of 
H.fluvicola and H. ruficeps. 



1869.] of Central, Western and Southern India. 173 

The nests were so precisely similar to those just described, made by 
H. ruficeps, that as they are in exactly the same situation, it is 
possible they might have been built by that bird, and only occupied 
by the Cotyle. They had the usual hole at the base. It would be 
interesting to know if anybody else has observed parasitic nidification 
in this bird. 

91. Cotyle (Ptionoprogne) rupestris, Scop 

On the 4th of February I saw two distinct species of crag martin 
flying about the lofty cliffs around a hill near Perzagad, about half 
way between Chanda and Nagpur. One was C. concolor, the other 
conspicuously larger. The next day I saw the latter again, consort- 
ing with Hirundo erythropygia, and succeeded in shooting a speci- 
men which proved to be C. rupestris. I again found this bird far 
from rare at Khandala, Karli, and the neighbourhood between 
Poona and Bombay, at the end of October. It is evident, therefore, 
that its range in the peninsula of India is not confined to the higher 
hills. 

This species abounds in Abyssinia, and I have seen it as low down 
as about 2000 feet above the sea, much as in India. It always keeps 
very much to craggy hill sides. 

Family Musctcapid^. 

293. LeUCOCerca leUCOgaster, Cuv. (L. pectoralis, Jerdon). 
I shot this bird near Chanda in forest. It appears in Dr. King's 
Goona list, while the much more widely distributed L. aureola, Vieill., 
(L. albofrontata, Frankl.) does not. My specimens are dusky on the 
back and rather rufous on the abdomen. 

295. Cryptolopha cinereocapilla, Vieill., common in 

every mango tope and grove of large trees about Nagpur. 

297. Alseonax latirOStriS, Raffles. Specimens from near 
Chanda appear to agree but with this race. It is scarce. I cannot see 
.the smallest difference between the specimens collected by me and one 
sent from Amoy by Mr. Swinhoe as Muscicapa cinereo-alba, Temm. 

306. CyorniS TickelliaD, Blyth. I obtained 2 specimens of 
this rare bird, one at Seoni between Jabalpur and Nagpur, the other 



174 Ornithological Notes, chiefly on some birds [No. 3, 

near Chanda. The first was a female,* bat the plumage was precise- 
ly similar to that of the male. 

310. MuSCicapula SUperciliariS, Jerdon. A solitary speci- 
men was shot by the Museum Collector who was with me about half 
way between Nagpur and Chanda. 

311. ErythrOSterna aCOmaUS, Hodgson. I obtained a 
solitary specimen of this bird also. It has not, I believe, before been 
recorded from the plains. My specimen, a female, was killed at Seoni 
on the road from Jabalpur to Nagpur in a mango tope. It is identical 
with the type specimens received from Mr. Hodgson in the Indian 
Museum, but it does not agree well with Jerdon's description, the 
back being bluish cinereous, sides of breast cinereous grey, middle of 
breast, throat, and belly white with a pale rufous tinge. The head 
and neck are dark ashy, forehead rufous close to the bill, wing 2| 
inches, tail 1 T %. 

323. ErythrOSterna parva, Bechst. Common about Nag- 
pur. I did not obtain a single specimen of E. leucura, which is pro- 
bably only found in Bengal and Orissa, like some other migratory birds. 
In E. parva the buff feathers round the orbits are peculiarly con- 
spicuous. 

Males shot as early as the end of November had the red breast, so 
that except in birds of the year, I doubt if the male ever has the 
plumage of the female. 

Family Campephagid^:. 

268. VolVOCiVOra Sykesii, Strickland. Not rare in some of 
the woods near Sironcha, but I saw it nowhere else. The clear 
whistle mentioned by Jerdon is most peculiar. I heard it several 
times in the beginning of May. 

277. PericrOCOtUS erythropygius, Jerdon. Not very rare 
in the open country about Nagpur. 

The representation of this bird by P. albifrons, Jerdon, in Upper 
Burma, is a parallel case to the replacement of the Malacocerci by 
Chattarhcea gularis and of Francolinus vulgaris and F. pictus by 

* I did not unfortunately myself examine the specimen, and its sex was 
determined by the native skinner who was with me, but as I i-epeatedly tested 
his determinations, and always found them correct, I see no reason to doubt its 
accuracy. 



XXXVi!!,::, 



I : XVI 







TROCKALOPTERON FAIRBANKI 






1869.] of Central, Western and Southern India. 175 

F. Phayrei. There are other cases of the representation in Upper 
Burma alone of Hindustan species, not found in the intervening country. 
Family Dicrurid,e. 
281. DicruruS CaemleSCenS, L. This bird is not rare 
about Nagprir. 

Family Laniad^. 
257. LaniUS erythronotUS, Vigors. This bird varies great- 
ly in size and somewhat in plumage within the same district, and at 
one time I thought I had two distinct races, but I subsequently shot 
intermediate forms. In some the black frontal band is as broad as in 
Himalayan specimens, in others it is completely wanting. The wing 
varies from 3.4 to 3.7, tail from 4 inches to 5, and the amount of 
rufous on the lower back is scarcely the same in any 2 specimens. 

Family Crateropidje (Timaliidce.) 
Subfamily Timaliince. 

Unquestionably Jerdon is correct in raising Timalia and its allies 
to the rank of a family, but I confess that I cannot see why the very 
closely allied Dvymoicince should not be included, as has been done 
by Blyth. Jerdon's main objection, — their legs social habits — is not by 
any means a universal criterion. Megalurus palustris, for instance, is a 
solitary bird, and so, very often, is Timalia pileata, while I found 
Prinia gracilis in small families just like Malaeocerci and a small 
Drymoica which I shot on the coast of the Red Sea occurred in pre- 
cisely the same manner. I cannot understand why Crater opus is 
removed from this family by Newton. 

397. DUHietia hyperythra, Franklin. Shot near Chanda 
in bushes beside a river. 

423. Trochalopteron cachinnans, Jerdon. By some 

mistake, Jerdon has assigned white lores and chin to this bird ; they 
should be black. It is extremely common on the Nilgiri hills. 

423#. T. Fairbanki, n. sp.* Persimile T. Jerdoni, sed capite in- 
super fusco, haud coerulescente coloris margine distincto ; dorso olivaceo } 
mento, gula } collo, pectore griseis } lateribus colli cinereis, medii 'pectoris 

* The author has arranged, at his own expense, for a coloured drawing 
of this interesting species, to be executed at home, and it is to be hoped that 
the plate can be issued with the next number of this year's Journal, should 
it not arrive in time for issue with the present number. [Ed.] 



176 Ornithological Notes, chiefly on some birds [No. 3, 

pennis fusco centralis, abdomine subcaudalibusque ferrugineis. Statura 
ab ilia T. Jerdoni non discrepante. 

Habitat in montibus Pulney, India? meridionalis. Detexit S. Fair- 
banlc. 

Head above dark brown, the margin of the colour distinct and not 
passing into anything else on the nape, but distinctly contrasting 
with the olive colouring of the back ; lores, which are small, and a 
narrow, streak running back from the eye dusky ; supercilia and orbi- 
tal feathers white ; back olive, rather lighter towards the rump, wings 
and tail rather darker. Beneath the chin and throat with the sides of 
the head below the eyes rather pale grey, the feathers of middle of 
the breast the same but with dark stripes in the centre ; sides of the 
neck ashy, this colour passing far back close to the dark brown of the 
head ; whole abdomen and lower tail coverts ferruginous, flanks 
and thigh coverts olivaceous. 

Beak dusky, legs dark plumbeous. Dimensions the same as those 
of T. Jerdoni, wing 3.4, tail 3.7, bill at front 0.7 inch. 

In Proc. Z. S. for 1867, p. 834, I mentioned my impression that the 
grey-breasted Troclialopteron of the Pulney hills collected by Mr. 
Fairbank was distinct from T. Jerdoni from the Wynaad. This im- 
pression was due to some slight differences from the description in 
Jerdon's Birds of India, and also to the a priori probability that two 
birds living on isolated hill ranges would prove distinct, since the 
intervening range of the Nilgiris in which neither are found, is in- 
habited by the very different T. cachinnans. Unfortunately the 
specimen of T. Jerdoni which formerly existed in the Asiatic Society's 
Museum has disappeared, and I am unable to make a direct compari- 
son, but in a drawing which Dr. Jerdon shewed me the other day, 
T. Jerdoni is represented with a distinct black chin like cachinnans, 
of which there is not a trace in T. Fairbanki. The other differences 
to which I alluded are the head being' dusky above instead of bluish, 
and distinctly separated from the olivaceous back instead of passing 
into dull ashy on the nape ; the centre of the breast being paler in the 
Pulney species, and the rufous colouring of the parts extending to the 
under tail coverts, which, in T. Jerdoni, are olivaceous like the flanks. 
Another distinction appears to be indicated by the drawing, viz. that 
in T. Jerdoni, the grey extends much further down the breast, and 



1869.] of Central, Western and Southern India. 177 

the rufous colour of the abdomen is paler. In T. Fairbanki the latter 
is of the same colour as in T. CacMnnans, but such differences as these 
might be due to bad stuffing or incorrect drawing. No native artist 1 
however, would have put in a black chin. 

The habits are doubtless precisely similar to those of T. Cacliinnans. 
I learn from Mr. Fairbank that the bird abounds on the Pulney hills. 
I suspect the Anamullay and Travancore ranges may yet yield several 
interesting novelties when closely searched. They are at present less 
known than any other part of the Indian peninsula, and judging from 
the comparatively large number of animals already known to be pecu- 
liar to them and to the Malabar coast, they are well deserving of close 
examination. 

435. MalaCOCirCUS Somervillei, Sykes. Abundant at 
Khandalla on the top of the Bhore Grhat, and therefore at the edge of 
the Deccan. Further inland it is replaced by M. Malabaricus, Jerd. 

In the course of 1867, 1 shot every species of Malacocircus known; 
M. terricolor in Calcutta, 31. griseus at Coimbatoor, JSf. Malabaricus 
and M. Malacolmi about Nagpur and Chanda, and M. Somervillei 
at Khandalla. 

Sub -family Drymoicince. 
530. OrthotomuS longicauda, GUn. I shot a specimen of 
this tailor bird, with a paler grey breast, in Chanda forest. It does not 
appear to differ from the common form in any other respect, and may* 
therefore, not improbably be an individual peculiarity. 

533. Prinia Adamsi, Jerd. Mr. Fairbank informs me that 
he has procured this species near Ahmednuggur in the Deccan. 

534. Prinia SOnaliS, Sykes. Pern G-anga valley near Chanda. 
I believe it was this race which I killed, it seems a little larger than 
P. Steivarti, but the two forms are not easy to distinguish. This 
species and the next are included in Dr. King's list of Goona birds. 

536. P. gracilis, Franklin. Forest close to Chanda. I found 
this bird in small flocks of 5 or 6, like Malacocirci, hunting about 
amongst the branches of trees, and flying consecutively from tree 
to tree, just as the restricted Timaliina do. I see Captain Beavan, 
Ibis for 1867, p. 454, has also noticed the occurrence of this bird in 

flocks and its habits. 

23 



178 Ornithological Notes, chiefly on some birds [No. 3, 

Family Brachypodid^:. 

In the classification T have mainly followed that of Newton, the 
Oriolidce are classed as a distinct family, while the bnlbuls are asso- 
ciated with the true thrushes. As Phyllornis is unquestionably a 
link between the bulbuls and orioles, while there does not appear to be 
any equivalent link between them and the thrashes, I believe that, 
with respect to the birds of India at all events, Dr. Jerdon's classifica- 
tion is as sound as it is convenient. 

452. IXOS luteolUS, Less. Occasionally seen, and one or two 
specimens obtained near Chanda. 

460. OtOCampsa fUSCicaudata, Gould. This race extends 
northwards along the Western Ghats, like many other Malabar forms, 
and I shot it at Khandalla. I never saw an Otocampsa in Central 
India. 

One of the forms with yellow lower tail coverts, perhaps Ixos xan- 
tliopygius H. and Ehr., occurs at Lahej near Aden. 

467. Iora ZGylanica, 6m. I found this common bird near 
Chanda. Between Chanda and Nagpur I killed a specimen perfectly 
intermediate between I. zeylanica and I. typhia. 

470. Oriolus Kund.00, Sykes. I obtained a nest from the 
topmost branches of a banyan on the 29th April, with some fragments 
of egg shells in it, the eggs had been broken in securing the nest. It 
was a very neat cup-shaped structure, almost entirely formed of 
hairy sheep's wool, but with a snake's cast-skin interwoven, as is 
so commonly the case in Thamndbia nests. 

473. OrioluS CeylonensiS, Bon. A specimen of this bird 
was obtained by my friend, Dr. Biihler, at Nasik, and I have quite re- 
cently heard from Mr. Fairbank, that he has shot it a few miles north- 
west of Ahmednuggur in the Deccan. Like other Malabar forms it 
doubtless ranges for a considerable distance to the northward along 
the Western Ghats, and thence occasionally wanders into the Western 
part of the Deccan. 

Family Tukdidjs. 
I include the Saxicolince and Huticillina in this family, as some of 
the older writers did and as was done by Mr. Blyth. It appears to 
me that woodland forms, like Janthia, come very close to Callow 



1869.] of Central, Western and Southern India. 179 

Brachypteryoc, &c. The African Thamnolcea is quite as much like a 
thrush as a Saxicola, while on the other hand there is a complete break 
between both the subfamilies mentioned and the typical Sylviadce. 
If Grandala is not a thrush, it should be put with the Starlings as the 
very closely allied Lamprotornis leucogaster of Africa is. 

353. Oreocaetes cinclorhynchus, Vigors. I saw this 

bird for two consecutive days, 4th and 5th April in high forest about 
20 miles south-east of Chancla, and I shot one specimen. I suppose 
all that I saw were migrating, as I met with none afterwards. Jer- 
don says it feeds on fruits and berries. The bird shot by me had 
coleoptera and large black ants in its stomach. 

354. Geocichla CyanotUS, J. and S. This bird is occasion- 
ally met with in the forests around Chanda. At Khandalla between 
Bombay and Poona, I shot a speciman with an olive green back. In 
the Indian Museum I find specimens of O. citrina similarly 
coloured. Jerdon says, the female of cyanotus is less purely coloured 
than the male, and that of Citrina is olivaceous. The olive green 
colour is certainly not sexual in the former and I doubt its being 
so in the latter. I am inclined to think that the olive coloured birds 
are young. I did not meet with G. citrina in the Central Provinces. 

356. Geocichla unicolor, Tickell. I shot this species also 
at Khandalla, but did not meet with it in Central India. 

342. MyiophOIlUS Horsfieldii, Vigors. Not rare on the 
crest of the Western Ghats as far north as Bombay. I shot only one 
specimen, but I saw others at Khandalla. Mr. Fairbank told me that 
he had obtained the nest on the Pulney hills close beside a deep pool 
in a stream, & just like the one described by Jerdon. 

It is rather surprising that this bird does not occur in Sykes's list 
which, however, is far from complete. 

342a. Callene albiventriS, Pairbank, Pulney hills figured in 
P. Z. S. for 1867, p. 832, PL XXXIX. and again by Gould, Birds of 
Asia, Pt. XX. The egg evidently resembles that of C. frontalis de- 
scribed by Blyth from Hodgson's drawings. Ibis for 1866 II. 373. 

Blyth describes the females of both, Callene rufiventris and C. 
frontalis, as dull coloured. The specimen of the female of C. albiven- 
tris was so little paler than the male that I was inclined to consider 



180 Ornithological Notes, chiefly on some birds [No. 3. 

the difference due merely to the state of the plumage. The sex had 
been ascertained by Mr. Fairbank by dissection. 

488. Saxicola OpistholeUCa, Strickland (S. leucuroidesj 
Guer. apud Jerclon.) I shot a single male bird close to Nagpur. It 
has not I believe previously been found south of the Nerbudda. The 
same remark applies to the next species. 

492. SaxiCOla atrogularis, Blyth. Of this bird I killed 
3 specimens, 2 males and a female within a few miles of Nagpur on 
open waste ground. 

SaxiCOla, sp. I shot a female Saxicola close to Nagpur which I 
could not identify with any known Indian species. It was much less 
rufous than S. atragularis. I cannot find the specimen now. 

479. Thamnobia flllicata, L. I found a curious nest made 
by this bird, and in a singular position, viz., inside the bamboo of a 
dhooly in the veranda of Captain Glasfurd's house at Sironcha. The 
principal material of which the nest had been composed, was a number 
of short fragments of string, with these were grass, horse-hair and a 
snake's skin. The nest contained 3 eggs as usual. 

Saxicola mdcena of Riippell has very much the appearance and 
habits of the Indian Thamnolia, and has precisely the same trick of 
jerking its tail. 

Family Sylvian. 

After separating from this group the Brymoicincs which I believe 
should be placed in the Timalidce, and removing the Saxicolince and 
RuticillincB to the Turdidce there still remain the Motacillincs which 
have even less affinity with the true Sylvians than the wren warblers 
and stone chats shew, and which are classed separately by most orni- 
thologists. The Calamolicrpince, Sylviince and Phylloscopince form a 
thoroughly natural family, similar both in form and habits. 

515. AcrOCephalUS brunnescens, Jerd. This prince of 
skulkers is as difficult a bird to secure as any I know of. One when 
badly wounded got away from me in a small open bush on the banks 
of a river, where, so far as I could see, its only possible plan of dis- 
appearing was by diving amongst the roots. I only obtained one 
specimen in the Central Provinces, though I frequently heard the 
pharp single call from bushes beside water, — a favorite resort. 






1869.] of Central^ Western and Southern India. 181 

The specimen I obtained, a female, has the first long primary only 
•J^- inch shorter than the second, otherwise it agrees pretty well with 
Jerdon's description. It, however, differs from the Calcutta specimens 
in the Asiatic Society's Museum, not only in the proportions of the 
wing, but also in being much whiter below, and in having a distinctly 
defined whitish eyebrow, with a strong white line extending to the 
base of the upper mandible. The rump too in the Chanda speci- 
men is distinctly paler than the back, not so in those from Bengal.*' 

516. AcrOCephaluS dumetorum, Blyth. Not very rare 
about Chanda, in bushes. I also shot it at Khandalla on the top of the 
"Western Ghats. I never saw it near water. 

568. PhyllOSCOpUS illdiCUS, Jerdon. I obtained two or 
three specimens of this bird, and saw it frequently in the low scattered 
jungle between Nagpur and Chanda, but not in the forests south and 
east of the latter place. It is a most active little bird, clinging to 
stems, and running up and down them in all directions like a Sitta. 

The other Phylloseopince which I obtained about Nagpur and 
Chanda were Phyllopneuste rama, Phylloscopus viridanus, P. nitidus, 
P. lugubris ? and Reguloides super ciliosus. Of Sylviince I shot Sylvia 
orphea and S. curruca. 

Family Paridje. 
645. ParuS cinereilS, Vieillot. The specimens of this bird 
which I shot in Central India differed so much from Jerdon's measure- 
ments and description that I could not but believe, that they belonged 
to a distinct species. On comparing them, however, with Himalayan 
specimens, I found them perfectly identical, and there was no per- 
ceptible difference between them, and Gould's figures in the Birds of 
Asia. It struck me, as this bird is very abundant on the Nilgiris, 
that Jerdon might have taken his measurements from the race occur- 
ring there, which would consequently be much larger than the plains 
species, and on obtaining the Nilgiri form, I found that this was the 
case, except that the lengths given for the beak and tarsus must be 
misprints. 

* Other specimens from the neighbourhood of Calcutta, winch I have seen 
since this was written, exactly resemble that from the Central Provinces, and I 
find that in that specimen, the proportions of the primaries in one wing differ 
slightly from those in the other. 



182 Ornithological Notes, chiefly on some hirds [No. 3, 

Jerdon omits to mention the white nuchal spot and the white on 
the outer tail feathers. The black line below is continuous through- 
out from the beak to the point of the tail. I append the measure- 
ments of the two races. 

Chanda. Nilgiri. 

Whole length, Barely 5 inches. Nearly 6 inches. 

Wing, 2| 2 T V 

Bill at point, i 0.37 

Tarsus, T V T V 



Tail, 2i 2 



The size of the Nilgiri race, however, is somewhat variable, some 
specimens are smaller and appear to form a passage into the plains 
race, so I can see no need for proposing a new name, although the 
difference appears quite as great as in the case of Pratincola caprata 
and P. atrata. The bill especially in the Nilgiri variety appears to 
vary in size. 

P. cinereus is not very rare in the forests on the Pranhita and 
around Chanda, I found insects in their stomachs. In April the 
sexes were in pairs, playing about on the trees with a peculiar low 
whistling note. They could scarcely have been breeding, for many 
of them, although paired, were moulting, but doubtless they do breed in 
the plains. I saw them, still in pairs, as late as the middle of May. 

648. MachlolophuS Jerdoni, Blyth. I shot this bird at 
Jabalpur, and again near Nagpur, and saw it at rare intervals on the 
Pranhita and G-odavery, everywhere very rare. 

Family Alaudid^e. 
I cannot see why the Mofacillince should form a distinct family, 
unless the pipits be excluded, for which there is no good reason. In form, 
plumage and habits there is less difference between Alauda and Cury- 
dalla or Agrodroma than between Sacekola and Pratincola, or Falco 
and Accipiter. The bill is extremely variable amongst the typical 
Alaudidw, varying from the finch-like form of Pyrrhulauda to the 
long bill of Certhilauda, and in flight these two forms differ more from 
each other than do the skylarks and titlarks. The long hind claw of 
Budytes can scarcely be an adaptive modification, for the species in 
which it is most developed is less similar in its habits to the larks 
than other species which have shorter hind claws. 



1869.] of Central, Western and Southern India. 183 

591. Motacilla personata, Gould and M. dnkhunensis, 

vera Sykes (not of Jerdon). I obtained both these races in the Cen- 
tral Provinces. The former I only shot, at and near Nagpur, in 
December and January, the latter both near Nagpur and also near 
Chanda in March. As I Avas then on the look out for specimens in 
breeding plumage, and shot those with most black about the head, I 
should not, I think, have overlooked 31. personata, had it occurred. 
The two are not very difficult to distinguish even in winter plumage. 

In Bombay and at Khandalla, in October and November, I only 
met with M. dukhunensis. In this race, the black cap in the male is 
persistent. 

I am unable to distinguish birds shot in Abyssinia from M. duhlm- 
nensis. 

Captain Beavan's Umballa and Simla Motacilla luzoniensis, Ibis, 
1868, pp. 76, 77, is probably M. personata. 

The distribution of these races of Motacilla is very singular and 
deserves most careful observation. In some cases the migratory forms 
of Bengal are the same as those of Burmah and China, and distinct 
from those of Western and Southern India, as in the two forms of 
JErythrosterna and probably in some other instances, but here is the 
apparent case of a third race intervening, for hitherto Motacilla per- 
sonata does not appear to have been detected either in Bengal or 
Bombay. 

602. Agrodroma campestris, L. 
604. A. sordida, Eiipp'ell. 

I obtained both of these large pipits near Nagpur. The last named 
appeared to be the commoner, and I frequently saw it in stubble fields 
of " Thur" or " arhar" (Cajanus indicus) and similar places. 

768. Alauda Malabarica? Scop. This bird is very im- 
perfectly described. I found a crested lark abundant at Khandalla, 
which I at first thought was Galerida Boysii of Blyth, as the measure- 
ments agreed, although the coloration is different from that of G. cris- 
tata. But I find the type of G. Boysii is still in the Asiatic 
Society's collection, and that it has precisely the plumage and bill of 
G. cristata. 

On shewing the Khandalla lark to Dr. Jerdon, he immediately re- 
cognised it as the bird he had identified with Sonnerat's alonette 



184 Ornithological Notes, chiefly on some birds [No. 3, 

huppee de la cdte de Malabar (A. Malabarica of Scopoli). On turning 
to Sonnerat's Voyage, pi. Ill (not 113 as quoted in Jerdon's Birds of 
India) I find the chief peculiarity of the lark there figured, is the very 
broad pale edges to all the feathers, and in the accompanying descrip- 
tion, it is stated that the crest is tipped white, and the feathers of the 
back and wing coverts are broadly tipped with rufous. I cannot find 
a copy of Scopoli's work : Latham merely copied from Sonnerat, even 
translating cinq pouces, neaf lignes by 5f inches which, considering 
that the French pouce is not the English inch, is of course not quite 
accurate. 

Now the Kbandalla bird has neither white tips to the crest feathers 
nor broad rufous edges on the back and wing coverts. In size, bill 
and colouring it closely resembles A. gulgula, the principal differences 
being that it has a pointed erectile crest on the top of the head as in 
Galerida, and that it has precisely the proportions of the wing primaries 
of that genus. The plumage above is scarcely distinguishable from 
that of A. gulgula, below the breast spots are larger and more numer- 
ous and the abdomen is paler. Jerdon says Alauda Malabarica is 
somewhat smaller than A. gulgula, and the general tone of colouring 
much more rufous. Now the Khandalla bird is, if anything, less 
rufous, certainly less so than the Nilgiri race of A. gulgula. 

Again Mr. Blyth in his commentary on Dr. Jerdon's birds of India 
in the Ibis for 1867 says that Alauda ccelivox of Swinhoe is nearer to 
A. Malabarica than to A. gulgula. There is a specimen of A. coelivox 
in the Indian Museum sent, I believe, by Mr. Swinhoe himself, and 
whilst it so clearly resembles A. gulgula that I am unable to appre- 
ciate the difference, it is not in the least like the Khandalla lark. 

The very imperfect specimen in the Indian Museum, labelled A. Ma- 
labarica by Mr. Blyth and presented by Dr. Jerdon, is in so bad con- 
dition that I can only say, it is not the Khandalla bird. It may be 
A. gulgula, the Nilgiri variety. 

I have in one or two cases shewn that Malabar birds range north 
along the Western Ghats, so that it is by no means improbable that this 
lark also inhabits Malabar. If we suppose, which is probable, that 
Sonnerat's figure is simply a caricature, as the adjoining print on the 
same page of JPgrrhulauda grisea most certainly is, and that the de- 
scription was taken from the picture, and not from the bird, (the only 



1869.] of Central, Western and Southern India. 185 

difficulty concerning which is the measurements,) it appears highly 
probable that I>r. Jerdon was perfectly right, and that this bird is really 
the Malabar lark. I think this is a more satisfactory view than to 
propose a new name for the Khandalla bird on the chance of its being 
distinct, though I fear the latter is the usual practice with some orni- 
thologists. I grant that Sonnerat's figure resembles Spizalauda deva 
and the Nilgiri variety of Alauda gulgula quite as much as it does the 
present species, but until it has been clearly proved which of the three 
is the common crested lark of Malabar, it is best not to alter the 
existing nomenclature on the chance of its being wrong. I according- 
ly give a description of the Khandalla bird, which may stand as 
A. Malabarica, until it is proved that that bird is a distinct species. 

Top of head with lengthened pointed crest very dark brown, the 
feathers very narrowly edged but not tipped with fulvous. Sides of 
head and back of neck much lighter in colour than the cap, rather pale 
fulvous supercilium, lores rather darker, and ear coverts also. Back 
and sides of neck rufescent fulvous with rather broad median dusky 
streaks, and the feathers not broader near the base than towards the 
point. Back and wing coverts deep brown with very narrow greyish 
edgings, some of the greater coverts more broadly margined. Quills 
dusky brown, primaries and secondaries rufous on the inner edge and 
more narrowly externally, under wing coverts also rufous. Tail 
middle feathers dusky with pale margins, the remainder deep blackish 
brown, all narrowly tipped fulvous, the outermost but one with a broad 
fulvous margin and the outermost almost entirely fulvous. Beneath, 
chin and upper throat dirty white, breast pale fulvous with broadish 
dusky streaks forming the centre of each feather, a dark patch on each 
side of the neck just where the streaks begin ; abdomen and under tail 
coverts fulvescent. 

Length (taken in the flesh) 6 \ inches, wing 3 f , tail 2, tarsus f , 
bill at front T % hind toe 0.3, claw 0.4. In other specimens the wing 
is only 3 J to 3 ■§■. 

765. Spizalauda deva, Sykes. This bird must be rare about 
Nagpiir and Chanda, for I only once obtained a specimen which was 
shot near Edlabad, west of Chanda. 

756. Mirafra erythroptera, Jerdon. I met with this 

bird not unfrequently in low jungle and on the skirts of the forest 

24 



186 Ornithological Notes, chiefly on some birds [No. 3, 

country near Chanda. Jerclon's description of its habits, as usual, is 
excellent. 

757. M. cantillailS, Jerdon. I only came upon this bird 
once in a wild tract of grass with scattered bushes, about 50 miles 
west of Chanda. Over a small tract of country extending for a few 
miles along the road it abounded, but no where else. I did not 
observe any other Mirafra besides these two. 

758. Ammomanes phcenidira, Franklin. Extremely 
abundant in the open country about Nagpur and Chanda. I have occa- 
sionally seen it perch. 

Family Ploceid^. 

Dr. Jerdon refers to the occurrence of Ploceus hjpoxantlius at Ran- 
goon and Thayet Myo. I also shot it at Mandelay (Ava). 

765. Estrelda formOSa, Lath. I met with this rather scarce 
bird in the Chanda forest and again on the Pranhita near Ahiri, always 
in or near forest. 

The only other Estreldince collected in Central India were the com- 
mon E. amandava, Munia undulata and M. Malabar tea. 

Family Fringillid^:. 

716. Emberiza Huttoni, Blyth. I obtained this bird both 
at Chanda and Nagpur, and Mr. Fairbank informs me that it is com- 
mon on rocky hill sides near Ahmednuggur. It is highly probable 
that it has been mistaken for E. hortulana. 

Dr. Jerdon, Birds of India, p. 380, mentions my having shot Embe- 
riza rutila, Pallas, in Upper Burma. This is a mistake. I shot the 
only specimen obtained in Pegu at the base of the Arracan hills, west 
of Henzada. 

721. Euspiza melanocephala, Gm. I found this bird 

much less common about Nagpur than the next species. Jerdon does 
not describe the female. It has -the head above including the ear- 
coverts and back brownish grey with dark mesial streaks to the fea- 
thers, very faint on the head ; rump grey, mixed with yellow, wing- 
coverts, quills and tail feathers dusky, edged with fawn colour, the 
tertiaries and greater coverts very broadly so ; chin, throat and breast 
pale fawn colour, abdomen yellowish white, under tail coverts bright 
yellow. Bill horny, paler beneath, feet brown. 



1869.] of Central, Western and Southern India. 187 

722. Euspizalllteola, Sparrman. Very common about Nag- 
pur, less so further south. The female is dull coloured, like that of 
E. melanocephala. 

711. Passer (Gymnoris) flavicollis, Franklin About 

small villages in the jungle this species very often entirely replaces the 
common sparrow, but it is also found in the wildest jungles far from 
any human habitation. I entirely fail to see any good grounds for 
its separation as a distinct genus from Passer. 

Family Corvid^. 
660. CorvUS CUlminatUS, Sykes. This bird is said fre- 
quently to point out where tigers and leopards are lying by perching 
on the trees over them, and cawing. I have never seen an instance 
myself, except when the tiger has killed an animal, and the crows are 
attracted by the carrion. The birds are, however, very watchful and 
often perch above men ; and I have been annoyed by them when trying 
to shoot birds, so they may very possibly follow tigers at times, 
somewhat as the Preslytis monkeys do. 

Order GEMITORES. 
Family Treronid^:. 

772. Crocopus phoenicopterus, Lath. 

773. C. chlorigaster, Biyth. 

Birds shot at Nagpur were perfectly intermediate between these 
two races ; one has the green forehead and the green of the tail of 
C. phoenicopterus, another the green forehead only and both have the 
yellowish green belly of chlorigaster. There are also intermediate 
forms, killed by Captain Beavan in Manbhtim, in the Indian Museum. 
Birds procured at Chanda were pure chlorigaster. 

I am inclined to look upon Br. Jerdon as right in considering all 
these intermediate forms as fertile hybrids ; they are always found 
where the two races meet, and where the two differ so little as in the 
green pigeons, the rollers and Kallij pheasants, they doubtless breed 
together freely. 

I found the nest and two very young birds of Crocopus chlorigaster 
near Sironcha on May 11th. The nest was exceedingly small, a little 
platform, of sticks very loosely put together on the branch of a per- 
fectly bare tree. 



188 Ornithological Notes, chiefly on some birds [No. 3, 

780. Carpophaga sylvatica, Tickell. I am obliged to dis- 
sent from Dr. Jerdon's account of the distribution of this bird. He 
says — it inhabits the whole of India in forest countries. Now this is 
constantly asserted of Malay forms, and I am persuaded that in many 
cases it is a mistake. I have been all through the immense forests of 
the lower Nerbudda and Taptee valleys, and I never saw an imperial 
pigeon in them, nor did I ever meet with the bird near Chanda. I 
first came upon it near Sironcha and thence it occurred down the 
Grodavery, and I have shot it in Orissa. My belief is, that its range is 
rigidly restricted to the great forest country inhabited by Gall us 
ferrugineus and Rucervus Duvaucelii, and that it does not occur in the 
woods of Central* or Western India. This makes it the more probable 
that Mr. Blyth's O. pusilla is a really distinct race, confined to Malabar, 
or perhaps like other Malabar forms ranging northwards along the 
Western Grhats". It may also occur on the hill plateaus about Salem 
and Trichinopoly. In the same manner I have scarcely a doubt but 
that Jerdon's C. cuprea will prove, when compared, distinct from C 
znsignis, Hodgson. 

I also never yet saw an Osmotreron nor a Chalcophaps in the 
country west of Nagpiir, or in the Nerbudda valley. I much regret 
now that I did not collect birds in the Nerbudda and Taptee 
valleys, as I might have noted several interesting points regarding their 
distribution. 

Order RASORES. 
Family Pteroclid^e. 
803. PterOCleS faSCiatUS, Scopoli. I can confirm Dr. Jer- 
don's account of the crepuscular habits of this bird. For two or three 
years I noticed occasionally, when camped beside streams in jungle, 
that some bird frequently flew along the course of the stream with a 
most peculiar tri-syllabic cry, after dark in the evening, or before it was 
light in the morning. At last I caught sight of the bird one morning, 
and recognised it by its flight as a Pterocles, and as Pt. exustus is 
never found in forest, it must have been Pt. fasciatus. The closely 
allied Pt. Lichtensteini occurs in immense numbers near the Abyssinian 
coast, and this also flies to water in the dusk of the morning and eveii- 

* When Jerdon speaks of this bird's breeding in Central India, I believe he 
means Basta, not Nagpur, and still less Malwa. 



1869.] of Central, Western and Southern India. 189 

ing, not in the day, as other sand-grouse invariably do, though I did 
not notice it as early in the morning, as I did Pt. fasciatm. 

I occasionally met with Ft. fasciatus about Nagpur and Chanda, but 
it is much less common there than in Gruzerat. 

802. PterOCles eXUStUS, Temm. I obtained the eggs close 
to Nagpur on December 27th, and again not far from Woon, north- 
west of Chanda on February 21st, 3 in each case. Jerdon says the 
central rectrices in the female are not elongated. It should be, are 
less elongated than in the male. The whole description of the female 
must have been taken from some other bird by mistake. The abdo- 
men is quite different from that in the male being closely barred, the 
chin and throat are orange buff, breast isabelline with black spots, an 
imperfect blackish gorget, then a broad unspotted space, and then the 
closely barred abdomen. 

Family Phasianid^;. 

803. PavO CristatUS, L. The train is rarely full grown 
before April. Peacocks not unfrequently shew the presence of a tiger 
by flying up one after the other from a particular spot in the jungle. 
In the hot part of the day, both animals resort greatly to the thickets 
oijJww or " bastard cypress" (Tamarix indicci) in the beds of rivers. 

812. Gallus ferrugineus, Gm. 

813. G. Sonneratii, Temm. 

For the relative distribution of these birds see J. A. S. B for 1867, 
Vol. XXXVI. p. 199. 

Family Tetraonid^:. 

814. Galloperdix spadicea, Gm. 

Common in the Taptee and Lower Nerbudda valleys, and in the 
jungles around Chota Oodipur. 

815. G. lunulosa, Valenc. 

I have shot this bird a little west of Nagpur near Ellichpur, but I 
never noticed it further west. 

Precisely on the same grounds as Jerdon, viz. Geographical distri- 
bution, I come to exactly the reverse conclusion, viz. that Galloperdix 
is a form with African affinities allied to JPtemistes, but it would take 
too long to give all my reasons here. 

818. Prancolinus vulgaris, Steph. 



190 Ornithological Notes, chiefly on some birds [No. 3, 

819. P. pictUS, Jard. and Selby. 

For relative geographical distribution, see J. A. S. B. for 1867, 
p. 200. I have since been assured by Captain St. John, that he has 
shot F. vulgaris close to Khandalla. I cannot help thinking he must 
be mistaken, though I believe he knows the two forms well. 

In the Transactions of the Literary Society of Bombay, Vol. II, p. 216, 
Captain McMurdo asserts that there is a third partridge inhabiting the 
Wagur district of Cutch, distinct from both the painted and black par- 
tridges, but resembling the former. What can this be ? Dr. Adams 
says the bird in the hills below Kashmir, differs from that in the plains. 
Lieutenant St. John assures me, that the Persian black partridge 
differs from the Indian. Are the two species confused under F. vul- 
garis ? 

828. Perdicula erythrorhyncha, Sykes. This bird has 

the habits of a Perdicula and not of a quail. Its range is wider 
than stated by Jerdon, I shot it to my surprise in high jungle between 
Chanda and Sironcha. I also obtained it at Khandalla close to Col. 
Sykes's locality. 

Family Turnicid^;. 
I only shot one species near Chanda and Nagpur, Turnix taigoor, 
Sykes. 

Order GBALLATORES. 
Family Charadriid^:. 

841. Rhinoptilus bitorquatUS, Jerdon. I mentioned 
my having seen this bird near Sironcha in the Ibis for 1867, p. 462. 
I did not obtain a specimen. The locality was in very wild open 
forest jungle about 15 miles east of Sironcha. 

852. ChettUSia gregaria, Pallas. I killed a specimen about 
40 miles south of Nagpur. I also saw this bird, or another species of 
Chettusia, near Nagpur. 

859. CEdicnemuS Crepitans, Temm. I have seen this 
bird in considerable numbers in Upper Burma, near Pagan. Jerdon 
does not mention its occurrence east of the Bay of Bengal. I think 
there must be a Burmese specimen in the British Museum from my 
collections, but I am not sure. It probably does not occur in Lower 
Pegu, in Arracan, or in the Malay peninsula. 



1869.] of Central, Western and Southern India. 191 

Family Scolapactd^;. 
870. GallinagO Stenura, Temm. I have never met with this 
bird in Western or Central India, though for two or three years I 
examined every bird I shot, and I doubt if it occurs there. It is not in 
Sykes's list nor in that of Dr. King. Beavan, Ibis 1868, noticed the 
early arrival of the snipe in Burma which I can confirm from my own 
knowledge. At Poona it never appears before the middle of October, 
and then the birds are all G. scolapacina so far as I know. I believe 
it will be found that the birds are almost as late on the Western 
coast about Bombay, at all events sportsmen do not go out to shoot 
them before October, and generally not before November, whilst 
around Calcutta very fair sport may be had in September. This is 
strongly in favour of G. stenura not occurring in Western India, for 
it certainly is the earliest to arrive in any numbers in Bengal. About 
Calcutta, G. stenura seems to disappear in December and January, 
doubtless migrating further to the south-east : I have lately in those 
months examined bags of 30 to 50 birds, without rinding one speci- 
men. It abounds again, I believe, in February and March. 

Family Rallid^:. 
Podica personata, Gray. I suspect I saw this bird on the 
river at Beypiir. It is likely enough that this Malay form might 
occur in Malabar, and unless this were the bird, I cannot conceive 
what it could have been. It swam and looked something like a grebe, 
but flew away when approached. It was certainly neither grebe nor 
duck, and I suspect it was a Podica. 



192 [No. 3, 

Descriptions of two new species, belonging to the genera Varanus, and 
Feranioides respectively , from near Agra ; by A. C. L. Carlleyle, 
Esq., Curator, Hiddell Museum at Agra. 

[Received 22nd February, read 3rd March, 1869.] 

Order.— SAURIA. 

Family.— YAUA^TDM. 

Genus.— VARANUS. 

Species. — T. OriiatUS, Carlleyle* (vide p. 196). 

Habitat. — Neighbourhood of Sikandra, near Agra. 
Specific character. — Ventral shields, from gular fold to loin, in 116 
transverse series. Total length of specimen, 29 .j inches. Length of 
body alone, from end of snout to root of tail, 14^ inches. Length of 
tail 15£ inches. Length of head, from end of snout to nape, 2 inches. 
Breadth of head above, from ear to ear, 2 inches. Circumference of 
body, at thickest part, 6f inches. Length of fore leg 3^ inches. 
Length of middle toe with claw fth of an inch. Length of hind leg 
4 inches. Length of second posterior toe with claw, (which is the 
longest,) 1 inch. The body of this specimen is longer, in proportion, 
than in either V. draccena or V. lunatics. 

Description. — Scales of the greater portion of the back oval and 
slightly, or obtusely, keeled. Scales on the rear of the neck round, very 
prominent — almost tubercular, pretty sharply keeled, and raised, in 
their centres, almost to a point. Scales of back between the shoulders, 
also pretty sharply keeled. The small shields of the abdomen and 
under side of tail, are of an oblong oval shape, with a slightly 
raised, gently rounded, boss, or convexity, in the centre of each, 
surrounded by a narrow depressed border. These convexities are 

* Mr. Carlleyle suggests that a new generic name be introduced for the land- 
Varani with a round tail. These have been already called by Fitzinger Psammo- 
sawrus, but the distinctions, as likewise those pointed out in some other forms 
of Varani, have not been by other naturalists considered sufficient to justify a 
generic separation. A thorough review of all the various species from different 
parts of the world would, no doubt, be very desirable, for ic is at present difficult 
to accept several of the numerous generic names suggested, because they are 
generally adapted to certain type species only, and a discrimination between 
what is to be called a variation of a genus, or a section, or a sub-genus &c. is by 
no means easy. It seems rather certain that these limits vary in different 
species, and that they have to be determined in each instance according to the 
characters of the group of animals to which they refer. (Ed.) 



1869.] Descriptions of tivo neio species of Reptiles, 193 

easily depressed by force, so as to form little shallow hollows 
instead ; but the narrow border, surrounding each of them, still re- 
mains marked and unmistakable. Small shields of the breast and 
throat hexagonal, also with a central convexity and narrow depressed 
border. Shields- of under side of hind legs, pentagonal, in other 
respects similar to the last. Shields of under side of fore legs the 
same, but much smaller than the scutes of the under sides of- the 
hind legs. 

Anterior frontal scales of head slightly keeled, transversely. Pos- 
terior frontal scales larger, but not keeled. Vertical scales, — a small 
circle of eight scales, with one in the middle of the circle, — in the centre 
of the vertex. Superciliary scales small and granular. 

Scales in centre of chin long-shaped, but very small and granular, 
and arranged in regular longitudinal series, anteriorly converging. 

There is a slight shallow, longitudinal groove in the centre of the 
upper surface of the snout, — which mesial, supra-rostral groove, though 
common to and peculiarly characteristic of all the Varani, is not 
noticed at all by Griinther, in any of his descriptions, although it ap- 
pears plainly enough in his plate showing an upper view of the heads 
of V. draccena, V. lunatics and V. nebulosus. 

The nostrils, in the present species, form an elongated, curved, and 
rather narrow slit, situated, on either side, about J of an inch in front 
of the eyes, and a little over J an inch from the end of the snout ; or 
much nearer to the eye, than to the end of the snout. 

The eyes are situated further forward, or nearer to the snout, than 
in either V. lunatics, or V. drac&na. 

The ears are situated about f- of an inch behind the eye. 

Coloration and markings. — These are very peculiar, and the colours 
very bright and beautiful, when the animal is alive, or only recently 
dead ; but the bright colours fade away very much, after the skin is 
stuffed and dried, — a change which gradually took place in the stuffed 
skin of the present specimen, little remaining but the black markings, 
the original yellow ground colour much faded, and some slight traces 
of the formerly existing orange tints, which tout ensemble of conspicu- 
ous hues, gave the animal quite a gaudy appearance, when it came 
first into my possession, quite fresh, or, indeed, then still half alive. 

25 



194 Descriptions of two new species of Reptiles. |_No. 3, 

The upper surface of the snout is marked with some black dashes. 
Vertex and occiput of head black. Another line runs from below 
the eye to the ear. Another black line, or stripe runs from behind 
each eye, on either side, to a point above the ear, and then continues 
backwards, on each side of the nape, to the middle of the back of the 
neck, where it stops. These two lines, or stripes, thus converge, and 
nearly meet on the back of the neck. The ground colour on either 
side of the black stripe which runs from behind the eye is of a bright 
gamboge yellow, forming two longitudinal bands of yellow behind the 
eye, with the black stripe in the midst. A black stripe also runs, on 
either side, from the back of the ear to a point between the shoulders, 
where these two lines unite, forming an acute angle of which the apex 
is directed posteriorly. A single black stripe runs from the centre of 
the occiput backwards, to the centre of the angle formed by junction 
of the two black stripes which run from the ear to a point between 
the shoulders, and unites with these lines there, dividing the receding 
angle in the midst. Rudiments of smaller black lines, converging 
towards the same point, and pale inky, or ashy-black, shadings, appear 
between the larger converging stripes. From the apex of this pos- 
teriorly directed angle of black, between the shoulders, a norrow lon- 
gitudinal black stripe runs backwards along the centre of the back, to 
near the root of the tail — but not quite reaching it,— tapering off 
more and more finely in a posterior direction, until it disappears 
above the lumbar region. Ground colour of the back of the neck, 
between the black stripes, a bright orange, when the animal is living, 
or but recently killed, (fading after the skin is stuffed). The sides of 
the neck and shoulders gamboge yellow, and marked with several 
round, blackish ashy coloured blotches, or ocelli, — two on the shoulders 
being the most conspicuous. Sides of body, and sides of back, marked 
with round gamboge yellow spots, or blotches, with ashy coloured 
cloudings between them. General ground colour of back, pale 
greenish ashy, mixed with bright yellow. No rings, or marks, on the 
under side of the throat, which is of a dirty white colour. Belly 
white. 

Tail round, with not the slightest sign of any longitudinal ridge, 
keel, or crest,— ^nd more thin and tapering than in either V. draccena 
or V. lunatus. 



1869.] Descriptions of two neio species of Reptiles. 195 

Legs short ; toes rather slender, and shorter, in proportion, than 
those of V. lunatus. 

Head much flattened, or depressed.* 

Teeth 10 in upper, and 10 in lower jaw, short, conical, and slightly 
recurved. 

This is a true dry-land Varanus : the only two individuals of this 
species which I have seen, having been found in the most dry, and 
dusty places possible, far removed from water ; and both were found 
in the neighbourhood of Sikandra, not far from the high road from 
Agra to that place. 

I would here take the opportunity of observing, with regard to 
Varanus draccena, and V. lunatus, that I cannot imagine why Gr an- 
ther has called them a Water Lizards," as they have nothing to do 
with water, and are always found in the driest places ! 

I would also remark that Varanus flavescens has nothing in 
common with the above species, and should, I think, form the 
type of a separate genus, or sub-genus, as a link between the 
true land Varani, and the Hydro-sauri. For, being a decidedly 
aquatic species, Varanus flavescens has a strong and deep longitudinal 
ridge or " crest," on the upper side of the tail, almost like that 
of a Hydro-saarus. The head also is higher and more triangular 
than that of the true land Varani ; and the scales of the body are 
larger, and so strongly and sharply keeled and pointed, as to form a 
most marked distinction. The dentition also is different. 

And V. flavescens, besides, has not the " central — supra-rostral 
groove," which I before mentioned as distinguishing the true dry- 
land Varani. Both Varanus dracoena and V. lunatus are very com- 
mon about Agra ; I have, therefore, had full opportunity of comparing 
my new Varanus with numerous specimens of those two common 
species. V nebulosus is not found here. 

I think Griinther is mistaken in ascribing only " ninety" transverse 
series of scutes, from the gular fold to the loin, to V. draccena ; for 
all the specimens of that species which I have obtained here, have not 

# The photograph from which the sketch on p. 196 is taken shews the head 
to be remarkably broad and the snout short, what principally distinguishes this 
species when compared with V. lunatus, and other known Indian forms. Un- 
fortunately the photograph is not clear and is was impossible to give much 
more than a correct outline of the head. (En.) 



196 



Descriptions of two new species of Reptiles. 



[No. 8, 



less than 95 transverse series ! While in a specimen of Varan as 
flavescens, in my possession, on the other hand, I find only 67 trans- 
verse series (at most) instead of " 70," as given by Griinther ! I find, 
also, that V. lunatus has, more commonly, less than " 105" series ; 
or, generally, about 103. The longest specimen of Varanus lunatus 
in my possession, measures 2 feet, 9 inches ; and the longest specimen 
of V. draccena, 3 feet 6 inches. 

It appears to be a law of nature, that the more terrestrial any 
species of Varanus is, the greater in number, and the smaller in size, 
are the transverse series of scutes, on the under side of the body ; and 
the more aquatic any species of Varanus is, the lesser in number and 
larger in size these series of scutes are. 




: 













Ficrs 



2 .' 'arctTUA * of 'fxttug 




.: '■• Verxxniovdes Jamnccteca 



Order.— OPHIDIA. 

Sub-Order.— COLUBRINI INNOCUI. 

Family.— HOMALOPSIM1. 

Genus.— FERANIOIDES {Gen. JS T ov.) 
Species. — P. Jamnastica, Carlhyh. 

Habitat. — River Jamna, near Agra. 
Date of capture.— March, 1868. 

Specific character. — Scales in 29 series. Entire length of snake, from 



1869.] Descriptions of two new species of Reptiles. 197 

snout to end of tail, 2 feet, 1 inch. Length of tail 3i inches. Circum- 
ference of body, at thickest part, 2% inches. Length of head, from 
end of snout to nape, -f th of an inch. Grreatest breadth of head across, 
j-ih of an inch. 

Description.* — Body thick, for the size of the snake. Head thick, 
broad, somewhat Cerberine in appearance, and distinct from the neck. 
Tail short, rather quickly but evenly tapering, and slightly compress- 
ed laterally, so as to form a sort of ridge on the back of that part. 

Plates on top of head (posterior to nasals, and above eye) large 
posteriorly, and small anteriorly, 

2 I I 

2 I I 

and arranged as 3 or | | | . Anterior frontal plates 2, triangular, 

, 2 | | 

with the two outer sides rounded. Posterior-frontal plates of a 
curved, diagonally elongated, or oblong, irregular pentagonal shape, 
situated (with regard to their greater axis) in a somewhat diagonal 
position to the central longitudinal line that divides the frontal 
plates in the midst. The anterior side of these post-frontal plates 
is concave. Vertical plate pentagonal, longer than broad, shaped 
like an elongated heraldic shield of which the lower point of 
the shield runs posteriorly, for about one quarter distance, be- 
tween the two occipitals. Supraciliary plates (one over each eye) 
smaller than the vertical, of a sub-conic form, or semi-elliptical 
shape, curved over the eye, and truncated posteriorly, of which 
the broad base abuts posteriorly, against the advance of the two large 
occipital plates. These are very large, each an irregular sided hexagon 
(the two posterior sides of the irregular hexagon being very small, 
the other sides long, — especially the outer). No plates towards the 
nape ; the nape being covered with multi-angular, pentagonal, quadri- 

* This interesting new species was pointed out to the author of this paper by 
Dr. T. C. Jerdon who, as stated in the Proceedings of this Society for March, 
p. 105, contemplated to describe the same in his forthcoming work on the " Rep- 
tiles of India,'' but who was so courteous as to disclaim the priority of publica- 
tion,when requested for his opinion on the matter. — The snake principally differs 
from Ferania by its round pupil, and is in this respect one of the rare instances 
recorded among the HoMALOPSiDiE, most of which have a narrow vertical pupil 
of the eye. The dentition would also appear to be peculiar, but on this point 
our information is as yet very deficient regarding a large number of our Indian 
snakes. (Ed.) 



198 Descriptions of two new species of Reptiles. [No. 3, 

lateral, and ovoid scales, of which the three most anterior and central 
ones are the largest and most conspicuous ; the first central scale of 
the nape of the neck, which fits in at the posterior angle of the 
junction of the two occipitals, is pentagonal, rnd the largest. In 
reality, the occipital plates do not cover the whole of the back of the 
occiput proper, or do not reach to the nape ; so that, the first dorsal 
(or rather cervical) scales arc, in fact, situated on the occiput : and 
hence the head of this snake looks as if only the anterior half of its 
upper surface, were covered with plates, and the posterior half with 
scales. This is a strongly marked peculiarity which at once serves 
to distinguish this snake. 

Nasal orifices narrow-shaped and curved, partially covered with a 
valve (capable of being closed over the orifice, when the snake is 
under water), the nasal slit being situated, in part, between two 
plates, i. e. the prae-nasal, and post-nasal ; the pra>nasal plates (one 
on each side) being large, situated straight in front of the anterior 
frontals, and are shaped somewhat like an uneven disc of which a 
portion, posteriorly, has been cut out, leaving a sort of receding angle 
in the posterior margin of the plate. And each praj-nasal plate is 
also cleft posteriorly, from near its centre, by the nasal slit, 
thence making a short curve backwards to the line which separates the 
pree-nasals from the post-nasals. The latter are situated rather laterally, 
being small and oblong shaped. The rostral plate is pentagonal, shaped 
like a triangle rising from a parallelogramic base of equal breadth 
with the base of the triangle, and the apex of the triangle extends 
nearly half way back between the two pra3-nasals. Upper labials, on 
right side 6, on left side 5 ; the third labial entering the orbit. 
The most posterior upper labial plates (the 6th labial plate on one 
side, the 5th on the other) very large. Posterior to the proper lateral 
upper labial plates on each side there is a largish sub-temporal plate 
placed above two small plates. Temporal plates, proper 4, small. 
Post-ocular plates 2, situated one above the other. Ante-ocular 1, 
curved, long transversely. Loreal 1, smaller, of an irregular shaped, 
quadrilateral figure. Median lower labials 2, very small, and situated 
one behind the other. Lateral lower labials 6, on each side, the two 
anterior lateral lower labials, on each side of the median lower labials, 
very long. Chin shields 2, very large. 



1869.] Descriptions of hvo new species of Reptiles. 199 

Eyes, rather small, round ; dark ash coloured, with a round white 
pupil. 

Scales, smooth, not keeled, generally oval-shaped, and in 29 series. 

Ventral plates proper, (from the throat to the anals and including 
throat plates,) 153. Pra>nasal plates 4, in pairs, — or in other words, 
two bifid plates. Post-nasal plates 7, in a transverse series of 4 and 
8. Sub-caudal plates proper 100, in pairs. Total lower plates of 
under-part of body, 264. 

Colouring and markings. — -Markings on plates on the top of the 
head of a sort of puce, or olivaceous mouse-brown, or a muddy 
olive chocolate colour. A narrow yellowish white curved line runs 
longitudinally along the centre of each of the occipital plates, and 
extends to the nape. Anterior upper labials marked with dark 
blotches. A broad, dark olivaceous brown, narrowly-black-edged, 
stripe, runs along the cheeks, from the posterior upper labials, to 
beyond the gape, backwards, as far as the side of the neck. A yel- 
lowish-white stripe runs from the back of the eye to beyond the 
occipitals, as far as the back of the neck, on each side, posteriorly, 
and is again produced anteriorly as a narrow streak in front of the 
eye, then running round across the prae-frontals, (just behind the nasals) 
to meet the corresponding line on the other side ; the angular curve 
of the streak as it crosses the front of the head, becoming lineally 
attenuated. There is a muddy olive chocolate coloured, longitudinal 
stripe on each side of the nape of the neck, on the scales which lie 
immediately at the back of each of the occipital plates, which unites 
anteriorly with the dark colouring of the head plates. A longitudinal 
broad stripe of the same dark colour, occupies the centre of the nape, 
which unites anteriorly with the dark colouring of the central head 
plates, and blends posteriorly with a large broad, oblong shaped, 
centrically narrowed, muddy olive-brown coloured, and narrowly 
black-edged blotch, occupying the whole of the back of the neck. A 
transverse, irregularly shaped, narrow, yellowish space, or band, runs 
off transversely, laterally on the neck, from each side of the dark nape 
mark, and divides the large dark blotch on the back of the neck, — on 
each side, — from the dark cheek stripe, and unites below with the 
yellow of the sides of the neck. A dark line runs longitudinally 
through the pra>oculars and nasals. Vertical shield of the same dark 



200 Descriptions of two new species of Reptiles. [No. 3, 

colour. The whole of the dark markings on the top of the head, and 
centre of the nape, form a united figure resembling a barbed arrow- 
head, of which the shaft is broken off a little behind the posterior ends 
of the barb ; the point of the arrow-head being directed forwards, and 
terminating on the prse-frontals. 

Whole of back marked with large, broad, round, or oval-shaped, oli- 
vaceous mouse-brown or dark schistaceous olivaceous blotches, edged 
with black ; these blotches are sometimes separate, or distinct from one 
another, and sometimes confluent, — and in the latter case they resemble 
some kinds of chintz pattern. The dorsal blotches become much darker 
towards the tail, — and, at length, become quite black cross-bands on the 
tail itself. Between each of these broad dark coloured blotches, there is 
a narrowish, greenish-yellow transverse band, which unites below with 
the bright yellow colour of the sides. Ground colour of sides, bright 
yellow, but marked with a double line of lateral dark, lozenge-shaped 
and irregular shaped spots, large and small, of the same colour as the 
transverse blotches of the back. The larger of the lateral lozenge- 
shaped spots sometimes alternate with the lateral extensions of the 
dorsal blotches, — being sometimes situated in the midst of the yellow 
lateral interspaces. Ground colour of ventral plates yellow, marked, 
in irregular alternation, with square- shaped black spots, which generally 
go in pairs, or alternately 1 and 2, and sometimes singly, with alter- 
nate yellow interspaces. 

Teeth very small, apparently 22, in upper maxillary : 5th tooth, on 
each side bifid : — hindmost tooth broad, short and thick, or tubercular. 
There appear to be (as far as I can see) either 14, or 16 teeth in the 
lower maxillary : hindmost tooth longer than the others, sharp and 
recurved : second hind tooth also sharp and recurved. 

While at Allahabad, the year before last, I bought four living snakes 
from a snake-catcher, which I think I might find reason to class in 
my new Genus Feranioides, — if not actually identical as to species 
with the individual above described. 

In colouring, they somewhat resembled certain snakes which I re- 
member seeing in the Calcutta Museum collection, named by Blyth 
" Pythonella" and by Gunther " Hornalopsis," the Homalopsida 
being the family to which the Genus Ferania and Feranioides 
belong. 



Monthly Means of the principal Meteorological Elements and actual Rainfall recorded at the Calcutta Observatory for twelve years, from 1856 to 1867 ; by Gopebnautr Sen, in charge of the Observatory. 



1 



II 



Thermometers. 



i; 30.049 68.6| 
30.022 68.1 

29.(104 OS.] 



.. j 30.002 
... 1 30.017 
0.56 20.976 



).043, 67.3 61.: 



.. 129 092 
U> :;n.i.uj.j 

1 91 30.041 
J.55 30.04s 



IW&N 

.70' Sf.SWiW 
To W, NiSff 



N, KI4W 

'2| N, W & S 
.70 N W & N by W 



0.66 29.9 
0.09 29.913 
... : 29.914 
... 29.925 
1.29 29 940 
0.47 29. 
1.86 29.972 
3.74 29.9S6 
0.S2 29.966 



S A- W 
N W, S 

s, w& 



W. X A 

s &w 

N W A- ' 

e. n a- i 

N N W c 



20-3.-I 
29.S.I0 
29.878 



900 

29.S26 

29.878 

29.920 



29.726 

29.760 

20 772 



29.79s 
29.SCI5 
29.791 



57 9.33 29.600 



299151 
29 949 
29.639 



° ■ tl 



790 



55 


1L55 


m 




61 




62 


10.86 


93 


19 33 


64 


12.59 


■,., 


19 25 


66 


15.97 

13 7" • 


^ 



1.41 .86 S * S TV 



29 676 
29 666 

29.645 



-3.4 


-<0.4 




80.1 


S2.S 


79.6 


>:::, 


79.6 


KS.8 


80.1 


s 4 - 


80.7 


•43 


81.0 


83.1 


80.3 



— i„,i„; 

12.67 29.545 

10 39 29.52-i 

8.22 29 
12 48 29.532 

6 46 29.544 
26,14 29 572 
13.63 29.550 
12.9.3 29.507 

is. 73 29.548 
8.63 29 559 

7.02 29 516 
6.12 29.576 











80.3 


79 


81.2 


79, 




.S3 


80 h 


81 


v.u 


US 


89,1 


81 


xo.c 


.79 


HO.t! 


78 


m i 


.81 


KI.4 


.76 


80.7 


.80 



s&s w 

SSE.S&WS 

s e, s s w & : 



10.94 29.49! 
12.98 29.54' 
17.96 29.561 

9 99 29.559 

17.92 2! 

1331 2! 

11.22 29 519 
13.09 29 595 
12.19 29.575 
15.42 29.567 
15.44 29 557 



S, K A S E 
S&S E 
S&SB 

!,I4Sf 



S &SE 

S, S S E & S E 

S S TV, S W & I 



S, E & S E 
S&E 

S, S E & E 




No continuous or heavy falls of Rail 



IlM'll-'. 






29.79: 


81.C 


77.2 


-9 s 7 l 


81.6 


75.9 


29. S2'. 


81.3 


75.9 


29 791 


81.5 


77.2 


29SK 


81.( 


76.8 


"9. sou 


81.2 


77-3 


-9.767 


80.! 


77-2 


29.X14 


81.; 


76-5 


29.S6I 


80.3 


75-0 


29.S4.S 


84.4 


77-4 


29.S5S 


81.£ 


77.7 


29.SS0 


81.2 


76.9 



0.83 N W & S 
.76 N4SW 
.77 SW.W4H 
■81 W, N & N W 



.84 S 

.77 N & S 
.75 N & E 
.OS W A S 



311.917 

29.955 

29.930 

4.39 29.921 



.76 N W & N 
.70NW4N 
.75 W, N W & N 
.75 N, ȴ4S W 
.71 N4JW . 
.80 N41IW 
.73 S, NW&W 
.71 N 

.71 N&NW 
.67 N&NW 
.70 N W, N N W & I 
.75 N ANNE 



39.92.- 
59. oil 

30.034 
30.010 

59.912 

30.008 

299.15 1 
59.052 

30.036 
30.034 
30.079 
30.077 



N, W &S 

N, NNW&NW 
N & N N W 



13th Oct. 
11th Oct. 

2S.1, Oct. 
10th Oct. 
10th Oct. 
23r,l Oct. 
24th Oct. 

7th Oct. 
22...1 Oct. 
25th S,.|,t. 
25tli Oct. 

1st Oct. 



Gale May 14th and Sept. 3. 
Gale May 7th 



Cyclone October 5th 

Gale Nov. 1st, Cyclone Nov. 2ml 



JOUENAL 



OP THE 



ASIATIC SOCIETY, 



Part II.— PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 



No. IV.— 1869. 



Contribution towards the knowledge of Indian Arachnoidea ; 
by F. Stoliczka, Esq., Ph. D., F. G-. S. &g. 

(With plates XVIII— XX.) 

[Received 7th April, read 5th May, 1869.] 

With the exception of the Ccelenterata, and probably the Crusta- 
cea, few other branches of Indian Zoology have received so little 
attention as the Arachnoidea. It is really surprising to see, how 
very few species of Indian Arachnoids there are recorded in the 
leading works on the subject by Walkenaer (Apteres) and Koch 
(Die Arachniden &c), when compared with the great number from 
other foreign countries, which one would suppose to be in this respect 
much less known than India. Walkenaer's descriptions of the Indian 
new species are, besides, often insufficient, to be of much use ; they are 
generally too short for the purpose of specific identification. A good 
number of Ceylon and some Indian Arachnoidea have been, however, 
carefully described by Koch. Those of the Indian Dutch possessions 
were, to a large extent, worked out by Dr. Doleschall ,m\ the Mauritius 
and Madagascar species have been monographed by Vinson. Several 
additions to this fauna were also lately made by Count Keyscrling, 
Blackwall, and others. 

26 



202 Indian Arachnoidea. [No. 4, 

One of the most important works for the study of Indian Arach- 
noidea is Savigny's excellent figures in the " Descript. Scient. 
de 1' Egypte," although his number of new species will have to be 
greatly reduced, if Walkenaer's identifications prove to be correct. 
With the very wide geographical range, which many species of spiders 
are known to possess, I expect Western India will have a great 
number of identical species with Arabia and Egypt, the Southern 
portions of the Peninsula with Ceylon and partially also with Mauri- 
tius, the Southern Burmese and Malacca country with the Philippine 
and other islands of the Indian Archipelago. There are undoubtedly 
some Western Indian species the same as the Arabian, and probably 
European, but I have as yet so very few materials from that part 
of the country, that I abstain at present from quoting specific 
names ; a list of them will be given in due time. Of the Arachnoid 
fauna of Bengal and the North Eastern provinces we scarcely know 
anything, for only very few species appear to have as yet found 
access into European collections. I may here remark that the dis- 
tinction of the faunas which have been pointed out in the verbebrate 
animals between Western and Eastern India, — the one with an admix- 
ture of African, the other with that of Malayan types, — appears to 
be fully confirmed through the study of the Aeachnoidea. It is 
really remarkable that in examining a collection of spiders from our 
Eastern frontier, together with another made in Western India, often 
scarcely a single species will be found to be identical to both parts. 
Bengal has a strong admixture of Malayan types, and several species 
are common to it and Assam and Burma. The Western Hymalaya 
mountains possess in the Arachnoid fauna a prominently European 
character, as their general climate would lead us to expect, the 
Eastern Hymalaya probably contain some Chinese or Malayan types, 
but of this we know exceedingly little. 

It is strange that not only dislike, but a real enmity and ill-feeling 
against Arachnoids, seems to have taken hold of men's minds. " Un- 
heeded, or regarded with repulsive loathing by the ' cui bono' 
people of the present generation" says an able writer* who did 
observe many a magnificent tropical Arachnoid ! No doubt, the few 
species which secrete a poisonous fluid in special glands, and through 
* Dr. A. Adams, in Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 1847, XX, p. 289. 



1869.] Indian Arachnoidea. 203 

its use occasionally become dangerous, are the source of all this ill- 
feeling which has been extended to the most useful animals. Harmless 
they are certainly on the whole, and as regards usefulness scarcely 
surpassed by any other class of animals. They wholly live on 
insects and destroy a very large number of those which often 
create great damage to either animal and vegetable life. Thus 
they are important agents in sustaining a proper balance in' the 
economy of nature, and their usefulness actually increases, by their 
not being dangerous in such a way, as insects often are. 

These are, however, not the only reasons which entitle the Arach- 
noidea to a fair share of attention on the part of every observer of 
nature. Their instinct is often higher developed, than we find it in 
insects. This instinct not only shews itself in the way in which they 
obtain their living, but also in the art of weaving in which they may 
be said to have been the teachers of man. Actually almost their 
whole life is nothing but a carrying out of clever arrangements, 
resulting from a certain amount of thought and deliberation. The 
beauties of colour, the curiosities of form, &c. which they exhibit, are 
equally remarkable and interesting. It is, therefore, only natural that 
some of our oldest classic writers have expressed their admiration of the 
works and the talent, exhibited by Arachnoids, in the most inspiring 
language, and many a beautiful idea in the mythology of the Greeks 
and Romans is interwoven with their manners and their mode of life. 

It is unnecessary for me to go here into those historical and other 
accounts, to excite interest and attention to the study of the Arach- 
noids,— they speak for themselves. At the same time, I believe, 
I am justified in saying that there are very few branches of zoology, 
which would reward the zeal of the student with greater success, as 
regards new forms of animals, than the Arachnoids. Almost every- 
thing that we see and observe about us is a novelty to science ; for 
if it is not actually so as to mere form, it is pretty certain to be so as 
to the real value in the study of geographical distribution, &c. 

Several years elapsed since that I began to collect materials for a 
Monograph of the Indian Scorpionid^;, having in view to initiate 
the study of the Arachnoids in this country by the description of a 
group, the animals of which are more generally and better known than 
common spiders. I found, however, that it would be probably many 



204 Indian Arachnoidea. [No. 4, 

years, before I should be able to go on with this work ; but meanwhile 
I have collected a large number of species from various orders of the 
class, and out of these I have on this occasion selected a few charac- 
teristic species of each family. I have only omitted the aquatic 
(Pycnogonid^e and Colopoda) and the parasitic forms (Acarina). 
They are too minute to be observed with ease, though of the Acarina 
some such species, for instance as those which in very large quantities 
destroy the leaves of the tea plant, will be worthy of examination. 
Of the other orders, the Pedipalpi, (including Pseudoscorptones) 
Solifug^:, Phalangidea and Araneidea, I shall of each describe one 
or more species. One of the chief objects of this selection of various 
species, of all of which illustrations* are here given is, as I said, to 
attract the attention and at the same time also to facilitate the study 
of the Indian Arachnoidea. I hope that, with the assistance of friends, 
who will collect those species which they find in their neighbourhood, 
we may obtain the materials for a work which may form a parallel to 
that magnificent publication of the Ray Society, " the English spiders" 
by Mr. Black wall. The Indian Museum is a safe custody for all these 
objects, and I shall have already to mention in the present paper 
a few species, for which I am indebted to Dr. J. Anderson, the Cura- 
tor of the Indian Museum ; they are species collected by Messrs. 
Peel, Gregory and Haughton in Assam and adjoining districts. 
Central India is also very rich and will, I hope, furnish many species 
of spiders and scorpions. 

Order, PEDIPALPI. 
This order includes those Arachnoidea in which the palpi are 
prolonged, often strongly thickened, and terminating with moveable 
claws or cheliceres. The scorpions may be called the typical forms of 
the order. One of the most important recent essays on the classifica- 
tion of Pedipalpi is by Dr. Peters, printed in the MonathsbericMe of 
the Berlin Academy for 1861. 

TELYPHONTTS, Latr. 

The Telyplioni externally very much resemble the scorpions, but 
they have, in place of a segmented tail with a sting at end, a simple 

* The measurements are always given in millimeters, so as to avoid differ- 
ences which may result from the use of a geographical and an English inch. 



1869.] Indian Arachnoidea. 205 

multi-articulated seta, and are therefore harmless. They also have 
the feet much longer than the palpi, while in the scorpions the 
contrary is the case. Lucas published, 1835, a monograph of the genus 
in Guerins " Magasin de Zoologie," which is simply copied by Gervais 
in Walkenaer's " Apteres," vol. iii. Koch tl Die Arachniden" &c. 
vol. x, and other authors, have since described several other species. 
The North American Scorpio^id^i have been monographed in 1863 by 
Mr. Wood (see Journ. Acad. Nat. So., Phil., 2nd ser., vol. ii, p. 358). 

The species of Telyplwni are all remarkably like each other, and it 
is very difficult to find any striking distinctions between them. In 
habits they are quite similar to the scorpions, living in damp places 
under stones &c. ; not unusually they are met with in houses. 

Telyphonus Assamensis, Stol. Pi. XIX, Fig. l. 

Body depressed, all over finely granulated ; general colour above 
dark brown, blackish on the thorax and palpi, paler on the abdomen 
and feet ; below, the same parts respectively still paler and more dis- 
tinctly reddish. 

The thorax is much longer than broad, surrounded with a thin, 
raised margin ; its front part is sub-triangular, somewhat higher than 
the rest. The anterior angle, near which the two central eyes are 
situated is obtuse ; the central eyes themselves are slightly prominent 
and separated from each other by a round smooth tubercle. The region 
of the lateral eyes is also slightly prominent, two eyes, of which the 
lower is much the larger, being contiguous, and situated on the front 
side of the prominence, while the third is the smallest and somewhat 
more distant. The posterior part of the thorax which is nearly double 
as long as the anterior has, on the surface, numerous depressions of 
which a central longitudinal groove is the most conspicuous. 

The palpi are about as long as the abdomen, they are very stout. 
The first moveable segment has 4 spines on the upper inner edge, 
the last two have a common base and the outer one is the stronger ; 
the upper anterior edge has only one spine, and the lower two subequal 
ones on a common base. The second segment which is very obliquely 
articulated to the first has one small spine on the lower front edge ; the 
third has anteriorly one inner long process, and the fourth a smaller 
internal one, but a much larger external, articulated and slightly 
curved. 



206 Indian Araclinoidca. [No. 4, 

The maxillae are very short, pointed, horizontal. The feet of the 
first pair are the thinnest and longest, the metatarsi, [or should these be 
considered as the tibiae ?] are one long segment, the tarsi are made up of 
8 short points and terminate without claws. The other feet are much 
more robust, the fourth is longer than the third and the third longer 
than the second, the last two being sub-equal. Each of the feet has only 
a very short thick metatarsus, and the tarsi consist of four joints, the 
last of which terminates with two strong claws ; on the fourth pair 
of feet there is usually a fifth segment well defined. 

Below, the front part is occupied by the immoveable base or the 
basal segment of the palpi which forms a broad triangle, separated 
longitudinally by a groove next to which in front there is a very 
strong slightly curved spine. The coxa3 of the three last pair of feet, 
(the first being articulated much higher) are broad, almost contiguous, 
leaving behind the last only a small triangle as the rudiment of the 
sternum. 

The abdomen is much elongated with sub-parallel sides ; it consists 
of a minute first and 8 other larger segments, each of which has about 
the centre a pair of rounded depressions. Below, the first segment is 
the longest and the two subsequent ones, are very short ; in the centre 
of the first the sexual opening is situated. 

The seta is very slender, longer than the abdomen, attenuated 
towards the end, and consists of from 35 to 40 short segments, gradually 
becoming smaller toward, the tip ; occasionally some of the middle 
ones are a little longer than others. The base of the seta is formed 
of three segments, the last being the longest and cylindrical, the two 
previous more flattened and very short. 

The size of this species varies very much. Young specimens are 
often found scarcely half an inch long, and others more fully grown 
which exceed two inches ; the last are the largest I have observed ; 
the former also differ in colour, being usually more reddish brown, 
while older ones are dark or blackish brown. 

^'Length of the thorax 16*4 m.m. ; its width about the middle 1 m.m. 
abdomen 22 m.m. ; 11 m.m. 



* The nomenclature of the different parts of the body will be fully under- 
stood by a reference to the explanation accompanying the plates. 



1869.] Indian Arachioidea. 207 

Length of the abdominal seta (including the base) 31.5 m.m. 

„ of the cheliceres, 29.0 ,, ,, 

„ of one foot of the first pair, 57.0 „ „ 

2nd 30.5 „ „ 

___ 3 r d 34.0 „ ,, 

4th 46.0 „ „ 

What distinguishes the present species in particular are the 
various depressions on the thorax, the entirely vertical position 
of the posterior lateral eyes, the thin raised margin which surrounds 
the thorax and abdomen, and the long seta with very numerous small 
segments. Telyph. sjoinimanus, Lucas, of unknown habitat, is very 
closely allied to our species, but the feet and palpi are in proportion 
to those of ours shorter, and the tarsi of the first pair of feet not 
so numerous. Another still more closely allied species is described 
by Mr. H. C. Wood from China as Telyph. Stimpsonii (Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci., Phil., 1861, p. 312) ; however the palpi, or cheliceres, 
of this species are described as somewhat different, the denticulation 
of the first moveable segment being very similar, but the third is 
larger than the others, which is not exactly the case in our species. 
The third segment has in T. Stimpsonii two minute spines above 
and the terminal internal process is bifid, and the processes of the 
fourth point are strongly serrated, while in the Assam species the 
process is not divided, and the upper spines on the third, as well as 
the strong serration of the fourth are absent. 

Loc. Assam. A large number of specimens of this species has been 
sent by Messrs. Peel, Haughton and Gregory. These specimens vary 
in size from half an inch to two inches, but they evidently are only 
different stages of age of one and the same species. The young speci- 
mens are sometimes of a quite uniform reddish brown colour and 
have comparatively a longer tail than the old ones, while the spines 
on the second (externally the 1st) segment of the palpi are not perfectly 
developed. The species lives in damp places under stones, and is also 
often met with in bath-rooms of houses, in company with true scorpions. 
My colleague Mr. V. Ball informs me that he also procured a species 
of a Tehjplwnus in Western Bengal, it may be the same as the present, 
but more likely another species which Koch describes from the East 
Indies. Several specimens of this species also exist in the old collec- 
tion of the Asiatic Society, but no record of localities exists. 



208 • Indian Arachnoidea. [No. 4, 

Order, SOLIFUGiE. 
Family, GALEODID^J. 

The animals, forming this division of the Arachnoidea, have the 
general form of true spiders, the abdomen being distinct from the 
thorax, it is, however, distinctly annulated and not provided at its 
end with any kind of spinners ; the palpi are of a somewhat similar 
form and length, as the feet. The peculiarity of the abdomen and 
the palpi has caused the separation of this single family of the 
Galeodid^ into a separate order. The animals are, besides, characterised 
by the horizontal form of the falces, terminating with an upper fixed 
and a lower immoveable claw ; they only have two eyes, like the 
Phalangia, placed on a common tubercle on the thorax ; all of them 
also appear to have a number of wing-like appendages on the lower 
side of the anterior portion of the last pair of feet ; the physiological 
functions of these appendages is however, I believe, still unknown ; 
they only live in warm climates. 

Koch published a monograph of the family in vol. viii of the " Archiv 
fur Naturgeschichte" 1842, p. 350. The author suggests a division, 
according to the number of segments of the tarsi, in Solpnga, Lich- 
tenstein, Galeodes, Olivier, Aellopus, Koch, Rliax, Hermann and 
Gluvia, Koch. A few additional species are recorded by Gervais in 
"Walkenaer's " Apteres," vol iii, p. 90, but very few other species 
appear to have been described since. The Indian species mostly seem 
to belong to the genus 

GALEODES, Oliv. 

These have the tarsi of the 2nd and 3rd pair of feet with 2, and 
those of the 4th with 3 segments. There have been, I think, 
three species named from India. The most common, said to have 
been already known to Aristoteles, is the Bengal species Gal. 
fatalis, Herbst. (Ungefliigelte Jns. p. 32, pi. I, fig. 1), which has the 
cephalothorax nearly triangular, considerably depressed and channeled 
in front, the appendages of the fourth feet nearly sessile, and these 
last more hairy than the others. A second species was named by 
Gervais, G. brevipes, and is said to be from Nepaul (Walkenaer, 
Apteres, vol. iii, p. 87). It is stated to have a short and stout body, 
a thin lamina in front of the head (cephalothorax) which is nearly 



1869.] Indian Arachnoidea. 209 

smooth and brownish, the abdomen elongated oval, the feet short and 
pale reddish, the tarsi brown, and the falces strongly denticulated, 
blackish. With neither of the species can the one here described 
from Western Bengal be identified, but a fourth species, apparently, 
from Central and Northern India, was named by Capt. Hutton, Gal. 
(vorax ?) (see Journal Asiatic Society Beng., vol. xi, pt. II, 1842, 
p. 857). Capt. Hutton gives there a very full and interesting account of 
the habits and manners of a large species of Galeodes. It is said to 
occur in Northern India, the Punjab and Afghanistan. The usual size 
is 2£ — 2f inch., and the abdomen is equal to a thrush's egg. Capt. 
Hutton's description is in other respects so general, that it would be 
impossible to identify any species with it ; I can only say that neither 
the form nor the size of the body of the new species, here described, 
appear to coincide with the account given of G. (vorax ?) , while the 
common Indian species, Gal. fatalis, is often said to reach the same 
size as the last, and I rather think it doubtful if they are distinct 
species. 

The Galeodes appear to be common all over India, but especially 
in the South. Mr. H. F. Blanford tells me that he observed them 
in large numbers and of great size in the Trichinopoly and Arcot 
districts. It would be especially interesting to observe these, and 
also those occurring in Western India, and to compare them with the 
Persian, Arabian, and Egyptain species, from which countries many 
are known. 

Galeodes orientalis, Stol. PL XVIII, Figs. 4—5. 

£ . General colour above yellowish brown ; the terminations of the 
falces dark brown ; eyes black ; abdomen blackish grey, pale at the 
sides ; feet yellowish, brown in the middle; the last ante-terminal 
segments of the palpi brown ; below, uniform whitish or yellowish. 

The cephalothorax is sub-quadrangular, broader in front than 
behind, the anterior part is considerably higher than the posterior, 
sloping in front towards a sharpened, dark brown edge, deeply indented 
just before the projecting corners ; along the whole of the posterior (and 
partially lateral) edge there is a very deep groove present ; the surface 
is finely granular, and like the median segments covered with longish 
hairs, those of the abdomen being, however, much more numerous and 

27 



210 Indian Araclinoidea. [No. 4, 

shorter than others. The falces are a little longer than the thorax, the 
two segments being strongly inflated, thickly set with moderately long 
stiff hairs ; and two dark brown longitudinal stripes on the upper side of 
each are distinct. Their claws are attenuated, slightly incurved ; the 
upper is finely serrated inside, the lower moveable joint being the strong - 
gerone ; they are unequal, the left pair of the falces being distinctly longer 
than the right one, and each of them has, above near the claws, one long 
horny appendage, something of the form of a plume. The palpi are 
much longer than the entire body from the tip of the falces to the anus, 
they are very stout ; the last or terminal joint is the shortest, inflated 
at the end, internally supplied with a brownish lamina, which has on 
the inner side a circular rather prominent field, and next to it on the 
outer side are two small tubercles, one below the other. 

The three segments forming the thorax are distinctly separated and 
become gradually smaller towards the abdomen ; the last pair of feet is 
by far the longest, then come the third and the first which are nearly 
of the same size, each of them being about equal to the length of the 
whole body. The first pair is without claws, the other pairs each 
possess two slender claws. All the feet are covered with numerous 
long and very thin hairs, unequal in size ; on the first pair and on the 
palpi some of them are particularly elongated. 

The abdomen is eliptical, composed of 9 segments, thickly covered 
with short hairs, equally narrow in front and behind, where it is 
slightly raised ; in fresh specimens it is somewhat inflated, but in 
dried ones it becomes more flattened ; the ventral side, at the beginning 
of which the stigmata and the genital opening are situated, has central- 
ly a deep longitudinal groove; the anus is terminal, situated in an 
almost perpendicular slit ; the abdomen is, as stated before, blackish 
grey above, yellowish on the sides and below. 

$ . The male is perfectly similar to the female in form and coloura- 
tion, but very much smaller ; it has the left falces also a little longer 
than the right ones, and both with similar plume-like appendages ; the 
palpi appear to be in proportion a little longer than they are in the 
female, (though not so well expressed in the figure, the body having 
been made a little too long) ; the penultimate segment is dark brown, 
the last one has at the end a white skin, slightly emarginated and 
folded at the terminal edge. 



1869.] Indian Arachnoidea. 211 

9 3 

Length of the cephalothorax, 6 m.m. 4 m.m. 

Width in front, 7„„ 4.5 „„ 

Length of the three thoracic segments, ... 5 „ „ 3.5 „ „ 

Length of the abdomen, 12 ,, „ 8.5 ,, ,, 

Width „ „ „ in the middle, 8 „ „ 5 ,, „ 

Length of the palpi, ... 43 ,, ,, 30 

Length of one of the first pair of feet, 33 „ „ 18.5 



1i 11 



11 11 



2nd 27 „ „ 17 „ „ 

3rd 32 „ „ 23 „ „ 

— 4th 50 „ „ 33 „ „ 

This species most closely resembles the one figured by Savigny (in 
the Exped. de l'Bgypt, &c.) as G. arenoides. Koch (Archiv fur 
Naturgeschichte, viii, 1842, p. 353) considers it distinct from the 
European G. arenoides of Pallas, and names it G. Arabs. This 
species is, according to Koch, pale yellowish, with two brown stripes 
on the falces, two large spots on the cephalothorax, and a longi- 
tudinal stripe on the body. The present species differs from it 
by the want of any spots on the cephalothorax and by having in both 
sexes the palpi much longer in proportion to the body. 

Loc. The two figured specimens were obtained by Mr. T. H. 
Hughes in the Birbhum district of Western Bengal ; I have also 
obtained lately some specimens from the neighbourhood of Delhi 
through Mr. R. Mitchell ; the species appears to be common there. 

Order, PHALANGIDEA. 
Family, PHALANGIDJE. 

The Phalangid^j belong to a small division of Arachnoidea, which 
have the cephalothorax not distinctly separated from the abdomen, 
but, in other respects, greatly approach true spiders ; they have the 
feet usually very long and slender in proportion to the body, and 
the thorax bears on a prominence two large eyes ; in some species two 
other small accessory eyes are said to exist ; the falces consist of 
two segments the second of which is didactylous at the end, possessing 
a moveable short claw. 

The vitality of the feet of the Phalangia has been often noticed, 
and I would call the attention of any one interested in the subject to 



212 Indian Arachnoidea. [No. 4, 

a very interesting paper of Mr. Lindemann in the Bull. Soc. Moscau 
vol. xxxvii, pt. II, (p. 537). The author describes here the mus- 
cular system with some detail, and points out how the JPhalangia use 
their two alternate pairs of feet when moving about. The paper is 
important because this mode of muscular actions as well applies to 
the largest number of other Arachnoidea. 

Koch in his " Uebersicht des Arachnidensystems," Niirnberg, 1839, 
pt. II, referred the Galeodid m and Phalangiile to the order Solifug^, 
and the genera allied to the Phalangidje he separated into 5 families 
Trogulidj3, Sironidjs, Gonyleptid^, Cosmetid^e and Opilionid^e, 
the last named being equivalent to the present family Phalangid^e, 
which have the last pair of feet similar to the others, the cheliceres 
or palpi without spines, &c. 

The distinction of genera in this family is now principally based 
upon the form of the thorax and the spines surrounding the eyes. 
Strictly speaking they are to a great extent merely convenient 
sections, for those characters pass so gradually one into the other, 
that a strict generic definition, in the manner proposed by Koch, is 
quite impossible. Koch's previous divisions of 12 genera is on the 
contrary based upon the number of tarsal segments, and seems in some 
respects preferable ; but it is scarcely necessary to say that no single 
characters alone ought to be taken as leading in such cases. 

The English species of this family were monographed by Mr. R. H. 
Meade (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1855, vol. xv, p. 393, with additions in 
vol. vii, 1861, of the same Annals). Koch (Arachniden, vols, ii and 
viii) described a large number of European and foreign species, but 
only very few Asiatic, and hardly any Indian ones. 

GAGRELLA, Nov. gen. 
Koch has proposed the genus Leiobunum to include those species 
which have the edges of the eyes smooth, no processes on the palpi and 
a short body with very long legs. To some other, apparently Asiatic 
species with one horn on the abdomen and 25 segments of the 1st, 3rd 
and 4th pair of feet, Koch gave (Arachniden vol. xvi) the name Acan- 
thonotus, (see Koch's Uebers. d. Arach., pt. II, 1839), but this name has 
already been applied in 1835 by Owen to an Amphipoden Crustacean. 
It seems to me, however, that there is sufficient ground for a new generic 
separation of the species with a spiny abdomen from Zeiobunum, for in 



1869.] Indian Arachnoidea. 213 

this genus the segments of the body are distinctly traceable above, while 
in Gagrella the upper surface is almost uniformly coriaceous, only the 
terminal portion consisting of distinct segments. As regards the position 
of the eyes with their smooth margins, and also as regards the form of the 
palpi, falces, feet, &c, both genera are much alike. In Gagrella the meta- 
tarsal and tarsal segments are very numerous, differing with the length 
of the feet ; the former vary from 5-8 on the 1st and 3rd pair of" feet, 
and from 7-15 on the 2nd and 4th pair, the latter vary from 20-30 on 
the 1st and 3rd and from 30 to about 100 on the others ; all the joints 
of the tarsi become very gradually shorter towards their terminations, 
and each of the tarsal and metatarsal parts is provided at its end with a mi- 
nute spine. Herbst described from the East Indies a hrownPhalangium 
mon-ocanthum which has the thorax posteriorly truncated. Koch describ- 
ed from Bombay an Acantlionotus niger (Arach. xvi, p. 61, p. 159, p. 
1541) which also differs from the next species in the form of the body. 

Gagrella atrata, Stoi. PL XVIII, Fig. 2, PL XX, Fig. 11 * 

The whole body is finely granular, above entirely black, below ashy or 
brownish ; the falces or cheliceres, the two terminal segments of the 
palpi, the anterior small portions of the femora and the tarsi yellowish 
or pale brown, the rest of the feet, &c. blackish brown. 

The cephalothorax is somewhat semilunar, convex, in front 
provided with two short spines, at the lateral edges emarginated 
opposite each coxa; posteriorly it is concave, with a double raised margin ; 
the tubercle, bearing the eyes laterally, is situated somewhat below the 
middle : it is narrow at the base and furrowed along the middle. In 
front and at the sides of the ocular tubercle there are, besides, some 
indistinct depressions on the surface of the thorax observable. 

The falces are thin, equal to about two-thirds of the length of the 
palpi, with the terminal claws brown. The palpi are also slender and a 
little shorter than the body, terminating with a single strong claw. — 
The lip is very small, the so-called maxillae rather long, and in 
common with the projecting bases of the palpi provided with short 
soft papillae. The sternum is long, broader posteriorly, slightly 
concave at the sides and with the front edge, under which the sexual 
opening is situated, somewhat raised. The coxae are long, depressed, 

* This represents a more common variety with a shorter body, than the one 
shewn in Fig. 2, PI. XVIII. 



214 Indian Arachnoidea. [No. 4, 

with serrated edges ; the feet are long and slender, the second is the 
longest, a little more than ten times as long as the body, then come 
the 4th, 3rd, and 1st, the last two being subequal, and a little more 
than half the length of the first. The single claws are distinct only 
on the two last pairs of feet. The abdomen is about one-third longer 
than the thorax, with subparallel sides, and very obtusely pointed 
posteriorly ; the surface is slightly convex, coriaceous, with the seg- 
ments, — except the last three which are situated low down, — very 
indistinctly marked ; a little before the centre it has a solid almost 
perpendicular spine. On the lower side there are only five segments 
very distinctly marked ; below the base of the sternum there is on 
each side a small trachean opening. 
Length of the thorax 2-2| m.m. ; its width 4.5 — 5 m.m., 

™ abdomen 4.7-5.3 m.m. ; 4.5 — 5 „ ,, 

one foot of the first pair, 22 m.m. 

■ 2nd 37 



5> }3 



3rd 20 „ „ 

4th 32 „ „ 

Loc. Neighbourhood of Calcutta ; I obtained a few specimens in 
an old native hut, and some others among old branches of wood. The 
animals are very quick in their movements. 

Gagrella signata, Stol. PI. XX, Fig. 10. 

The entire body is finely granular, a yellow line begins at the front 
end of the thorax, divides just before the ocular tubercle, each branch 
becoming widened and extending along the lateral margins of the 
abdomen posteriorly ; the middle part of the abdomen is purely black, 
the rest of the thorax and the feet brown with the joints darker, the 
palpi and falces on the lower surface rather pale, the sternum and 
abdomen partially ashy. 

This species which in general form resembles the former, differs 
considerably in colouring. The body is rather short, or broadly oval ; 
the cephalothorax has no spines in front, it has, however, a double 
ridge posteriorly, but the margin is moderately concave. The abdomen 
has one high and nearly perpendicular spine placed before the centre. The 
under surface is also quite similar to that of the last species, the coxa? 
being flattened and serrated on the edges &c, (see fig. 10 a). The most 



5J 
•J 



1869.] Indian Arachnoidea. 215 

important distinction consists in the length of the feet ; those of the se- 
cond pair being the longest, nearly 18 times longer than the body, the 
tarsi are equal in length to the each preceding segment respectively ; 
the first pair of feet is scarcely longer than one half of the second, and 
is the strongest ; the 4th comes next to the second but is much shorter, 
while the 3rd is only little shorter than the first. 
Length of the thorax 2.7 m.m. ; its width posteriorly 6 m.m. 

abdomen 5.2 m.m. ; 5.5 „ ,, 

one of the first pair of feet 50 m. m. 

2nd 95,, „ 

: 3rd 41 

4th 63 „ 

Loc. This species was sent by Mr. Peel to the Indian Museum, from 
Sibsaugur in Assam ; it appears to be very rare ; I have not observed 
it anywhere about Calcutta. 

Order, AKANACEA. 

Family, LINYPHIID^]. 

HERSILIA, Savigny. 
This genus was established for a species, H. caudata, from Egypt> 
collected during Napoleon's expedition to that country. Lucas 
published in 1836 in Gruerins " Magasin de Zoologie" some valuable 
notes on the genus, pointing out its peculiarities as regards the position 
of the eyes, the great length of the slender feet and that of the two 
posterior appendages of the spinners. Lucas also described two species 
from the Malabar coast, H. indica and Savignyi, but Walkenaer 
(Apteres, I, p. 372,) considers the latter to be a young specimen of the 
former, though (1. cit., vol. iii, p. 433) he again does not seem to be 
certain of his former suggestion. The same author separates here 
Hersilia into two groups which he calls u Heteropodes" and " Ortho- 
podes," in the former the third pair of feet being very short, in the 
latter subequal to the others. The species which I shall here describe 
belongs to the former group ; it is quite distinct from either of 
the two forms noticed by Lucas, but it is rather similar to a species 
described by Blackwall from one of the Cape de Verde Islands 
(St. Jago) ; I shall, however, point out the distinction of both (see Ann. 
and Mag. Nat. Hist., 1863, 3rd ser., vol. xvi, p. 80). 



216 Indian Araclmoidea. [No. 4, 

It is difficult to find an appropriate position for the genns, but from 
the general appearance of the body and the distribution of the eyes, it 
seems to me that Hersilia has a great relation to Linyphia. Its habits 
are, however, very similar to those of Philodromus, and the same is 
the case as regards the proportionate length of the feet ; it may, 
therefore, be also correctly placed near, or in, the family Thomisid^e. 

There are several species found all through India, Burma and the 
Malacca straits. I have observed them mostly on palm-trees, the bark 
of which they much resemble in colouring ; they are sometimes also 
called mangoe spiders. 

Hersilia Calcuttensis, Stoi. PL XX., Fig. 9. 

cj>. Cephalothorax scarcely broader than long, the ocular region 
narrow and strongly elevated, the posterior region with the lateral 
margins strongly curved, with one longitudinal central and two 
transverse fine grooves ; the anterior part is the smaller. The grooves 
and the margins are partially dark brownish, the rest is yellowish, 
thickly covered with short white hairs. 

The eyes are in exactly the same position as in the type species ; the 
two anterior on each side form with the posterior laterals an ascending 
triangle, and the anterior laterals are very small, situated in front and 
below the posterior laterals ; of all the eyes the anterior centrals are 
the largest. The immediate region round each eye is dark brown. 

The falces are shorter than the sternum, sub-cylindrical, at the base 
rather contracted, pale brown with moderate dark brown claws. 

The lip is broadly semicircular, short ; the maxillae semewhat 
higher, thick at the base, attenuated towards their ends and strongly 
converging. The palpi are thin, more than double the length of the 
falces ; they are yellowish with black tips ; the lip and maxillae are a 
little darker than the other organs. 

The sternum is almost broader than long, flat, greyish brown, 
thickly set with hairs, anteriorly emarginated, posteriorly obtuse, 
The feet are slender and very long, the first being the longest, then 
the second, which is only a little shorter than the fourth, and then comes 
the third which is about equal to one-half of one of the second pair. 
The colour is pale yellowish with dark terminations to the joint. 
No bands are traceable. 



1869.] Indian Arachnoidea. 217 

The abdomen is oval, posteriorly broader and more inflated, 
obtusely pointed at the extreme end ; the anterior edge slightly covers 
the thorax. The general colour is a fawn or pale brown, with 
very numerous equally distributed white dots ; a dark brown band 
extends from the anterior edge to about the middle of the abdomen, 
or more than half of its length, and at the end it is provided with 
short processes. Laterally, from the anterior edge, a thin zigzag 
brownish stripe with one blackish dot at each angle runs to the 
anus. The lower side is of a uniform greyish fawn colour, and 
thickly covered with whitish hairs. The epiginium is slightly promi- 
nent, brownish, with a thickened white posterior margin. The 
outer appendages of the spinners equal in length to the body ; they 
consist of three joints, the first being very small, the second about 
three times as long as the former and the third somewhat more than 
three times as long as the second, gradually attenuating into a point. 
The middle pairs of spinners extend only to half the length of the 
second joint. 

Length of thorax .... 3 m.m. ; its width in the middle 3 m.m. 
— abdomen 6 „ ,, ; 4.5 „ „ 



of one foot of the first pair, ... 22 m.m. 

2nd ... 20.5 „ „ 

3rd ... 8.5-9 „ „ 

4th ... 19 „ „ 



From Blackwall's JEC. versicolor this species differs by having the 
second pair of feet almost quite as long as the first, by the want 
of whitish bands on the feet and the different markings of the 
thorax and abdomen, the latter possessing a number of dark spots 
extending from the posterior end of the dark longitudinal band to the 
spinners. 

Loc. Neighbourhood of Calcutta ; apparently very rare, only one 
full grown specimen having been met with during a period of two 
years collecting of Arachnoidea in this vicinity ; it was caught 
on the wall of a house. I subsequently observed another young 
specimen in my own house ; it moved about either forward or 
sideward, flatly pressed to the wall, exactly like a Philodromus, and 
appeared to be very shy. Like the young of Philodromas, this young 
Hersilia was more hairy than the full grown animals are. 

28 



218 Indian Arachnoidca. [No. 4, 

Family, LYCOSID^J. 

DOLOMEDES, Latreille. 

The species of this genus are chiefly characterised by the arrange- 
ment of their eyes, of which the four anterior are small and in one 
line, while the four posterior form a trapezoid, narrower in front than 
behind. Some of the species have short feet and in general character 
resemble the Lycosce, with which the disposition of the eyes mostly 
agrees ; other species have long feet and resemble the Philodromi of 
the THOMismiE, or the Nepliilco of the Epeirid.e. I rather think that 
a few good generic, or subgeneric, types will have to be distinguished 
among the forms now referred to Dolomedcs, but my present very 
scanty materials do not permit me to enter into the details of this 
question. I shall note only one species which appears to be particu- 
larly interesting. 

Dolomedes longimanus, Stoi. PL XX, Fig. 3. 

9. The cephalothorax is large, more than half the length of the 
abdomen, roundish oval, slightly convex, narrowly truncated, and sloping 
in front and behind ; yellowish brown with dark brown margins, and 
a pair of rather broad longitudinal bands of the same colour in the 
middle. 

The cephalic region is very little elevated, and not distinctly 
separated from the posterior, which has a short groove in the centre. 
The four small anterior eyes are on the front side, they are grouped in 
two pairs though not well defined ; the four posterior, much larger 
eyes form, as usually, a trapezoid, the anteriors being the smaller ones, 
and placed nearer to each other than the posteriors. 

The falces are cylindrical, little shorter than the sternum ; with 
small claws ; they are yellowish with a longitudinal broad streak of a 
brown colour. 

The lip is subquadrate, broader than long, sub-truncate in front ; 
the maxillse are longer than broad, about double the length of the lip, 
very little broader at their terminations ; the palpi are inserted at their 
upper bases, they are thin, the 2nd segment being the longest, and next 
comes the 5th ; all these organs are pale yellowish, covered like the 
rest of the body with short hairs, only a few of them being blackish. 

The sternum is oval, truncate in front, obtusely pointed behind, hairy, 



1869.] Indian Arachioidca. 219 

yellowish with a brown, partially interrupted streak near the margin, 
opposite the thickened coxa3 of each of the three first pair of feet. All 
these are remarkably slender, and as regards proportioned length rather 
different from those usually met with in other species of Dolomedes. 
The first pair is by far the longest, the 2nd and 4th are subequal, and 
the third is a little longer than one half of the 4th. 

The abdomen is sub-cylindrical, about half as long again as the 
thorax, but narrow, truncate, and slightly covering the base of the 
former with its anterior edge which is provided with a number of stiff 
short hairs. The centre is occupied by a brown streak attenuating pos- 
teriorly into a point ; the remaining portion of the upper surface has also 
a brownish tinge but there are numerous greenish white shining dots on 
it ; the sides possess a few darker oblique transverse blotches and are 
bounded above by an undulating whitish margin ; below, the surface 
is pale yellowish brown with two narrow, whitish, somewhat raised 
lines, beginning at the sexual opening and converging towards the 
spinners which are terminal. 
Length of cephalothorax 4 m.m. ; its width in the middle 4 m.m. 

abdomen 7 „ ,, ; 3 ,, ,, 

one foot of the 1st pair 35 m.m. 

2nd 25 „ „ 

3rd 15 „ „ 

4th 28 „ „ 

This is a very peculiar species of Dolomedes ; it entirely agrees with 
this genus in the disposition of the eyes, the general form of the body, 
the length of the falces, the form of the lip and maxillae &c, all 
characters upon which genera of Arachnoids are almost solely based ; 
but the feet are those of a Nephila, very slender, the first pair being 
the longest, while in Dolomedes the fourth is usually the longest, or 
at least sub-equal to the first. The shortness of the feet of the 3rd 
pair is also remarkable, but as there are several species of Dolomedes 
known with equally long feet, I rather prefer placing the species in 
this genus than proposing a new one, especially as I am at present 
only in possession of a single specimen. 

Loc. Neighbourhood of Calcutta, apparently a very rare form ; I 
obtained it a few years ago in the botanic garden on the leaf of a tree, 
but never met again with a second specimen. 



220 Indian Arachnoidea. [No. 4, 

Family SALTICIDJE. 

SPHASUS, Walch 
Blackwall classifies the species of this genus in the family Lycosid^:, 
hut the short truncate form of the cephalothorax, with the unequal eyes 
disposed in front of it, seems to me to indicate a much greater relation 
to the Salticid^: than to the last named family. I have observed 
several species in various parts of India ; they generally hunt after 
insects among grasses between which they jump about exactly like do 
the species of Salticus on walls, they sometimes also form a small 
loose snare ; some of them defend themselves furiously when caught 
with the hand, and if released they drop supporting themselves by a 
single thread. Walckenaer in his work (Insect. Apteres, vol. i, p. 376), 
characterizes a species S. indicus, which was sent to him from Bengal with 
the following words " abdomen ferrugineux, borde de noir ; corselet et 
pattes ferrugineux." It is impossible to identify a species from such a 
description, for the colour of specimens, when not well preserved, 
very much changes in spirit. I have not seen any species of that 
colouration, and very likely the specimen from which the above 
description was taken, was first dried and afterwards put in spirit, in 
which case a reference to general colouration is as good as worthless. 
The green colours of the Sphasi, and also of the Tnomisi^ very rapidly 
fade away in spirit, changing to pale or greyish brown. 

Sphasus viridanus, Stol, PL XX, Fig. l. 

9 Cephalothorax oval with the cephalic part high, convex, narrower 
anteriorly than posteriorly ; the thoracic part is much broader, with con- 
vex sides and with a deep groove in the middle, in continuation of the 
two grooves which separate it from the former ; both parts are uniform 
pale green, with two small, brown, lateral spots about the middle of 
the upper surface, and some other equally small dark green dots, 
irregularly distributed over the surface ; hairs very few and short. 
On the front side a broadish, dark green line runs down perpendicular- 
ly from each of the first pair of eyes to the base of the falces and one 
similar line is seen laterally ; the lower corners at the base of the 
falces are purplish. 

The eyes are situated close together on a roundish, upper anterior 
protuberance of the thorax which is reddish, or rather violet brown , 



1869.] Indian Arachnoidea. 221 

and thickly covered with short, depressed, gray hairs. The two 
anterior eyes which are situated on the front surface are very small, 
those of the second pair placed near the edges of the thorax are 
the largest, and the posterior, arranged in a curve, are of median 
size. 

The falces are long, pyramidal, thick at their base, becoming 
gradually thinner towards their ends ; they are of the same green 
colour as the thorax which has, below and externally on each side 
where the falces are articulated, a small brown spot at the edge ; the 
claws of the falces are comparatively very small and pale brown. 

The lip is green, long, narrow, with an attenuated and pointed ter- 
mination ; it is a little shorter than the maxillae, and these again a 
little shorter than the mandibles. The maxillae are dilated at the 
base where the palpi are inserted on the outer side, somewhat con- 
tracted in the middle and again slightly broader at their ends, which 
from a pale green gradually pass into a brownish hue. The palpi 
are thin, provided with short black hairs. 

The sternum is grass green, small, depressed, somewhat heart-shaped, 
being anteriorly slightly indented. The legs are pale green, with 
numerous scattered black hairs which, as likewise those on the 
sternum, originate from smaller or larger blackish tubercles ; they 
become much longer on the tibiae and tarsi, than they are on the femora. 
The first pair of feet is the longest, the second comes next, but it only 
slightly differs in length ; then comes the fourth and at last the third, 
which is also only a little shorter than the fourth. The inferior central 
portions of the femora of the first pair are distinctly carmine red, and 
a slight tinge of this colour is also observable on the femora of the 
second pair. The ends of all the tarsi become brownish and each 
terminate with two short black claws. 

The abdomen is pyramidal, distinctly separated from the body, 
mostly elevated at its anterior end, and partially covering the thorax, 
broadest near the middle and then very gradually tapering posteriorly 
to a point, on which the anal appendages slightly project. It is of a 
uniform yellowish or sometimes bright green colour, with some lateral 
stripes or corrugations posteriorly, extending over the whole breadth 
of the abdomen. About one-fifth distant from the anterior end is a 
silvery white, horse shoe shaped mark, formed of four somewhat raised 



222 Indian Arachnoidea. [No. 4, 

dots, and extending posteriorly on either side, until the white stripe 
gradually disappears ; this abdominal white stripe is only seen in 
full grown specimens. The genital opening lies between two small, 
green tubercles, and the trachean opercula are large, oval, lateral, 
quite flat, posteriorly white margined. 
Length of cephalothorax 6 m.m. ; its width about the middle 4*5 m.nr. 

abdomen 8 ,, „ anteriorly 4.0 ,, „ 

one foot of the 1st pair 32 m.m. 

2nd 30 „ „ 

3rd 23 „ „ 

. 4th 24-6 „ „ 

This, as likewise the next species, differs from most of the European 
forms of Sjihasus by the elongated narrow lip, but the pyramidal 
shape of the falces, the arrangement of the eyes and the whole form 
of the body agree with the type of the genus. 

Loc. Neighbourhood of Calcutta ; appears to be rare, three 
specimens were found while hunting after insects between the large 
leaves of a low shrub. The male was not observed. 

Sphasus similaris, Stoi. Pi. XX, Fig. 2. 

Cephalothorax suboval, truncate in front and behind, very high, 
with convex sloping sides, and slightly narrower at the ocular region ; 
yellowish, covered with very short brownish hairs which form two 
parallel longitudinal lines along the centre ; and two other similar ones 
are also partially conspicuous on the sides of the thorax. 

The eyes are situated on the upper anterior part of the thorax. 
The four posterior ones form, as usually, a curve with the convexity 
directed backwards ; the external ones are placed laterally in front, they 
are more distant than those of the previous species. The two eyes of 
the second row are situated in front of the curve, they are rather 
close together and are the largest ; the four posterior ones are 
smaller and sub-equal ; a round black spot extends from each eye into 
the central space surrounded by them. The two anterior eyes are 
closer together than those of the second row and are very small. The 
entire region occupied by the eyes is covered with short silvery hairs. 
A conspicuous but very fine dark line extends from each of the small 
anterior eyes towards the margin of the thorax, and is continued on 



1869.] Indian Araclmoidea. 223 

the falces ; there is also a minute dark spot on the external angle of 
the thorax where the falces articulate. 

The falces are pyramidal in shape, vertical, tapering gradually 
towards their ends ; they are greenish with a brownish tinge near the 
articulation of the small claws. 

The maxilla? are elongated, very little broader and roundish at 
their terminations, somewhat shorter than the falces ; the palpi -are 
articulated at their external bases, but the maxilla? are only thicker at 
this place, not being dilated in front. The lip is somewhat shorter than 
the maxilla?, slightly wider about the middle and conspicuously con- 
tracted and produced at the end. 

The sternum is rather roundish, truncated in front and somewhat 
pointed posteriorly ; conspicuously indented at the point of articula- 
tion of each coxa. The first pair of feet is the longest, the 2nd and 
4th are sometimes perfectly equal, sometimes the 2nd is a trifle longer ; 
the 3rd pair is only little shorter, than either of the two last named ones. 
The sternum, lips, maxilla? and coxa? are yellowish green, the femora 
are purely green, and all feet are covered with very fine whitish and 
with larger stiff black hairs. The tibia? and tarsi have a brownish or 
violet tint, and the black hairs on them are long and spiny. The 
terminal part of the tibia? of the last pair of feet is almost black. Each 
of the femora have on the internal side two black longitudinal lines, 
of which the anterior one is the more conspicuous ; above, there are also 
two or three obsolete blackish lines. 

The abdomen is much elongated, thickest in front, but scarcely 
covering the edge of the thorax, and gradually tapering towards the oval 
end ; it is wholly covered with very fine hairs. The front part is pure 
silvery white, the rest is pale brown. Two very thin conspicuous white 
lines, internally margined with dark brown, and forming an elongated 
elipse, unite in the middle and continue as a single white central line 
towards the end ; this posterior part of the line becomes occasionally 
obsolete. Three white lines originate anteriorly and partially laterally, 
and converge together above and posteriorly, but they do not reach 
the centre, and are on both sides margined with dark brown. Laterally 
there are very numerous short white stripes which also become obsolete 
towards the posterior end. Below is a longitudinal central black 
band, accompanied on either side by a slightly narrower silvery one. 



224 Indian Arachnoidea. [No. 4, 

The spinners are blackish, the genital opening on an obtuse dark 
brown tubercle, and the trachean opercula are large, suboval and very 
pale brown. 
9 Length of the thorax 4 m.m. ; its width about the middle 2.5 man. 

. abdomen 7 „ ,, anteriorly 3.0 ,, ,, 

. . one of the 1st pair of feet 15 m.m. 

2nd 14-5 „ „ 

3rd 12 „ „ 

4th 12.5 „ „ 

$ The male is in colouring entirely similar to the female, but is often 
considerably smaller. The cephalothorax is shorter and stouter in pro- 
portion, and the abdomen thinner than in the £. The terminal joints of 
the palpes are at the base strongly inflated, in young specimens greenish 
or brownish, in full grown ones perfectly black, below with a large 
opening fitted out with soft skin and a horny laterally projecting black 
flao-ellum ; the whole is surrounded with various longer and shorter, 
black, stiff hairs (see pi. xx, fig. 2c). 
Length of the thorax .. 3 m.m. ; its width about the middle 2*5 m.m. 

. abdomen 6 ,, „ anteriorly 25 „ ,, 

Length of one of the 1st pair of feet, 13 man. 

2nd 12.5 „ „ 

3rd 10.5 „ „ 

4th 11 „ „ 

For some time I regarded this species as identical with Sphasus lepidus, 
Blackw. (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 1864, 3rd ser., vol. xiv, p. 36), but 
judging from that author's description, it must be considered as 
distinct, differing by the markings of the cephalothorax and of the 
abdomen, by the elongated form of the lip, etc. 

Loc. Neighbourhood of Calcutta, very common (in April and May) 
among grasses, hunting after insects etc. ; it occasionally makes a very 
loose snare. 

Family, THOMISIDJE. 

I hardly think a distinction necessary between Thomisus and 
Xysticus in the manner as proposed by Koch, and accepted by several 
arachnologists. The unequal size of the eyes is in no way associated with 
the greater length of the 3rd pair of feet, as pointed out by Prasch (see 



1869.] Indian Avaclinoidea. 225 

Zool. Bot. Gesellsch., Wien, vol. xvi, p. 605). I have compared 
several species regarding this point, and I believe that the distinction 
has hardly subgeneric value ; it is not at all constant, neither is 
the truncate form of the cephalothorax. With reference to Blackwall's 
new genus Pasithea* I may mention that this name has been used 
as a generic denomination already several times; once in botany 
and twice (by Lamouroux and Lea) in recent and fossil Zoology. 
The name must be replaced by a new one, though, judging from the 
description, it is very difficult to trace its generic distinction from 
Spkasus. 

The species of this family are readily recognized by their de- 
pressed form and the feet strongly bent forward (at least the two 
anterior pairs). They form two natural groups, one represented by 
Thomisus which has the two last pairs of feet much shorter than 
the two anterior ones, and the other by JPhilodromus which has all the 
feet of more equal or subequal size. To this last genus belongs one of 
our large spiders which is very often seen on the walls of houses 
&c. &c. ; it runs about with the greatest rapidity, and daily con- 
sumes a large number of insects, being especially active at night. 
There are besides a great number of other similar species which 
occur in our neighbourhood. Several new genera have been lately 
established through the examination of the Swedish and N. German 
species belonging to this group. 

Thomisus (Xysticus) pugilis, Stol, Pi. XIX Fig. 3. 

? Cephalothorax large, subquadrangular, somewhat narrow anteri- 
orly, broader in the middle, with sloping sides and convex edges ; uni- 
form pale yellowish green ; the front is truncated with projecting 
edges, above and laterally marbled with brown, and near the upper 
edge with some more or less confluent whitish spots. The whole of the 
thorax is covered with very minute pustules from which originate 
v